HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT OFNURSING PROFESSION ,PERSPECTIVES OF NURSINGPROFESSION – NATIONAL ANDGLOBAL
E   Evaluator:         Mrs. Bindu    Presented by :         Ms Amala Joy P         I Year M.Sc Nursing         S.C.O.N
WHY TO STUDY HISTORY   looking back gives you a vision of where  you want to go….. provides an understanding of the  her...
INTRODUCTIONHistory   -Events from past leading up to presentNursing had significant effect on peoples livesProfession ...
Foundation  of professional practice arise from the theories of nursing, relevance to basic    social    values,     educ...
NURSING               The unique function of the nurse isto assist the individual, sick or well, in theperformance of tho...
PROFESSION                         A profession is anoccupation     based       on     specializedintellectual study and ...
NURSING THROUGHCENTURIESBeginning     to nineteenth century Teachings of the early Christian church Deaconess Phoeba – ...
Twentieth    century Nurses began to assume expanded and  advanced practice roles 1901 – Army nurse corps 1908 - Navy ...
Twenty    first century Established Centre for ethics and human  rights Revision of nursing practice and school  curric...
FACTORS INFLUENCEDNURSING PRACTICE1. Religion “Love thy neighbour as thyself” Early religious values such as self denial...
 American civil war World war I and II Vietnam war3.Societal attitude No  respect for women – poorly educated Charles...
4. Demographic changes Shift from rural to urban areas – higher  incidence of chronic and long term illness5. Womens issu...
EMINENT PERSONALITIES INTHE HISTORY OF NURSINGFLORENCE NIGHTINGALE (1820 – 1910)Born on May 12 – called to fulfill the  “...
CLARA BARTON (1812 -1912)School teacher, volunteered as a nurse during the American civil warOrganized the nursing servi...
LINDA RICHARDS (1841 – 1930)First American trained nurseIntroduced nurses notes and doctors  ordersInitiated for wearin...
MARY MAHONEY (1845 – 1926)First African- American professional nurseWorked for the acceptance of African- Americans in n...
LILLIAN WALD (1867 – 1940)Founder of public health nursingServices to poor in slumsVisiting nursing services
LAVINIA L DOCK (1858 -1956)Feminist, writer, political activistPrecursor to the current National league for Nursing
MARGARET H SANGER (1879 – 1966)Founder of planned parenthoodImprisoned for opening the first birth control information c...
MARY BRECKINRIDGE (1881 – 1965)Established the Frontier nursing services
Nurse    – ‘nutricius’ – means nourishingPerformed by priestesses and associated with temple worshipsDeacons, widows an...
HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES ININDIADuring  700 – 600 B.C ‘Sushrutha Samhita’ was written by the great surgeon ‘Sushrutha’, wh...
 The first nursing school started in 250 B.C during Charakan time and only men were considered pure enough to be nurses....
Modern   nursing influenced by Florence Nightingale‘Suggestions on a system of nursing for hospitals in India’Military ...
1854  – Training school started in Madras for midwives1871 – First nursing school started at Madras General Hospital  Av...
1926  – Madras state formed the first registration council. 1946 – First four year Basic Bachelor degree program establi...
MEN IN NURSINGGood   Samaritan – first man to provide nursing careGroup of men in 300 A.D started a hospital and provide...
Two   patron Saints – St. John of God and St. Camillus1888 – Nursing schools for men started in Newyork1901 – U.S milit...
CURRENT TRENDS   Nursing as a Profession   Nursing Education   Nursing Practice   Nursing Informatics   Nursing Resea...
NURSING AS A PROFESSIONEmergence   of more men.Increased level of knowledge, clinical competencies, values and attitude ...
1. SCOPE OF NURSING Promoting health and wellness Preventing illness Restoring health Care of the dying
2 . STANDARDS OF NURSING   PRACTICE  ANA Nursing Standards Assessment Diagnosis Outcome      identification Planning ...
3 . ANA Standards of Professional  performance Quality of practice Education Professional practice evaluation Collegia...
4 . Code of Ethics          Philosophical ideas of right and  wrong that defines the principles you use  to provide care t...
NURSING EDUCATION     Significant amount of formal education isrequired to become a nurse.SCOPE OF EDUCATIONAL   PROGRAMME...
2 . Graduate Nursing Education     > Masters programme     > Doctoral programme3 . Continuing and In service Education
NURSING PRACTICENursing Practice ActsLicensure and certification
NURSING RESEARCHFocuses    on EBP (Evidence based practice) in order to improve the knowledge and skills in patient care....
NURSING INFORMATICS IN CLINICAL PRACTICE                  Used in all areas of nursing like assessment, planning, impleme...
>Nursing Office AutomationIN NURSING RESEARCH           Nurse researchers can use its advantage in the areas of literatur...
   IN NURSING EDUCATION        >> Computer assisted learning        >> Computer assisted Interactive           video inst...
CURRENT STATUS OF MEN INNURSING Competitive   and challenging career 5.4% of total nurses in U.S is men 13% total nursi...
SCOPE OF NURSING IN INDIA     STAFF NURSE   NURSING SUPERVISORASSISTANT NURSING SUPERIENDENT
DEPUTY NURSING SUPERIENDENT    NURSING SUPERIENDENT   DIRECTOR OF NURSING
ROLES AND FUNCTIONS OFTHE NURSE CAREGIVER COMMUNICATOR TEACHER CLIENT ADVOCATE COUNSELOR CHANGE AGENT LEADER MANAGER
 CASE MANAGER RESEARCH CONSUMER
EXPANDED CAREER ROLESADVANCED PRACTICE NURSING1. NURSE PRACTIONER2. CERTIFIED NURSE MIDWIFE3. CLINICAL NURSE SPECIALIST4. ...
5. NURSE RESEARCHER6. NURSE ADMINISTRATOR7. NURSE EDUCATOR8. NURSE ENTREPRENEUR
FACTORS INFLUCINGCOMTEMPORARY NURSEPRACTICEECONOMICSCONSUMER   DEMANDSFAMILY STRUCTURESCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGYLEGISLATI...
NURSING ORGANIZATIONSParticipation enhances-> the growth of involved individuals-> nurses collectively influence policies ...
INTERNATIONAL           ORGANISATIONS1. American  Nurses Association   > Founded in 1896   > foster high standards of nurs...
2. Canadian Nurses Association.               Developed national standards and  code of ethics3. National League for Nursi...
4. INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OF  NURSES    > Established in 1899    > provides an organization through which      member natio...
PROFESSIONALORGANIZATIONS IN INDIA1. T.N.A.I ( Trained Nurses Association of   India)2. S.N.A ( Student Nurses Association...
FUTURE TRENDS INNURSINGFour major arenas influence the pathwayfor the Future includes:o Nursing Philosophyo Nursing Practi...
Juliet Sylvia, Nursing is a caring science – a reflection,2010, Indian journal of continuing nursing education, volume 2,...
Karuppaiah   a, Josephine R, Professional power in nursing,2008, Indian journal of continuing education,volume 9,issue no...
Manivannan.C,   Men in nursing,2009, Trends in nursing administration and education, volume 2, no :3, Pp:31-33, July- Dec...
Sivalakshmi, A Study to assess the image of nursing and perception of independent nursing practice as expressed by pancha...
BOOK REFERENCESZeewekh.J.A,Jo   Carol Claborn (2003) Nursing today – Transition and trends, fourth edition, saunders publ...
Bolander.  B.V (1994), ‘Soresen and Luckmanns’ Basic nursing-A psychophysiologic approach, third edition, saunders public...
Joglekar.S.K   (1996) Hospital ward management – Professional adjustments and trends in nursing, Vora medical publication...
Kozier    Barbara, Erb Glenora..et al (2000),Fundamentals of Nursing, sixth edition, Prentice Hall Health publications, N...
INTERNET REFERENCEShttp://www.minoritynurse.com/http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/820146http://www.tnaionline.org/htt...
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  1. 1. HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT OFNURSING PROFESSION ,PERSPECTIVES OF NURSINGPROFESSION – NATIONAL ANDGLOBAL
  2. 2. E Evaluator: Mrs. Bindu Presented by : Ms Amala Joy P I Year M.Sc Nursing S.C.O.N
  3. 3. WHY TO STUDY HISTORY looking back gives you a vision of where you want to go….. provides an understanding of the heritage behind nursing as a career highlights the contributions of eminent nurses towards the development of the nursing profession.
  4. 4. INTRODUCTIONHistory -Events from past leading up to presentNursing had significant effect on peoples livesProfession of nursing evolved as societys health care needs increased
  5. 5. Foundation of professional practice arise from the theories of nursing, relevance to basic social values, educational preparation, motivation, autonomy, a sense of commitment a sense of community and a code of ethics
  6. 6. NURSING The unique function of the nurse isto assist the individual, sick or well, in theperformance of those activities contributing tohealth, its recovery or to a peaceful death, thatthe client would perform unaided if he had thenecessary strength, will or knowledge and to dothis in such a way as to help the client gainindependence as rapidly as possible. (Virgenia Henderson)
  7. 7. PROFESSION A profession is anoccupation based on specializedintellectual study and training, thepurpose of which is to supply skilledservice with ethical components toothers for a definitive fee or salary.
  8. 8. NURSING THROUGHCENTURIESBeginning to nineteenth century Teachings of the early Christian church Deaconess Phoeba – First visiting nurse 17 th to middle 19 th century – ‘ Darkest period’ in nursing Florence Nightingale – changed the history
  9. 9. Twentieth century Nurses began to assume expanded and advanced practice roles 1901 – Army nurse corps 1908 - Navy nurse corps 1920 - Nursing specialization
  10. 10. Twenty first century Established Centre for ethics and human rights Revision of nursing practice and school curriculum Nursing care occurs in multiple care settings
  11. 11. FACTORS INFLUENCEDNURSING PRACTICE1. Religion “Love thy neighbour as thyself” Early religious values such as self denial, spiritual calling, and devotion to duty and hard work dominated nursing throughout its history2. War Crimean war – role of nightingale
  12. 12.  American civil war World war I and II Vietnam war3.Societal attitude No respect for women – poorly educated Charles Dickens – showed low morale standards of nursing care in his writings Doctors hand maiden
  13. 13. 4. Demographic changes Shift from rural to urban areas – higher incidence of chronic and long term illness5. Womens issues Low status of women Illiteracy
  14. 14. EMINENT PERSONALITIES INTHE HISTORY OF NURSINGFLORENCE NIGHTINGALE (1820 – 1910)Born on May 12 – called to fulfill the “mission of mercy”“ Lady with the lamp”Reformed hospitalsProduced and implemented public health policies – political nurseTraining school for nurses in 1860
  15. 15. CLARA BARTON (1812 -1912)School teacher, volunteered as a nurse during the American civil warOrganized the nursing servicesEstablished the American Red cross
  16. 16. LINDA RICHARDS (1841 – 1930)First American trained nurseIntroduced nurses notes and doctors ordersInitiated for wearing uniforms for nursesPioneer in psychiatric and industrial nursing
  17. 17. MARY MAHONEY (1845 – 1926)First African- American professional nurseWorked for the acceptance of African- Americans in nursing and for the equal opportunities
  18. 18. LILLIAN WALD (1867 – 1940)Founder of public health nursingServices to poor in slumsVisiting nursing services
  19. 19. LAVINIA L DOCK (1858 -1956)Feminist, writer, political activistPrecursor to the current National league for Nursing
  20. 20. MARGARET H SANGER (1879 – 1966)Founder of planned parenthoodImprisoned for opening the first birth control information clinic
  21. 21. MARY BRECKINRIDGE (1881 – 1965)Established the Frontier nursing services
  22. 22. Nurse – ‘nutricius’ – means nourishingPerformed by priestesses and associated with temple worshipsDeacons, widows and virgins played a significant roleWomen joined to escape from poverty and starvation during warsHoly wars – knights – gained status for nursingIndustrial and intellectual revolutions – high rate of mortality, no guarantee of survival- entry of Florence nightingale
  23. 23. HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES ININDIADuring 700 – 600 B.C ‘Sushrutha Samhita’ was written by the great surgeon ‘Sushrutha’, who said “ The physician, the patient, the drugs and the nurse are the four feet’s or padas of the medicine, upon which the cure depends”.
  24. 24.  The first nursing school started in 250 B.C during Charakan time and only men were considered pure enough to be nurses. First hospital – started by East India Company in 1664 at Fort, St. George Madras – for soldiers St. Stephens Hospital Delhi – 1864 - First to train Indian girls as nurses.
  25. 25. Modern nursing influenced by Florence Nightingale‘Suggestions on a system of nursing for hospitals in India’Military nursing – earliest type of nursing1861 - reforms in military hospitals all over the world
  26. 26. 1854 – Training school started in Madras for midwives1871 – First nursing school started at Madras General Hospital Available nurse were Anglo- Indians and Christians1891 – Indian nurses came for training. Bai Kashibai Ganpal was the first Indian nurse to come for training1905 – T.N.A.I established
  27. 27. 1926 – Madras state formed the first registration council. 1946 – First four year Basic Bachelor degree program established in R.A.K, Delhi and C.M.C Vellore. 1960 – First Masters Degree program was started in R.A.K College of Nursing Delhi.
  28. 28. MEN IN NURSINGGood Samaritan – first man to provide nursing careGroup of men in 300 A.D started a hospital and provided nursing care during the black plague epidemicMilitary, religious and lay orders of men continued to provide nursing care in middle ages
  29. 29. Two patron Saints – St. John of God and St. Camillus1888 – Nursing schools for men started in Newyork1901 – U.S military nursing changed from predominantly male to femaleAfter Korean war men were again permitted in nursing practice as well as schoolsIn 1966 less than 1% male nursesIn 1996 5% of nurses are males
  30. 30. CURRENT TRENDS Nursing as a Profession Nursing Education Nursing Practice Nursing Informatics Nursing Research
  31. 31. NURSING AS A PROFESSIONEmergence of more men.Increased level of knowledge, clinical competencies, values and attitude became more important
  32. 32. 1. SCOPE OF NURSING Promoting health and wellness Preventing illness Restoring health Care of the dying
  33. 33. 2 . STANDARDS OF NURSING PRACTICE ANA Nursing Standards Assessment Diagnosis Outcome identification Planning Implementation Evaluation
  34. 34. 3 . ANA Standards of Professional performance Quality of practice Education Professional practice evaluation Collegiality Collaboration Ethics Research Resource utilization Leadership
  35. 35. 4 . Code of Ethics Philosophical ideas of right and wrong that defines the principles you use to provide care to your clients.
  36. 36. NURSING EDUCATION Significant amount of formal education isrequired to become a nurse.SCOPE OF EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMMES1. Registered Nursing Programmes > Diploma programmes > Associate degree programmes > Baccalaureate degree programmes
  37. 37. 2 . Graduate Nursing Education > Masters programme > Doctoral programme3 . Continuing and In service Education
  38. 38. NURSING PRACTICENursing Practice ActsLicensure and certification
  39. 39. NURSING RESEARCHFocuses on EBP (Evidence based practice) in order to improve the knowledge and skills in patient care.Recently it is focusing on the research skills to address the emerging issues of importance towards nursing.
  40. 40. NURSING INFORMATICS IN CLINICAL PRACTICE Used in all areas of nursing like assessment, planning, implementation and evaluation. IN ADMINISTRATION *MIS It helps the nurse managers in the areas of quality management, unit staffing and reporting
  41. 41. >Nursing Office AutomationIN NURSING RESEARCH Nurse researchers can use its advantage in the areas of literature review, data gathering, data analysis and in preparation and communication of research findings
  42. 42.  IN NURSING EDUCATION >> Computer assisted learning >> Computer assisted Interactive video instructions >> Teleconferencing >> M- learning
  43. 43. CURRENT STATUS OF MEN INNURSING Competitive and challenging career 5.4% of total nurses in U.S is men 13% total nursing students are men
  44. 44. SCOPE OF NURSING IN INDIA STAFF NURSE NURSING SUPERVISORASSISTANT NURSING SUPERIENDENT
  45. 45. DEPUTY NURSING SUPERIENDENT NURSING SUPERIENDENT DIRECTOR OF NURSING
  46. 46. ROLES AND FUNCTIONS OFTHE NURSE CAREGIVER COMMUNICATOR TEACHER CLIENT ADVOCATE COUNSELOR CHANGE AGENT LEADER MANAGER
  47. 47.  CASE MANAGER RESEARCH CONSUMER
  48. 48. EXPANDED CAREER ROLESADVANCED PRACTICE NURSING1. NURSE PRACTIONER2. CERTIFIED NURSE MIDWIFE3. CLINICAL NURSE SPECIALIST4. CERTIFIED REGISTERED NURSE ANESTHETIST
  49. 49. 5. NURSE RESEARCHER6. NURSE ADMINISTRATOR7. NURSE EDUCATOR8. NURSE ENTREPRENEUR
  50. 50. FACTORS INFLUCINGCOMTEMPORARY NURSEPRACTICEECONOMICSCONSUMER DEMANDSFAMILY STRUCTURESCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGYLEGISLATIONWOMENS MOVEMENTCOLLECTIVE BARGAININGNURSING SHORTAGE
  51. 51. NURSING ORGANIZATIONSParticipation enhances-> the growth of involved individuals-> nurses collectively influence policies affecting nursing practice
  52. 52. INTERNATIONAL ORGANISATIONS1. American Nurses Association > Founded in 1896 > foster high standards of nursing practice > promote educational and professional advancements
  53. 53. 2. Canadian Nurses Association. Developed national standards and code of ethics3. National League for Nursing > formed in 1952 > foster nursing services and nursing education > Interested non nursing personnels can be the members
  54. 54. 4. INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OF NURSES > Established in 1899 > provides an organization through which member national associations can work together to promote the health of the people and the care of sick.
  55. 55. PROFESSIONALORGANIZATIONS IN INDIA1. T.N.A.I ( Trained Nurses Association of India)2. S.N.A ( Student Nurses Association )3. I.N.C ( Indian Nursing Council )
  56. 56. FUTURE TRENDS INNURSINGFour major arenas influence the pathwayfor the Future includes:o Nursing Philosophyo Nursing Practiceo Nursing Educationo Nursing Research
  57. 57. Juliet Sylvia, Nursing is a caring science – a reflection,2010, Indian journal of continuing nursing education, volume 2, issue no - , Pp :7-10, July-December Premila Lee,Vathsala Sadan, Nursing Informatics,2008, Indian journal of continuing nursing education, volume 9,issue no - ,Pp : 6-9, January
  58. 58. Karuppaiah a, Josephine R, Professional power in nursing,2008, Indian journal of continuing education,volume 9,issue no - , Pp : 10-13, January-JuneDr.Rajinder Mahal,Dr.Usha Ukande, Nurse and nursing: Evolution and future,2011,Indian journal of nursing studies, volume 2, No – 1, Pp:2,3,January – June
  59. 59. Manivannan.C, Men in nursing,2009, Trends in nursing administration and education, volume 2, no :3, Pp:31-33, July- DecemberElizabeth.A.Curtis, Jan de Vries,Fintan K Sheerin, Developing leadership in nursing: exploring core factors,2011, British journal of nursing, volume 20, no: 5, Pp:306-309
  60. 60. Sivalakshmi, A Study to assess the image of nursing and perception of independent nursing practice as expressed by panchayat leaders in rural areas of Madurai with a view to develop an awareness package on nursing,2010, trends in nursing administration and education, vol :3, No :1, Pp:31-35, January – June.
  61. 61. BOOK REFERENCESZeewekh.J.A,Jo Carol Claborn (2003) Nursing today – Transition and trends, fourth edition, saunders publications, Missouri, Pp : 30-80, 142-186,304-347Finkelman.A, Carole kenner (2010) Professional nursing concepts – competencies for quality leadership, Jones and Bartlett publishers, London Pp : 79 - 132
  62. 62. Bolander. B.V (1994), ‘Soresen and Luckmanns’ Basic nursing-A psychophysiologic approach, third edition, saunders publications, Philadelphia, Pp : 12 - 28Roux Gayle, Halsteas.A.J (2009), Issues and trends in nursing,Jones and Bartlett publishers, Boston, Pp : 5-56, 127-188
  63. 63. Joglekar.S.K (1996) Hospital ward management – Professional adjustments and trends in nursing, Vora medical publications Bombay Pp : 77-82,132- 153,157-167Potter.A.P, Perry.A.G (2009) Fundamentals of Nursing, seventh edition, Mosby-Elsevier publications, Missouri, Pp : 1-13
  64. 64. Kozier Barbara, Erb Glenora..et al (2000),Fundamentals of Nursing, sixth edition, Prentice Hall Health publications, New Jersey, Pp :2 – 27
  65. 65. INTERNET REFERENCEShttp://www.minoritynurse.com/http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/820146http://www.tnaionline.org/http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/nursing/htnl
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