Sugar cane as an energy crop: current status and future trends in Brazil<br />André Martins de Martini<br />Promon Engenha...
AGENDA<br />Agenda<br /><ul><li>Introduction
Overview of sugar cane and ethanol production in Brazil
Energy outlook and cogeneration
Case Study – the “energetic” plant
Recent developments
Conclusion</li></li></ul><li>Objective and introduction<br />Objective<br />The main objective of this presentation is to ...
Overview of sugar cane and ethanol production in BrazilEvolution of sugar cane production from 1975 to 2008 <br />After ne...
Overview of sugar cane and ethanol production in Brazil Evolution of world sugar cane production from 1990 to 2007<br />Br...
Overview of sugar cane and ethanol production in Brazil Comparison between Brazilian and American ethanol production<br />...
Overview of sugar cane and ethanol production in Brazil Sugarcane national agro-ecological zoning <br />The already impres...
Overview of sugar cane and ethanol production in Brazil Energy balance of sugarcane bioethanol production in Brazil (MJ/tc...
Energy OutlookTotal Primary Energy Production<br />BRAZIL<br />WORLD<br />Renewables: 12,7%<br />Renewables: 46,0%<br />So...
Energy OutlookElectricity generation by source<br />+300%<br />The planned increase in oil fired thermal power plants stem...
Energy outlookBiomass cogeneration can be an alternative to this situation…<br />The graph shows the anti-cyclical pattern...
Energy outlook… with possibility to generate energy equivalent to Itaipu in less than 10 years<br />10.158<br />1 “Itaipu-...
Energy outlookReasons to stimulate cogeneration projects<br /><ul><li>Generation profile from sugar cane plants is supplem...
Inflexibility and predictability of generation contribute to maintenance of reservoir levels during dry stations of the year
Each 1.000 MWav. added in a given period saves up to 4% of reservoir levels  (*)
Construction time of new projects is much smaller when compared to big sized hydro power plants
Location of sugar cane production (and thus the biomass generation) is close to the main load ( southeast region of Brazil)
Increase in biomass minimize the use of emergency oil fired plants in peaks of demand
Each 1.000 MWav. added in a given period avoids R$ 25 million to the Brazilian interconnected system  (*)</li></ul>*  Sour...
Case StudyState-of-the-art cogeneration and ethanol production unit<br />ETHANOL AND ENERGY PLANT<br />JATAÍ – GO<br /><ul...
Owner: Cosan
Total crushing capacity: 4 MTPY
Total Electricity Generation: 100MW
Ethanol production: 400 million liters / year</li></li></ul><li>Case StudyState-of-the-art cogeneration and ethanol produc...
Case StudyState-of-the-art cogeneration and ethanol production unit<br />Mar/2008<br />
Case StudyState-of-the-art cogeneration and ethanol production unit<br />JUL/2008<br />
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Presentation Isaf2010

  1. 1. Sugar cane as an energy crop: current status and future trends in Brazil<br />André Martins de Martini<br />Promon Engenharia<br />Brazil<br />Wednesday, 10th of March, 2010<br />
  2. 2. AGENDA<br />Agenda<br /><ul><li>Introduction
  3. 3. Overview of sugar cane and ethanol production in Brazil
  4. 4. Energy outlook and cogeneration
  5. 5. Case Study – the “energetic” plant
  6. 6. Recent developments
  7. 7. Conclusion</li></li></ul><li>Objective and introduction<br />Objective<br />The main objective of this presentation is to show an overview of utilization of sugar cane as an energy crop in Brazil, presenting some of the characteristics of the Brazilian production, the rationale behind cogeneration and the future developments in this area.<br />Introduction<br />Sugar cane production was introduced in Brazil right after colonization<br />The biggest technological advances, however, not only in the agricultural side but also in ethanol production, happened after the “Pró-álcool” Program<br />Pró-álcool” Program was a governmental program of substitution of gasoline to alcohol in order to mitigate the effects of the oil crisis during the 70´s.<br />
  8. 8. Overview of sugar cane and ethanol production in BrazilEvolution of sugar cane production from 1975 to 2008 <br />After negligible increase during the 90´s, Brazilian total production has been raising for the last 5 years in an average rate of 15% per year.<br />Source: Brasil. Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento. Anuário estatístico da agroenergia / Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento. – Brasília : Mapa/ACS, 2009. 160 p.<br />
  9. 9. Overview of sugar cane and ethanol production in Brazil Evolution of world sugar cane production from 1990 to 2007<br />Brazil is the biggest sugar cane producer, with a production 45% larger than the second biggest producer<br />Source: Brasil. Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento. Anuário estatístico da agroenergia / Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento. – Brasília : Mapa/ACS, 2009. 160 p.<br />
  10. 10. Overview of sugar cane and ethanol production in Brazil Comparison between Brazilian and American ethanol production<br />Brazil was the biggest ethanol producer until 2006, when USA took the first place after a continuous period of intensive increase in production via stimulus of corn ethanol<br />Source: Brasil. Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento. Anuário estatístico da agroenergia / Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento. – Brasília : Mapa/ACS, 2009. 160 p. ; RenewableFuelsAssociation,: http://www.ethanolrfa.org/industry/statistics/#E<br />
  11. 11. Overview of sugar cane and ethanol production in Brazil Sugarcane national agro-ecological zoning <br />The already impressive figures of Brazilian production does not show the real potential for ethanol production.<br />This map shows the agro-ecological zoning of Brazil, which defines the areas where production can be extended to.<br />This figure clearly shows that an increase in production and planted area does not mean degradation of protected biomes like Amazon and Pantanal.<br />Source: http://blog.planalto.gov.br/wp-content/uploads/2009/09/mapabrasil.jpg. Acessed in February/2010<br />
  12. 12. Overview of sugar cane and ethanol production in Brazil Energy balance of sugarcane bioethanol production in Brazil (MJ/tc) <br />The most exciting characteristic of sugar cane production in Brazil is its energy ratio.<br />This outstanding result is partially obtained by the use of bagasse as source of energy for processing sugar cane and more recently for generating electricity connected to the grid in cogeneration plants<br />* Source: Sugarcane-based bioethanol : energy for sustainable development / coordination BNDES and CGEE – Rio de Janeiro :BNDES, 2008.<br />
  13. 13. Energy OutlookTotal Primary Energy Production<br />BRAZIL<br />WORLD<br />Renewables: 12,7%<br />Renewables: 46,0%<br />Source: “BrazilianEnergy Balance 2009 ; IEA<br />
  14. 14. Energy OutlookElectricity generation by source<br />+300%<br />The planned increase in oil fired thermal power plants stems from the necessity of higher stability and supply security, due to the dependence of reservoirs levels and rain regime.<br />Source: ONS; IEA<br />
  15. 15. Energy outlookBiomass cogeneration can be an alternative to this situation…<br />The graph shows the anti-cyclical pattern of bagasse cogeneration in Brazil. The peak of production occurs during the harvest, exactly during the dry season when the reservoirs reach the lowest level.<br />Source:Castro, N.; Brandão; Dantas, G. A.; Timponi, R.R.; Oportunidades de Comercialização de Bioeletricidade no Sistema Elétrico Brasileiro. 2009<br />
  16. 16. Energy outlook… with possibility to generate energy equivalent to Itaipu in less than 10 years<br />10.158<br />1 “Itaipu-equivalent”<br />Studies of UNICA* shows that the increase of production and the use of straw can provide in 2017/2018 “another Itaipu” (around 10.200 MW av.) in biomass cogeneration<br />Source: JANK, M.S.Bioeletricidade de cana-de-açúcar - Integração na matriz elétrica e oportunidade de Oferta e cenários para 2010 e 2011<br />* UNICA = BrazilianSugarcaneIndustryAssociation<br />
  17. 17. Energy outlookReasons to stimulate cogeneration projects<br /><ul><li>Generation profile from sugar cane plants is supplementary to the hydrologic regime
  18. 18. Inflexibility and predictability of generation contribute to maintenance of reservoir levels during dry stations of the year
  19. 19. Each 1.000 MWav. added in a given period saves up to 4% of reservoir levels (*)
  20. 20. Construction time of new projects is much smaller when compared to big sized hydro power plants
  21. 21. Location of sugar cane production (and thus the biomass generation) is close to the main load ( southeast region of Brazil)
  22. 22. Increase in biomass minimize the use of emergency oil fired plants in peaks of demand
  23. 23. Each 1.000 MWav. added in a given period avoids R$ 25 million to the Brazilian interconnected system (*)</li></ul>* Source:Silvestrin, C. A. A Bioeletricidade na Expansão da Oferta de Energia Elétrica; Fórum APINE – CanalEnergia Abastecimento Energético 2008 - 2009<br />
  24. 24. Case StudyState-of-the-art cogeneration and ethanol production unit<br />ETHANOL AND ENERGY PLANT<br />JATAÍ – GO<br /><ul><li>Located in Jataí, State of Goiás(950km from São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro)
  25. 25. Owner: Cosan
  26. 26. Total crushing capacity: 4 MTPY
  27. 27. Total Electricity Generation: 100MW
  28. 28. Ethanol production: 400 million liters / year</li></li></ul><li>Case StudyState-of-the-art cogeneration and ethanol production unit<br />DISTILLERY<br />2 x 900 m3/d of Hydrated Ethanol<br />FERMENTATION<br />7 Vessels of 1600 m3<br />JUICE TREATMENT<br />(Fast Decanter, Evaporators, Multi-Reboiler/Roberts, etc.)<br />1000 m3/h de juice<br />UTILITIES<br />(Water treatment, Demineralized Water, Chemicals, Fire Fighting, etc.)<br />1000 m3/h of raw water<br />450 m3/h of treated water<br />100 m3/h of demi water<br />TURBINES<br />(Backpressure and Condensation)<br />72,5 MW (export)<br />PREPARATION AND EXTRACTION<br /> (DIFFUSER)<br />21.000 TPD<br />BOILERS<br />(HIGH PRESSURE)<br />2 x 225 t/h of steam @ 100 bar and 520 ºC<br />VIGNASSE<br />840 m3/h<br />RECEPTION AND OFF-LOADING<br />21.000 TPD<br />
  29. 29. Case StudyState-of-the-art cogeneration and ethanol production unit<br />Mar/2008<br />
  30. 30. Case StudyState-of-the-art cogeneration and ethanol production unit<br />JUL/2008<br />
  31. 31. Case StudyState-of-the-art cogeneration and ethanol production unit<br />Mar/2009<br />
  32. 32. Case StudyState-of-the-art cogeneration and ethanol production unit<br />
  33. 33. Case StudyState-of-the-art cogeneration and ethanol production unit<br />
  34. 34. Case StudyState-of-the-art cogeneration and ethanol production unit<br />
  35. 35. Case StudyState-of-the-art cogeneration and ethanol production unit<br />
  36. 36. Case StudyState-of-the-art cogeneration and ethanol production unit<br />
  37. 37. ETHANOL AND ENERGY PLANT<br />JATAÍ – GO<br />PROJECT DATA<br /><ul><li>Total duration: 24 months
  38. 38. Peak of manpower: 2700 peopleEngineering documents: 1700
  39. 39. Suppliers documents: 8500
  40. 40. Volume of concrete: 25.000 m³
  41. 41. Piles: 41,000 m
  42. 42. Built area (buildings): 12.500 m²
  43. 43. Equipments: 310
  44. 44. Process Lines: 1.500
  45. 45. Piping: 2,000 tons
  46. 46. Steel structure: 1.900 tons
  47. 47. Cables: 175.300 m
  48. 48. Instruments: 2.000</li></ul>Case StudyState-of-the-art cogeneration and ethanol production unit<br />
  49. 49. ProspectsRecent Developments<br /><ul><li>Utilization of Straw as supplementary fuel
  50. 50. VignasseMethanization
  51. 51. Gasification technologies</li></li></ul><li>ProspectsRecent Developments<br /><ul><li>Utilization of Straw as supplementary fuel
  52. 52. Mechanization of the harvest provides straw as a by-product
  53. 53. Straw is lighter and dryer and has a higher Heat of Combustion than bagasse -> ΔHstraw = 1.7 ΔHbagasse
  54. 54. Mixtures of 10% to 20% of straw in mass with bagasse can be used in current boilers without affecting the performance nor the lifespan of the equipment -> this can provide 30% more energy using the same installation (i.e., bagasse can be stored for inter-harvest periods)
  55. 55. The challenges for straw utilization in larger scale are:
  56. 56. Development of appropriate separation systems
  57. 57. Development of specific transport and mixing systems:
  58. 58. Development of new materials for boilers</li></li></ul><li>ProspectsRecent Developments<br /><ul><li>VignasseMethanization
  59. 59. Vignasse is the biggest effluent of an ethanol facility.
  60. 60. Even when it can be used for fertirrigation, concentration of salts in the long run depletes the quality of the soil
  61. 61. Laws and regulations tend to be more severe</li></ul>DediniMethax Plant at SãoJoão MillSãoJoãoda Boa Vista – Brazil (*)<br /><ul><li>It has high DOB and COD; It is highly corrosive and can easily contaminate watersheds and rivers.
  62. 62. Methanization in anaerobic biodigesters seems to be one of the most promising treatment technologies:
  63. 63. Produces biogas and solid material that can be used as organic fertilizer
  64. 64. Biogas produced can be used as supplementary source of energy
  65. 65. The challenges for methanization development are decrease of cost of drying and higher productivity of bioreactors.</li></ul>* Source: Olivério, J.L. Upgrading and modernizing onsite generarion facilities. Cogeneration Brazil 2009. Dedini<br />
  66. 66. ProspectsRecent Developments<br /><ul><li>Gasification
  67. 67. Bagasse and straw gasification can be a breakthrough in terms of improvement on electricity generation and overall efficiency
  68. 68. Researches show that a gasification unit integrated with a gas turbine and a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) can produce two times more energy than conventional steam cycle with bagasse fired boilers and condensing turbogenerators</li></ul>Biomass integrated gasification unit – combined cycle * <br /><ul><li>The challenges for further development in gasification technology are:
  69. 69. operation of high capacity pressurized gasifiers
  70. 70. gas cleaning and separation of alkali and particulates from the gas produced
  71. 71. modification of gas turbines for using gas with low caloric power obtaining a performance comparable to turbines that burn natural gas
  72. 72. significant reduction of capital costs through the learning effect</li></ul>* Source: Chang, K. K. W., Wing, A. L. A., Hoi, L. W. S.. Bagasse gasification technologies for electricity production in the sugar industry. Mauritius Sugar Industry Research Institute, Réduit, Mauritius<br />
  73. 73. Case StudyTechnological change can improve efficiency and generate more power<br />BASE CASE<br /> “ENERGY PLANT” - 4 MTPY OF CRUSHING CAPACTITY<br />CurrenT status<br />Total output: 100mw<br /><ul><li>Assumptions
  74. 74. Biogas produced is burned and bagasse is saved for inter-harvest
  75. 75. Surplus of bagasse can generate 6MWav. In condensation turbine during inter-harvest</li></ul>STEP 1<br />VignasseMethanization<br />AFTER STEP 1<br />Total output: 106mw<br /><ul><li>Assumptions
  76. 76. ΔHstraw = 1.7 ΔHbagasse
  77. 77. Mixture of 20% in mass of straw and bagasse
  78. 78. Efficiency of the boiler is not affected</li></ul>STEP 2<br />Straw burning<br />(20% in mass)<br />AFTER STEP 2<br />Total output: 127mw<br /><ul><li>Assumptions
  79. 79. Operation of gasification is stable
  80. 80. Efficiency of gas turbine is comparable to current gas turbines</li></ul>STEP 3<br />Gasification<br />AFTER STEP 3<br />Total output: 161mw<br />
  81. 81. André Martins de Martini<br />andre.martini@promon.com.br<br />www.promon.com.br<br />São Paulo<br />BR<br />Rio de Janeiro<br />BR<br />Av. Pres. Juscelino Kubitschek, 1830<br />04543-900 São Paulo - SP<br />Praia do Flamengo, 154<br />22210-906 Rio de Janeiro - RJ<br />CONFIDENTIAL– This document contains confidential information with restricted access and ownership or possession of Promon SA, or any of its subsidiaries or affiliates, and are protected by applicable law against disclosure. The possession, display, disclosure, distribution or unauthorized use of of this document is strictly prohibited.<br />

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