• Social Mobility
• Open and Closed stratification
• Types of Social Mobility
• Causes of Social Mobility
• Effects of Social Mobility
Movements of individuals or groups
from one position in a society’s
stratification system to an other is called
Types of Social Mobility
The movement of an individual from
one social position to another of the
• The movement of an individual from
one social position to another of a
• e.g pilot become a lawyer.
• Vertical mobility involves:
• Changes in the social position of
children relative to their parents.
• Changes in social position within a
person’s adult life.
Open stratification system
• A social system in which the position of
each individual is influenced by his or
her achieved status.
--Open systems encourage competition among members of society.
Ethnic and culture problems
• Unequal division of population
• Increase in crime
Betterment in living standard
National unity is increased
Projection of different ideas
Tendency of personal freedom
End of obsolete customs
Causes of Social Mobility
Political and Economic causes
Desire of better living standard
Desire of higher education
Development of communication and
Social Policy and Stratification
• The Issue
--Governments in all parts of
the world are searching for the
right solution to welfare.
--How much subsidy should
--How much responsibility
should fall on the shoulders of
• The Setting
– --In 1996, a historic “workfare” act was
passed in the United States that ended the
long-standing federal guarantee of
assistance to every poor family that meets
eligibility requirements. It required that all
able-bodied adults work after two years of
– --Other countries vary widely in their
commitment to social service programs.
• Sociological Insights
– --Many sociologists view the debate over welfare
from a conflict perspective.
– --From a conflict perspective, the backlash against
welfare recipients reflects deep fears and hostility
toward the nation’s urban and predominantly
African American and Hispanic underclass.
– --Tax breaks and other “corporate welfare”
granted by the government for corporations should
also be examined closely.
• Policy Initiatives
– --There are some success stories in the new
“workfare” program of the United States.
– --However, it is too early to see how a dipping
economy and prospects for the hard-core jobless
will affect the program in the long run.
– --Medical coverage and child care remain issues
for the the working poor.
– --In North America and Europe, solutions are often
left to the private sector while government policy
initiatives at the national level all but disappear.