ENERGY CRISIS AND CONSERVATION IN PAKISTANMUHAMMAD AMMAR SABZWARI, HAFIZ MUHAMMAD REHAN GHANIDEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEEERING, UCE&T BAHAUDDIN ZAKARIYA UNIVERSITYMULTAN, PUNJAB, PAKISTANEmail:firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.comAbstract:Pakistan is facing a shortfall in oil andelectricity fields since last five to six years. It effects oureconomy and lifestyle adversely. As a Pakistani it is ourresponsibility to save energy and use renewable sourceslike wind, water, sun and biomass.In this paper we discuss what renewable energyresources are and how we can utilize them for thebetterment of Pakistani economy and in current energycrisis.Key Words: Energy, Crisis, Resources, Solar Energy1. Introduction:Without energy, the accomplishment of anytask is impossible. The resources are limited whileconsumption has been increasing day by day. Theavailability of energy resources and dependency on themis changed after industrial revolution due to manyreasons such as climatic conditions and mostly due theavailability and transportation. Pakistan is a developingcountry and facing energy crisis since last two decades.The article is a discussion about that short fall of energy.It also discusses about conservation methods andgeneration of some through economical mode. Solarenergy is also one of these. Authors also talk about somebenefits of solar energy with special relation toPakistan’s requirements.2. Discussion: Energy is the life blood of socioeconomicdevelopment. It is essential for technologicalapplications that promote productivity increases. Thethree domains where energy is used are the production ofelectricity, the extraction/generation of thermal energy(heating and cooling), and transportation. During thepast two centuries, fossil fuels (coal, oil, and gas) havebeen the main sources used to meet humanity’s energyrequirements.Only 55% of the Pakistan’s population has access toelectricity and per capita supply is about 520 kWh. Atpresent, the people are facing severe loadshedding/blackout problems due to shortage of about 3GW power supply. Gas and oil have 65% share inconventional electricity generation. Indigenous reservesof oil and gas are limited and the country heavilydepends on imported oil. The oil import bill is a seriousstrain on the country’s economy. Though there is hugecoal potential in the country but has not been utilizeddue to various reasons. This shows that Pakistan mustdevelop renewable to manage the energy crises. There issubstantial potential of renewable in the country formanaging the present energy crises as well as meetingthe future energy needs.With the advent of the year 2008, Pakistan faces a gap of4500 MW between the demand and supply of electricity,registering a shortfall of 40%. The key dimensions of thecrisis, i.e. growing gap between demand and supply,diminishing indigenous oil and gas reserves, risingenergy cost and security concerns. It also exploreshydropower, solar energy, biomass and wind power assustainable energy options for the country. In has beenfound that the total estimated hydropower potential ismore than 42 GW out of which only 6.5 GW has beentapped so far. In terms of available solar energy Pakistanis amongst the richest countries in the world, having anannual global irradiance value of 1900–2200 kWh/m2.Despite that fact that the biomass plays an important rolein the primary energy mix by contributing to 36% of thetotal supplies, it has not managed to break into thecommercial energy market. Wind power, also beenidentified as a potential source of energy, is yet to takeoff.All energy sources bring their own problems. Thechallenge is thus to find appropriate and reliablesolutions for providing energy sources for social andeconomic development and meeting the needs.Most of our energy comes from nonrenewable energysources. Coal, petroleum, natural gas, propane, anduranium are nonrenewable energy sources. They areused to make electricity, to heat our homes, to move ourcars, and to manufacture all kinds of products.These energy sources are called nonrenewable becausetheir supplies are limited. Petroleum, for example, wasformed millions of years ago from the remains of ancientsea plants and animals. We cannot make more petroleumin a short time.
Renewable energy sources include biomass, geothermalenergy, hydropower, solar energy, and wind energy.They are called renewable energy sources because theyare replenished in a short time. Day after day the sunshines, the wind blows, and the rivers flow. We userenewable energy sources mainly to make electricity.Electricity is different from the other energy sourcesbecause it is a secondary source of energy. We have touse another energy source to make electricity.With the rapid depletion of fossil fuel reserves, it isfeared that the world will soon run out of its energyresources. This is a matter of concern for the developingcountries whose economy heavily leans on its use ofenergy. Under the circumstances it is highly desirablethat alternate energy resources should be utilized withmaximum Conversion efficiency to cope with the everincreasing energy demand. Among the non-conventionalenergy resources, solar energy, wind energy and Biomashas emerged as most prospective option for the future.Detailed information about the availability of solarradiation on horizontal surface is essential for theoptimum design and study of solar energy conversionsystem. For a country like Pakistan, the economical andefficient application of solar energy seems inevitablebecause of abundant sunshine available throughout theyear. Solar radiation data are available for most part ofthe world, but is not available for many countries whichcannot afford the measurement equipment andtechniques involved. Global solar radiation in Pakistanare measured at five stations namely Karachi, Lahore,Multan, Quetta and Islamabad.On average solar global insolation 5–7 kWh/m2/dayexists in the country over more than 95% of its area withpersistance factor of over 85% [2–3]. The South Westernprovince of Balochistan and North Eastern part of Sindhoffer excellent conditions for harnessing solar energywhere sun shines between 7 and 8 h daily orapproximately more than 2300–2700 h per annum.Despite the favourable conditions, the use of solarenergy for generating electricity or heating is still in itsbeginnings. Mostly photovoltaic systems of generationcapacity 100–500 W/unit have been used for producingelectricity in a few rural areas. According to a surveyreport, more than 40,000 villages of Pakistan have noaccess to electricity and it is expected that within next 50years, it is difﬁcult to electrify these villages withpresent pace of development in the energy sector. As farback as the early 1980s, the Government of Pakistan had18 PV systems with acomposite output of 440 kWinstalled in various parts of the country. Due to lack oftechnical know-how about operation and maintenance,these systems were no longer in operation in1990s.Under such conditions PCRET started ensuringdevelopment and sustainability of solar and otherrenewable energy projects in the country. AEDB joinedsuch efforts in 2003. But unfortunately both thesegovernmental organizations are so weak in ﬁnancial andtechnical manpower resource to imagine anybreakthrough in near future. More than 20manufacturers, suppliers, etc. in private sector are activein solar energy business in the country.Wind power provides opportunity to reducedependence on imported fossil fuel and at the same timeexpands the power supply capacity to remote locationswhere grid expansion is not practical. Recentlyconducted survey of Wind Power Potential along coastalareas of the country by Pakistan MeteorologicalDepartment (PMD), indicates that a potential exists forharvesting wind energy using currently availabletechnologies, especially along Sindh coast. Gharo, oneof the sites in Sindh where the wind data have beenrecorded and studied by PMD, has been selected forUsing the measured wind data the annual gross energyproduction by an 18 MW wind farm consisting of thirty– 600 kW turbines will be 45 million kWh. Taking intoaccount the wind turbine availability, net losses andwake effects in the wind farm the net annual energyproduction is estimated to 31 million kWh per yearcorresponding to a capacity factor of 28%.People used the phenomenon of tides and tidal currentslong before the Christian era. The earliest navigators, forexample, needed to know periodical tide Suctuations aswell as where and when they could use or would beconfronted with a strong tidal current. There areremnants of small tidal hydro mechanical installationsbuilt in the Middle Ages around the world for waterpumping, watermills and other applications. Some ofthese devices were exploited until recent times. Forexample, large tidal waterwheels were used for pumpingsewage in Hamburg, Germany up to the nineteenthcentury. The city of London used huge tidal wheels,installed under London Bridge in 1580, for 250 years tosupply fresh water to the city. However, the seriousstudy and design of industrial-size tidal power plants forexploiting tidal energy only began in the twentiethcentury with the rapid growth of the electric industry.Electrification of all aspects of modern civilization hasled to the development of various converters fortransferring natural potential energy sources into electricpower. Along with fossil fuel power systems and nuclearreactors, which create huge new environmental pollutionproblems, clean renewable energy sources have attractedscientists and engineers to exploit these resources for theproduction of electric power. Tidal energy, in particular,is one of the best available renewable energy sources.Biomass/Waste to Energy has been recognized as aclean, reliable, renewable source of energy.
Unfortunately in Pakistan this source of energy has notbeen utilized for power generation in the past. Thegrowing urbanization and changes in the pattern of lifehas given rise to generation of increasing quantities ofwastes and it’s now becoming another threat to ourenvironment. However, in recent years, waste-to-energytechnologies have been developed to produce cleanenergy through the combustion of municipal solid wastein specially designed power plants equipped with themost modern pollution control equipment to cleanemissions. Biomass and waste to energy plants are usednot only to generate sufficient power but also used toclean up the environment as well by conserving non-renewable fossil fuel resources and reducing theenvironmental impacts of trash disposal. Biomass andwaste-to-energy facilities can also contribute to thecountry’s economy by providing jobs apart fromgenerating electricity.Biogas, one of the most significant types of biomassenergy, makes optimal utilization of the valuable naturalresource of dung. It provides (soot-free) clean gas formeeting cooking and energy needs as well as enrichedbio-fertilizer for improvement of fertility/ productivity ofagricultural lands. Promotion of the biogas technologyseems to be one of the best options, which cannot onlypartially offset the fossil fuel from wood consumptionbut also facilitates recycling of agro-animal residues as abio-fertilizer. Moreover, being clean and renewable, itwill also contribute towards environment protection,sustenance of ecosystem and conservation ofbiodiversity.Biogas has proved to be a viable technology in thephysical and socio-economic conditions. Pakistan is richin Biogas potential, the technology provides nearly threetimes more useful energy than that dung directly burnt,and also produces nutrient-rich manure. Besidesproduction of Biogas, the Biogas Plants can result inimproving economic and financial conditions at micro aswell as macro level and abating emission of greenhousegases that has been polluting the environment due to itsdirect exposure.Small hydro has many benefits, both for the environmentand for Pakistani society. Small hydro produces nogreenhouse gas emissions after it is built. In addition,unlike tidal power, the ecosystem is not adverselyaffected. Pico hydro only requires a 1-metre rop inheight, which means the technology is guaranteed towork more of the time than wave power, which dependson very large waves.With regards to society, mall hydro guarantees that therewill be electricity available more of the time, whichmeans that children can study at night and women canalso make handicrafts ormarkets, which gives them moreeconomic power in society. In addition, women aregiven even more free time because they do not have tocollect firewood anymore.Pakistan can also benefit from the experience andknowledge of its neighbour India, which has 1694 MWof small hydro installed. Lastly, it is very mportant tonote that many people in rural Pakistan do not haveelectricity and small hydro is very well suited to many ofthese areas because it does not have to be connected tothe grid. Another option is to build grids that only coverone village or town, which is a very popular option inChina, India and Vietnam because small hydro caneasily be connected to this type of grid, state Taylor,Upadhyay and Laguna.Thus, small hydro is by far the best option available forPakistan due o the presence of many rivers, theenvironmental and societal benefits as well as thedrawbacks of wave and tidal power. It is now up to thegovernment to put in place policies that would allowpeople to purchase these systems cheaply. If Pakistan isable to independently produce power, this would greatlyincrease the Number of jobs and the benefit to society.CONCLUSION:Energy is basic necessity for life. With the increasingdemands and decreasing sources it is our responsibilityto use energy wisely. We should adopt some measures tosave energy. Here are some suggestions for theconservation of energy.Passive energy design is recommended by the experts inwhich, buildings doors, walls and windows of a buildingare made such that they can absorb maximum of energyin winters and reject maximum of heat energy insummers. In this way, maximum utilization of storedenergy inside the buildings could be saved.Preserve resources:Many resources like as flow of water in rivers, streams,canals could be utilized in an organized way and moreenergy could be got by using small hydro generationequipments. Their local utilization could also savetransmission, manpower and maintenance cost. Tidaland wind could also an important source for generationof energy. The places where these resources are inabundant form could be utilized and more appropriateway. Solid and liquid waste could also be other sourcesthat could be use it such a beneficial method that provideenergy and prove helpful for conservation of resources.References:1. 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