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  • 1. 206 LEADERSHlP I THEORY AND PRACTCE parameters o authentic tcadcrship and m r e f clearly conceptual-kc ig &rts that contime t d . oe Inbrspvpond h m p d w h this chapter, we explore the nature o f a u b k leadership, describe its underpinnings, and explain how it w&. We begin with definitions of Aathendc bead- e x h e genulm k&rsHp. authtintic Itdenhip fmm the literature. Nat, we discuss two rnain- ~cleradenleadfrwncanvlcaiar. approaches b leadership: the practical a m & that is based an fe8Lliie examples, and the thmmtical approach that is h d on s d &nce research. Firray, we examine the &en& and wealmesses of the various - Authm& leaders ara o w , not copies. approach- t authentic bde&ip, and provide a summary. o . L- Authentic Leadership Defined !rpy bl8.Shm,4 h,p p r P a r k r n a14 39-17,n k W U t C E ~ ~ ~ , " - w r s t m y t A ~ a W5, a b a GCl Qmte& On dte surface, aukhehentic lademhip nppea. easy (D dcfina. In .o&- that ity, it is a complex proces~ is &cdt t characterize. Among leader- o Dewlopmental Definition ship scholars, there is no sin& accepted deFiultionof authentic leadership. fwted, there are multiple definitions, each fitten from a &&rent view Authentic ladenhip can also be defined from a dmlopmmtal perspec; point and with a diEmnt emphasis (Chan, 2005).In h e Mlwring dims- tive, which is exemplified in the wort o h l i o and hP associa- f (Avolio & Gardner, 2705; Gardner, Avolio, & Waiumbwa, 2005; Walumbwa, A d i o , Gardnm, Wernsing,. & Pehrson, 2008). From this perspective, authentic I e a d d i p i s viewad as something that can be nurtured in a leader, rather than as a fixed bait. Authentic leadership develop in people over a lifehe md can be triggered by major life wentr, & as a severe I Intqqtsonal Ddnition illness o a new c a r e . r spective, balanced processing, and relationa1 hrroparency (Avoliv, Wahmbwa, & W&er, 2W). Over a lifetime, authentic leaders learn and develop each of these four of behavior. -4; +- I.1L 1 3 - -I
  • 2. 2 K*S 5 6.5-ga= e L- m --g .,,.. g & pp 0 t .g - I-: m s E - E ~r g . g n ~ g.3 $.g;gz.ggg .-34 k1 $13 ,€ 2$ 3 e a s3%?$ 5 . g U8 E %5 8 18$ 1 ; ~ % . % %n X Lass i .E2 8 i e~ n "" E: ---9saLlp g 218. 2 g$-a "3 k $5%I% ~9 c l g ? Pt = $ y$ * ;a ~ s&3p 5 3 g #P:.;ft2- m g a , *g-*gC 1 %$ 8 -93-$ .7 q 1 . m,
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  • 4. 210 LEADERSHIP I THEORY AND PRACTICE Chapter 10 1 Authensic Leadership 211 , . The first step, locate the problem, is accomplished by doing an assess- To analyze the baseball problem, a leader should have asked, What is ment of employees and their organizational concerns. Based on this really, really going on in this situation?" An initial diagnosis might have assessment, leaders can identify on the action wheel d ~ real concerns of e suggested that the concerns a b u t the coach clustered around issues of ! 7* >. the organization. For example, if ernpIoyees make comments such as, structure (i-e., school policy). Leaders of the booster club thought the - = -1 "We seem lost," or "Nobodycares around here," their colicems would be coach violated school policies and wanted something done about it, while . :- diagnosed as a problem related to mission. If employees are saying such the coach thought his decisions were reasonable and that the boostet dub t :! thing as, W e are really stretched thin," o We cant possibly do what r was overreaching its authority. The leaders of the booster club and thek- a ; {I iheyte asking us to do," their concerns could be diagnosed as n resourn. principal had &&rent opinions about the policies governing the coach i , issues .~?~;i on the wheel. Although there are an infinite number of possible and the baseball team. !! ,I issues within a group or organization, the Authentic Action Wheel pro- vides a shcture that allows leaders t categorize various etnployee con- o Using the Authentic Action Wheel as a guide, an auihentic leader might cems into six major areas. have ourmid that h e codict was about w. Who had the power to make decisions about use o funds, the selection of b m players, or which f The second step, selecting the appropriate response to the issue, is paten$ could give rides tr, students? Using the wheel, a Ieader should have also accomplished by using the Authentic Action Wheel. However, in explored how issues of power were operating in this conflict. In the end, this phase of the process the wheel is used prescriptively, to recorn- because these questions were not addressed &tive codict resolution was mend a particular course of action. Mter a problem is identified, the not attained. Power struggles became even Inore apparent as the principl wheel is used to encourage leaders to explore alternative explanations replaced the disgruntled cochairs of the booster club with &&rent parents. for the problem and to select a response based on that information. For example, if employees seem to be struggling with issues related to In summary, the Authentic Action Wl~eeIis a visual diagnostic tool to power and who is in control, leaders may wish to pay af3ention to the help leaden frame problems. Leaders, with their followers, locate the prob mission of the opnizatian and the goals and objectives of the people lem on the wheel and ihcn strategically respond to the major issues of concern. Thc Terry approach encourages illdividuals to see things W e r - involved. Similarly, if employees are raising questions about the mean- ing OF a particular program, leaders may want to focus on existence I ently and more clearly. In essence, this approach urges leaders to be because their concerns may be about the history and identity that aubhentic or "true" to themselves, their organization, and their world, and to base their actions on what is really going on in the situation. undergirds the program. In other words, the Action Wheel is used to explore the various possibte responses to a problem and to select the response that comes closest to solving h e issue. Authentic leaders try Bill Georges Atithentic . h h r s h i p Approach. Although the Terry , , , Authentic Action Wl~eelfocuses on problem areas, the authentic leader-I;! to address the real problem in the most appropriate Fashion. T illustrate how he Authentic Action Wheel is used, consider the fol- o ship approach developed by George (2003;George & Sims, 2007) focuses on the characteristics of authentic Ieaders. George describes, in a practical way, the essential qualities of authentic leadership and how individuais can lowing story about problems in - high xhmi baseball program. a m m , ..- -. . . 1,- - . 1 - - .- - -. " I ! , J.) - develop these qualities if they want t become authentic leaders. o ~ro;blcs b&an when leaden ofthe booster club a r h d for an investiga- Based on more than 30 years of experience as a corporate executive and tion of the coach because of alleged improper use of hnds, hvaritism through interviews with a diverse sample of 125 successful leaders, George I (i-e.,the coach selected his son over others to be on the team), and viola- i found that authentic leaders have a genuine desire to serve others, they tions olschoal policy (i.e., the coach allowed a parent with a DUI on his i know themselves, and they feel free to Iead from their core values. record to drive players home from practice). The booster clubs concerns i Specifically, authentic leaders demonstrate five basic characteristics: I ! made the front page of the local riewspaper, and local blogs and editorial (1) They undentnd their pupow, (2) they have strong ~ l u about the a pages were filled with reactions by parents, former players, and cornmu- right thing to do, (3) they establish busting relationships with others, hi6 members. self+ipline and act on their values, and ( 5 ) they are (4) they demo~lstrate
  • 5. 216 LEAOEASHlP ( THEORY AND PRACTICE In addition, researchers felt the need to extend the work d k (1990)and Bass and Steidmeier (1999)regarding the meaning o authentic ban* fformational leadership,There was a need to operationah h e meaningofauthentic leadership and creak a theoretical framework t explain it. To odevelop a theory of authentic leadership, researchers drew h m the kdsof leadership, p i t i v e organizatiom1 scl-~ddp, ethics (Cooper, andScandura, & Sckriesbeim, 2005; Gardner et al., 20M). A major challenge confronting researchers in developing a theorywas to d&ne the construct and identify ik characteristics, h we dis-cussed earlier in the chapter, authentic leadenhip has been defined idmultiple ways, with each definition emphasizing a different aspect ofthe process. For this chapter, we have selected the definition set forthin a recent article by Walumbwa et al. (2008), who defined authenticleadership as % pattern of leader behavior that draws upon and pro-motes boh positive psyctrological capacities and a positive ethicaI cli-mak,to foster greater self-awareness, an in ternaf ized mom1 p e c t i v e ,balanced processing of information, and relational transparency on thepart of leaders working with followers, fostering positive self-development" (p. 94). Although compIex, this definition captures the currentthinking of scholars regarding the phenomenon of authentic leadershipand how it w o h .
  • 6. ~ - ~ u - LEADERSHIP I THEORY.AND PRACTICE . lntmna[jad moral genfiective refers a self- re*^ Prmw h&viduala use their intend m0€a] *~~ and ka their behavia nthcr than dlaw oubide p r w r a to ~ ~ n u ~ l becaw(e.g., group or societal pressure): It is a d f * e g ~ ] a t o~ f o c - ~people o w the extent b which &q allow others to hem. see leaders with an internalized moral FW@cti=as O&ersauthentic b a w their actions are cad8tent with their eqrmdbeliefs and murab. B a l d p m i n g also p &-regulatory bchsvia. It refen to an . in&ivdUatg Wt to analyze information obis*ly and iy otfrer paopjni n i o before m & op ~ a a decision. It Ibo meam d n b frwrit- certain and remaining unbiased. B&nced p r n c e ~ i ~ Relad P ~ c h o l o ~*m id "Y - jnoluda mlj&q i-ntS Imm thm who diqgr* 4 t h YO" . considairy && po&ions before taking pour d o n . hadccs wiB I Contldence p m i q are seen as authe* i e b f f n s s are O P abut Hope their parpec:w, objective in midedrlg h e n but are also - -- Wrnlsm * Resllb bhtiOncri refur t being open and honed p-nting o me to Oh self-~eguIatory se~f ~tis because individuals can control hdrbapayency with others. ~ d a t i o n ahanrparency occurs w h in& l feelings motives, and i n ~ b a t i ~w othersin mh i - -mLurhan* *~6em&Kdlk &SAvdh kj. Wh - d & d&&Ip S. 2413Hjp viduab share fieir. rn appopiab manner emis is, ZW3). It includes t i n d i r i d d r h h g b b d pitivc and q t i v e o t h e m d m D others. In rho* mla- f knaI tranrpnmncy js h u t mmunicating ~ d and y 1-1 in relahionships with others. Confzd- lo M n g *If-eEcacy-the befkfb t has ihe ab3ihl Lo ~ c e * f u ~ ~ ~ w m m p lrpaufied tpdr h d n r who hne eom a ish are more likly be motivated to sumd, to be penbfent Q ~&. Cand b~ wdcome a challenge (BandUfa, 1997; hthprn b &+ - %t I * ~ , A ~ ~ & h d m h i p . f i e r e are 0 t h facton suchar piti* psychO]+I a p a c i h , mom1 n%Imi% d critical life a m n b fiat influence authentic leadership (Figore 10-3)- fie= are four key on a h e n t i c I&&ip: p s y ~ h d @ d l ~#ribu& that haw an impact confidence, hope, optimism, and resilience. . 2m3r HQPis a p i t i w motivaBam1 date bmed on vi1lpwr @a1 planning ( L u b & Awlio, 2M3). Auhntic leadca klfi g d s ( l b can be accomplished; &ci. hop irupjru f ~ l j - ~ hl o w to h t them and M v i heir gods. ~pti* * en hop b he,..tive
  • 7. j . - -* r s l . - - EEs m . .m@m mm 220 LEADERSHIP I T H E W AND PRACTK;E Chapter 10 1 Audrentlc ~ e a d e ~ h l p 221 HOW DOES AUTHENTIC LUDERSHfP THEORY WORK? I this chapter, m have discwed authentic leadexship from practical and n Moral mitoning is another Eactor that can influence authentic leader- theoretical perspectiyes. Both pempxfives authentic leadership ap a ship (Figure 10.3). It i the capacity t make eel4rical decisions b t *WES s o developnmtalpmasmst fmnr m leaders wa time; hmwcr, botb pmpr o ri$t or wrong and g o d or bad. h I o p i n g the capacity lbr moral rea- f tives provide &rent descriptions for how authentic lade~hip m h w s o w is a lifelong pmm. Higher levels o mod - f I make it p sibk for the aukhentic leala to make dmbiorw that b a r n e n d individual The practical approaches provide prescriptions for how to be authentic difFerences a d aiign in&*& toward a -on goal. They enable and h k to develop authentic Ileadenhip. For example, the Try approach m er leaders t be selfias and make iudgmenh thatserve the greater good 01 o the (1993) empharites that Ieeders shodd frame issues by questioning &t i s group, organization, k community. M o d rcasonlng capacity ambles redly on in a given situation. Authentic leadership w o h when lead- authentic leadm to use this ability t~ promote justice and achieve what is ers and followers come together to define their "real"concerns and deter- rigkit for a cmmnitpnitp mine what is the %i@t thing* b do about them. Authentic leadership tries t determine what i truly good for the leader, followers, and organkdon o s h find factor dated to authentic leadership is ,critid lib events (Piire 10.3). Cribid events arc majar evtnb that shape peoples live. The process of aukhentic leadership works diEerentIy using the George They can be pasithe events, like receiving an unexpwbd promotion, haw approach (2003), which h five characWcs leaders should on ing a child. or readingan important b k ; ar ttiey can be negative even$, dewlop t b e m e authentic leaders. More specifically, George advocates o like king diagnosed wh cancer, gettifig a negative year-end eraluation, i that leadm become mwe puqfmeful, d u e cenhd mbtion~l,~ 1 6 o having a l m d one die. Critical life eve& act as d y s b for cbnge. r The dkiplined, and oompo~ioncrfs. essence o authentic leadership is being f Shamir and K i (2005) arguetihatauthentic hdership rests heavily on a leader who sbongIy demonstrates thew five qualities. the iwighb peopIe attash to their life experiences. When leaders tell t)leir Rather ban simple prcscriptim, the theoreh1 approach describes life stories, they g i greater ~ K k n d e d g emore clarity about who they an , what authentic leadexship i and what accounts for i t From this perspec- s are, and a better understanding of their role. By understanding their own tiw, authentic leadership Hwks because leaders dmomlrak wl#+-~wrsnm, life experienms, l+ become more nuhentic. an internalized moral ~rspective,bdbncsd firowsing, and mlatianul trans- jmrency. Leaders dcrelcp these attributes b u g h a lifclong process that is Critiml life even&also stimulate growth in individuals and help them o h influenced by sriticd life events. In addition, the literature suggests become skongcr leadera (Lufham& Awlio, 2003). For example, H d that positive psychological characteristics and moral reasoning haw a sig Schdtz ( b d e r and CEO of Starbucks) tls a stmy about when he ws el nificant impact on authentic leadam. little: Hi father, who was a ddivery driver, fell and w hurt on h e jab. His Eather did nut have, h e . 1insurance or w 0 M s a m p s t i o n . Seeing ~ Authentic leadership i a complex process that emphasizes the develop s the problems h t resulted from his fathers MicuIties, when Schulb built ment of qualities hat help leaders to be brceirtd as bushvwthy and Starbucks he provided comprehensk health insurance for e r n p l w believable by heir follawn. T h e leaders job is to learn to develop these who warked as few as 20 horn a week. Schult4~ of leadership w qle m qualities and apply them t the common good as they serve others. . o triggered by birr childhd m e n c e . d As the theo~y authentic leadership d w e l q further, other antecedent ~ ~ctoxs iauence the process map be idenkikl. T date, however, i is that o t STRENGTHS positive psychological capacitiios, moral masoning apcities, a d critical life events that have been idearned as factors that are influentid in a per- Althwgh it i i its early stages d dcvelopmt, thc authentic leadership sn sons ability to become an authentic hder. . approach has several shengths, Fir&> it fulfills an expressed mtd for -: ,. , A. 1 .. a 1
  • 8. 220 LEADERSHIP) THEORYANDPRACTICE Chapter 10 I Authentic Leadarshtp 221resilient people are able t bourn back from challenging situations and o HOW DOES AUTHENTICfedixengrhened and more resourceful as a r d t o them (Sutcm & f LEADERSHIP THEORY WORK?V w2003). o , , -- . : c - mi,-. II I In chp*rt we have Grcmxd authentic Ieadcrship bp.cti& a d Mom1 m n i n g is another E a c h h a t can iduenoe authentic leader-ship ( F i r e 10,3). It i ttpe capacity to make ethical decisions about h $ s ~~ P-Y~S. 80th p ~ kdcroibe authwtic leadership as a s e d d v t d p1-M hnn~ ~+ZS over time; h h , prspcd right o wrong and good ot bad. Dewdqhg h e estpacit)rfor moral rea- r t+ P& & difbent dmriptim hr how authmiic lead+ wo&mning is a lifelong process. Hlgher h e l s aE m m l tasoning& it pos- $- ; and h&sibk fr the authentic leader b make decisions that transcend individual o 3 -- P&C~ approaches provide prescriptions for how to be a h e n t i cd&rences and align individuals m r d a common goal. They enable % develop authentic leadenhip. For example, the Tcny aWTOaChleaders b be sell8css anb make iudgmenb that serve !he greater good of the (1993) m p h s s b that lads shclad bpme i m by quetioming v k t b r up u p , orgwization, or community. M d reasoning capaciiy a s enables lo on in a given situation. Authentic leadership works when lead-authentic leaders Po use his ability to promote justice and achieve what is and f a l h come together to define their *realn concern and d e r - right far a wmudfy. mine what is the @ thing Bo do a h u t them. Authentic leadershiphis Q d m e what is truly good foE the leader, followe~s, and oe-tion. A final &tor h d to autfientic leadership is c r i t i d life m m t ~(Fipre 10.3). Critical even$ are mabr shape peoples fives- The of a u k t i c leadership works differenflywing GwgeThey mn be p i t i v e events, like receiving an mexpeckd promotion, hay- aPPmch (2003), which f c rn five ~haracteristicsleaders should aming a child. or reading an important beak; or they can be negakiive events, d w e b t h m e authentic leaders. More spaclfidly, Georgc &mam olike king h o s e d with cancer, ge- a negative y e a r 4 evaluation, k t kaclers become more $u$w@, wlw canted, mlational, =If-or having a loved one die. Critical life e ~ e ~act as c t l for change. t p aa w d s P h d and w ~ The - k essence of aubhentic leadership is kn igShamir and Eitarn (2005) .arped.thatauthentic leadership rests he;wiIy on a leader who strongly demonsbates these five qualities. the i+b p q d e amah t h r life experiences. wn leaders tell their u i e I4aher simple prescriptions, €he theoretical approach d m r i h I& strrria, h y gain greater s d f h l e d g e , more clarity about who they eare, and a better understanding of their d e . By undenbndmg their h t authc~liicleadership is end w b t accounts for ih F m (hir perwc- & experieqces, leaders b e e m more authentic. tive, authentic leadwhip works because teadew demo&& %if-=, an i n t a l b d moral @IF#wA~, bdlartd pmiw and mbfi~ndi . a - b c i i a & -nfs a h s~mulate rtc l growth in. individuals and help them w. Leaders dedop these atbibutes through a lifelong proca that is become strmgm leaders (Lutham & A ~ l i a 2003). F r example, Howard , o often influenced by =tical life cvenk h addition, the literahre sugg-ts Schultz (founder and CEO of Starbucks) tells a s h y about when he was that p~sitiwpqchological:characteristics and moral rrasoning a pig- Me:His hher, was a &livery driver, fell and was hurt on the job. who nificant impact on auhentic leaderr. fi father did not have hedth insurance ox ~ r k e r compe~tion- s Seeing Authentic leadership i a complex process that emphasizes the develop s he b ~adeed r n hi+ b k s di&cuki-, when Schulh built k h merit of quahties that help Ieaders to be perceived w m o f i r and he comprehensive health i m m n w fa employees Miewbfe by their followers. T h e leaders job is t learn t d d a p t h e o o nb as few as 20 hours a week. Schulizs dyle of l e a d e m was p l i t i - and apply them lo the mrnmon g o d as (hey sem 0 h t- iiggered by his childhood experience. ~s the theory ofauthentic feadership develops further, other antecedent bmnthat iduence the process may be identified. To date, ~~r,i t STRENGTHS - p&~e capacities, m o d msoning capacitits, and critical life em& that have been identitied as ficbrs that are influential i a pm- n dthough it is in its early stages o development, &e authentic leadership f sons ability to became an authentic leader. ap~maehhas several strengths. First, it fulfiDs an C X P - ~ .need for
  • 9. II!
  • 10. 2 -. --- u I 224 LEADERSHIP 1 TH~~RUAND WCTtCE . ,( Chapter 10 1 Authentic Ldarshlp 225 IT ko substantiate the value of the &tory. Alhough a u W e leadership is intuWely appting on the & , gu&& remain about whetha this I - - approach is effective, in what contab It is e&ctive, and w b e k authentic lesdership d t s in productive outcomes. kbkdly, it is dm not clear in The M l rn sctior provides t h e e case riudles (Coeo 10.1, 10.2, and do i g whether authentic lea* L . 10.3) ofindividuals who danonstrak auhsltie leadmblp. f i e fint as the is suffjcient b a c h k o r p i - is about SaNy Wgcseq author of% P i Adwntuge: Womnb Uhy. zational goals. For example, can an d e n t i c leader wbo is d m r p m d br: and lacking in & ~ a l wrnpeb~~wz an effective kder? Axrkhdcity . of l k d m h i p . The second we i about Greg Morhsm and h* mission IS to ppqmok schoolsa d peace in Pakistanand e n i s t a n . Thc final GW ., is impartantand valuable t g o d lodenhip, but h w authenticity d a t a o o is h t Betty Ford, h n e r Pt My ofthe United S t a h and har work i us , $,&tctive londmhii b unlmm. Clearly, f u b e tesearch should be -.-- coriducaed to q l m e how authenticleadership is dated b agarhtional . the* s of b d can= a~varcmss substance h e treatment At the a and end of each ofthe cam, questions are provided to help yai analyze the ouhmes. usingi& from authen& leadership. d APPUCATIOM L CASE :rj? I k7y , . ;< 1 ~ w u authentic e b still in L early gw obits dcnbp-6 c h ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ e ~ r c h ~ s t * l ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ w t b d ~ o p -orenhance auhcntic k a d d d p khaui~rs. h e haw been some p 7 rripticnu &om &r pwebhl hmdss, but i li(OcDdm+ad s mearch -OII w & rr pe cp at h c f w rpi t ri m ~OWO m~ctually incraw, d d i Zsadecdhip behavior. ~ y hd~ia&dhkNmhd,mclexeBoarmm~ brn * $ e aukhen& lead+ Iib&e th& hy b~ dp1isabJc t & a o zaticmal o p ~ ~ n g s . mrnmoa t a lo f t h c f c l e ~ r One&e ol of artthentic w yi is fhat people have mp h crtf"ity to h i t tb be authcntie lradw. In their wigid mk on au@&c l e a M p , l d m s r m MQ j (2Q03) c 0 W z k d a m d o aistbhtic lad* od f dtdog4 me* C = o n ~ ~ s a W o a g h n h g p ~ t k ~ d t b e t auEkmfk leadership .is a proc~errk t cafi be d w d d -.time. This q p s h t ah n m ht q a dcparb~& be a& Ps hauthentic may ~ ~ mwe inlo I d d p pad~tls. leadership bchwhrsr ia e m p l o wha ~ bher heme &at am be applied $ orpni@~~rl$&e. e g a a l is of aubbentic Icadew to try t~ 6, %ghV t i ko *behonest with tb& the hw SC~VCSPMI &en, and to lwark fm the $ommon &. k% authentic l e d d i p i s & a p d d r t f o d l y umikdlifeevmts thatmi= -to grow& and @Q authentkily- Baing sedbw b thao eve& md G g n thorn ~ ~ ~ b o a d ~ t o p w t h n q b s ~ t b m r n y p a r I d e whoJ* i t l M in becoming J d e r s d m are more authentic. . - --.-
  • 11. 224 L W E R S W I P 1 THEORY AND PtRACTlCE Chapter 10 1 Authentic leadership 225to &tiak tbk value of.& theory. Aldraugh auherttic ledamhip k;i - fb a m a n the surfaw7qp&nslremain h u t WMW his$P p& i s -YW inwhatemkxb it ia&&tive, ahd wheibur a*&c --~ e r ~ h d$ b h p - 8 rrubmes. fb&kdyi.% b a i . dm in k0w The bIImbgs t i o n pnids three case dYbm (Cam 10.1.102, and 10.3) of individuals who dsrnomhte aulhmtic kdership The first axthe m&ir& wh&w 1 i i ~ d ~ ~ s k risidpc i n t t~ acrhiwe otgani- c i about SaUy Hclkcsaq aulhor o nD P s f d Advunhzg~ Wcmens Wdpzati-1 goah. &r a ~w ai~%tsk p Iaadrr who is : d i q d z d ofLRadership.The second case is about Gng Mortenson and his misiianand,* in t e c + f . w m p ~ b +$ectiuc leader?hokenticity b imphat and piwtbk bed. hde&p, but how a&entT4~ = l a b fa po oes h I and peace i Patistan and Af&hanhtan.The final case t m t c ms n i abmt Betty Ford, h e r First Lady ofthe United S t a b and htr work in s b.&Wve ka&mhi~$> udwwm. C k 1 y , future msmrch s W d k the areasof breast EM^ a a cr ahd substance abuse treatment At the wmr&uc.tod ta, +m W&z&txtti~ ~dccsfiips &a igqp&ational 51d i aukon% . . md of each ofthe cam, qudons are pmvidcd to help you analyze the cape using id& from authentic leadership. C A S E 0.1 , ;; - . Because authentic l a d d i p i stiH in h e d y phsre of its dwelopmcnt, s there has been lit& mearch on sbkgies hat people can use t develop o or enhance authentic lead&p behaviors. %ere have been some p scriptions fmm the practical &eories, but there is littlewidencebased research,on wh&cr &ex pmmiptions o h- r actually increase authentic leadership behior. I In spik ofthe lack of inkmentian research, &me are c o w o n themes h m & e authentic laduship libmture that may be applicable t orgrtni- o z a t i o d or practice setti*. One &ernecommon to alf d&eQrmulations of authentic leademhip is that p p i e have the caprciy t Teari~ be o to authentic leaden. In their original wark on mfhmkic leadwhip, h h and Avolio (2003) c o ~ c t e a model of authentic leadenhip d&p d ment Conceptualizing it as a lifdong learning process, they argdfhat authentic leadership i a process that can be developed ova- time. This s suggwts &at human resource deparlmenk may be able to hskr auhentic Ieadership behaviors in employees who move inRo leadwhip positions. Anher theme that can be applied t organizations is the &priding@ a of auhentic loaders t try to do h "right" thing, to +k o e honest with thern- s e b and others, and to work for the common god. h, t au&entic lad- ership is shaped and reformed by critical I& events that act as biggem b growth and greakr authenticity. Being sensitive to these evenis and using &ern a springboards to growth may be rekvant b many people who-are s inkmited in kmmirtgleaders who are more authentic.
  • 12. Chapter 10 1 Authentic leadership 235 LEADERSHIP INSTRUMENT --. Although still in its early phases of developmenZ the Authentic h d e r s h i p puestionriaire (ALQ) was created by Walumbwa and associata (2008) t o explore and validate the asurnp!ions d authentic leadership. It is a I6ikm instrumeit that measures four factors ofauthentic leadership: oelf- awareness, internalized moral perspective, balanced processing, and rela- tional transparency. B a d on samples in China, Kenya, and the United States, Walumbwa and assaciates (2008) validated the dimensions of the instrument and found it positively related t outcomes such as organiza- o tional citizenship, organizational cornmihent, and satisfaction with supervisar a d performance. T obtain this instmment, contact Mind o Garden. Inc., Menlo Park, Califomia,.or In thh section, we provide an authentic leadership self-assessment to help you dehninc your own level ofauthentic leadenhip. This guestion- mire will help you understand howauthentic leadesship is measured and provide you w i h your own scores on items hat characterize authentic lmdership. The questiomairc includes 16 guestions that asses the four major components of authentic leadexship discussed earlier i this chap n ter: seKhwareness, internalized mrd perspective, balanced processing, and relational trsnspartncy. Your results on this s e l b e n t quation- naire will give you information about your lwd of authentic leadership on t h e undcdying dimensions of a u k t i c leadership. This questionnaire is inknded for practicaI applications b help you understand the cornplexi- t a of authentic Ieadership. It is not designed for research p m p e s . i -LL . , t:, . -: . - I
  • 13. IIP I THEORY AND PRACTICE AUTHENTIC W E R S H I P SELFASSESSMENT QUESTIONNAIRE I n s ~ ~ T quesdor~rmlm h b contains t m n s about dHierem d - m of ahendc kdcrshlpThere am no or w m g mqmms, so pl- anarrmr M y .Use t h m Mowing scate when rs~pondlng mch sgte- wrb ing the n u m b fmm the d e bdow which you fed most accumdy charac- ~ y w r ~ m t h e ~ r n. e m nalked moral perspdve, - This self-assessment quesrfonnaire is d&gned & measure ywr authentic bdershlp by assessing four cornpanenm of the p r m w self-awareness, i - camparlng your scow on ead~of thwe cunponentr, pu ean decermlne wMch are yow stronger and w h i i are ywr d n proeesslng, and datbrral msparency. By r components In regard m your o v e d awhenrk leadership score.You can Intwpret your authendc lea& ershlp scare (the toel score) usingahe Mowing guidefins vlery hlgh = 64-80, htgh = 48-64, Iwv = 3 2 4 8 , and very low = 16-32. Seam In thc upper ranges Indicate won& aucRendc leadership w h e w x o r e ~ the lower m n p in indlcite weakw authentic leadership. of d a r t . i L I rarely presant a "Ma* f m r t &. o 1 2 3 4 5 n. ~aecepth*rmabwtw=ff. . 1 2 3 4 5 deelslwtk - As a result of leadership hiiures in dre public and private sectors, authentic 16. 1 admit my dmkwi t ahen. o ,, I $ 2 - YLK - . .- 1? 1 .a .; q . . 12 3 :. - - - - 4 5 leadership is emerging in response b societal demands far genuine, bud- worthy, and good ld&ship. Authentic leadership describes leadership I str . -: 0 - I l h , - - IF &at i hmpanmt, morally grounded, and respumivc b pmphs needs and s Scoring $ . " - t m ; c I l U , . values. E m though authentic l e a d d i p is still in the early stages of t development, the study o authentic leadership is timely and grorihwhile, fI 1 1 Sum the responses on items I,5,9,and 13 (self--). . ofhing hope to people who long for true leadership. 2. Sum the rtrponItr on irams 2 6, 10, and 1 $manrlbed m i d , 4 p-pectfw). Although &ere is no ingfe accepted definition of authentic leadership,u it can be conceptualized inhapersonally, dwelopmenblly, and inkrperspn- 3. Sum L a -nra on -1 3.7.11, and 15 @alured p- w1, alIy,Thehh-apemmlperspedhe focuses on the leader and the leaders 4. Sum the rwpangeg on I m 4,8,12, 16 (dadod transmcy). knowledge, self+egulation, and selfconcept T e developmental perspec h 5. Sum the responses a~ lwm (aut)lendc leademhip). all tive emphasim major cornpone& of authentic leadenhip aha? dedup
  • 14. " orgardzational outcomes.& ~ t redly going on in asituation and determine what actions are tnrly isp d for the Icader, followers, and the o-tim. Georges r p p d (2003) iden* fire basic dimendom d authenticleadership and thc mnclponding W o r n 1 characteistics idhidualneed t develop Bo become authentic leaders. o h&mticl e a d d i p has s e d p i t l v e ktures. First, it: provides an . Central Asia h+ihlft.( 8A. e d june 6,2009, h m https:/lwww.&tog/ m )w m a ta who am searching for g o d and sound leadership in an threec*-- meain world. Second, authentic leadership is ~ r i p and p r & b h Chant A (2005). Authentic leadership tnaasurement and development: n a grat deal of infurmationabout how ludm M learn t become au&m o and s ~ d o n sIn W L Gardner, B. 1. AvoIio, & F 0. Walumbm (Eds,), . . . tic. Third, it has an qdicik moral dimmion that asseits that leaders need - Authentic l d a T s h i ~ r p and practice: Qrigim, h ht0-t (pp, do what is u i & ~ for their followc*l and h e t y - Frnr1.h it .. 227-25 1). Oxfaid: Elsevier S u m is hmed as a pmess &at is developed by leaden over time rather than -l C-, kndura, T A, & Schriesheim. C.A (2005). hkiw tonwrd bat .. a fixed trait ~ast, aueentic b d ~ R h i p n h measured a a thm~y- b m w past: P M k d c h a n g e s to devetoping authentic leadedip r based instnunent thcwy and authentic leaders. h d s t a h i p Qua+, I 1447-5. w, S. R (1990).fineiphmkrsd I d d i p . New Y & Firesi&. o: "b&, H.(2005). Achieving relational authenticily in I-de&ip: DW ge& A. maifer? -hip Qwbdy, 16,449474.