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  • 1. HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT OFNURSING PROFESSION ,PERSPECTIVES OF NURSINGPROFESSION – NATIONAL ANDGLOBAL
  • 2. E Evaluator: Mrs. Bindu Presented by : Ms Amala Joy P I Year M.Sc Nursing S.C.O.N
  • 3. WHY TO STUDY HISTORY looking back gives you a vision of where you want to go….. provides an understanding of the heritage behind nursing as a career highlights the contributions of eminent nurses towards the development of the nursing profession.
  • 4. INTRODUCTIONHistory -Events from past leading up to presentNursing had significant effect on peoples livesProfession of nursing evolved as societys health care needs increased
  • 5. Foundation of professional practice arise from the theories of nursing, relevance to basic social values, educational preparation, motivation, autonomy, a sense of commitment a sense of community and a code of ethics
  • 6. NURSING The unique function of the nurse isto assist the individual, sick or well, in theperformance of those activities contributing tohealth, its recovery or to a peaceful death, thatthe client would perform unaided if he had thenecessary strength, will or knowledge and to dothis in such a way as to help the client gainindependence as rapidly as possible. (Virgenia Henderson)
  • 7. PROFESSION A profession is anoccupation based on specializedintellectual study and training, thepurpose of which is to supply skilledservice with ethical components toothers for a definitive fee or salary.
  • 8. NURSING THROUGHCENTURIESBeginning to nineteenth century Teachings of the early Christian church Deaconess Phoeba – First visiting nurse 17 th to middle 19 th century – ‘ Darkest period’ in nursing Florence Nightingale – changed the history
  • 9. Twentieth century Nurses began to assume expanded and advanced practice roles 1901 – Army nurse corps 1908 - Navy nurse corps 1920 - Nursing specialization
  • 10. Twenty first century Established Centre for ethics and human rights Revision of nursing practice and school curriculum Nursing care occurs in multiple care settings
  • 11. FACTORS INFLUENCEDNURSING PRACTICE1. Religion “Love thy neighbour as thyself” Early religious values such as self denial, spiritual calling, and devotion to duty and hard work dominated nursing throughout its history2. War Crimean war – role of nightingale
  • 12.  American civil war World war I and II Vietnam war3.Societal attitude No respect for women – poorly educated Charles Dickens – showed low morale standards of nursing care in his writings Doctors hand maiden
  • 13. 4. Demographic changes Shift from rural to urban areas – higher incidence of chronic and long term illness5. Womens issues Low status of women Illiteracy
  • 14. EMINENT PERSONALITIES INTHE HISTORY OF NURSINGFLORENCE NIGHTINGALE (1820 – 1910)Born on May 12 – called to fulfill the “mission of mercy”“ Lady with the lamp”Reformed hospitalsProduced and implemented public health policies – political nurseTraining school for nurses in 1860
  • 15. CLARA BARTON (1812 -1912)School teacher, volunteered as a nurse during the American civil warOrganized the nursing servicesEstablished the American Red cross
  • 16. LINDA RICHARDS (1841 – 1930)First American trained nurseIntroduced nurses notes and doctors ordersInitiated for wearing uniforms for nursesPioneer in psychiatric and industrial nursing
  • 17. MARY MAHONEY (1845 – 1926)First African- American professional nurseWorked for the acceptance of African- Americans in nursing and for the equal opportunities
  • 18. LILLIAN WALD (1867 – 1940)Founder of public health nursingServices to poor in slumsVisiting nursing services
  • 19. LAVINIA L DOCK (1858 -1956)Feminist, writer, political activistPrecursor to the current National league for Nursing
  • 20. MARGARET H SANGER (1879 – 1966)Founder of planned parenthoodImprisoned for opening the first birth control information clinic
  • 21. MARY BRECKINRIDGE (1881 – 1965)Established the Frontier nursing services
  • 22. Nurse – ‘nutricius’ – means nourishingPerformed by priestesses and associated with temple worshipsDeacons, widows and virgins played a significant roleWomen joined to escape from poverty and starvation during warsHoly wars – knights – gained status for nursingIndustrial and intellectual revolutions – high rate of mortality, no guarantee of survival- entry of Florence nightingale
  • 23. HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES ININDIADuring 700 – 600 B.C ‘Sushrutha Samhita’ was written by the great surgeon ‘Sushrutha’, who said “ The physician, the patient, the drugs and the nurse are the four feet’s or padas of the medicine, upon which the cure depends”.
  • 24.  The first nursing school started in 250 B.C during Charakan time and only men were considered pure enough to be nurses. First hospital – started by East India Company in 1664 at Fort, St. George Madras – for soldiers St. Stephens Hospital Delhi – 1864 - First to train Indian girls as nurses.
  • 25. Modern nursing influenced by Florence Nightingale‘Suggestions on a system of nursing for hospitals in India’Military nursing – earliest type of nursing1861 - reforms in military hospitals all over the world
  • 26. 1854 – Training school started in Madras for midwives1871 – First nursing school started at Madras General Hospital Available nurse were Anglo- Indians and Christians1891 – Indian nurses came for training. Bai Kashibai Ganpal was the first Indian nurse to come for training1905 – T.N.A.I established
  • 27. 1926 – Madras state formed the first registration council. 1946 – First four year Basic Bachelor degree program established in R.A.K, Delhi and C.M.C Vellore. 1960 – First Masters Degree program was started in R.A.K College of Nursing Delhi.
  • 28. MEN IN NURSINGGood Samaritan – first man to provide nursing careGroup of men in 300 A.D started a hospital and provided nursing care during the black plague epidemicMilitary, religious and lay orders of men continued to provide nursing care in middle ages
  • 29. Two patron Saints – St. John of God and St. Camillus1888 – Nursing schools for men started in Newyork1901 – U.S military nursing changed from predominantly male to femaleAfter Korean war men were again permitted in nursing practice as well as schoolsIn 1966 less than 1% male nursesIn 1996 5% of nurses are males
  • 30. CURRENT TRENDS Nursing as a Profession Nursing Education Nursing Practice Nursing Informatics Nursing Research
  • 31. NURSING AS A PROFESSIONEmergence of more men.Increased level of knowledge, clinical competencies, values and attitude became more important
  • 32. 1. SCOPE OF NURSING Promoting health and wellness Preventing illness Restoring health Care of the dying
  • 33. 2 . STANDARDS OF NURSING PRACTICE ANA Nursing Standards Assessment Diagnosis Outcome identification Planning Implementation Evaluation
  • 34. 3 . ANA Standards of Professional performance Quality of practice Education Professional practice evaluation Collegiality Collaboration Ethics Research Resource utilization Leadership
  • 35. 4 . Code of Ethics Philosophical ideas of right and wrong that defines the principles you use to provide care to your clients.
  • 36. NURSING EDUCATION Significant amount of formal education isrequired to become a nurse.SCOPE OF EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMMES1. Registered Nursing Programmes > Diploma programmes > Associate degree programmes > Baccalaureate degree programmes
  • 37. 2 . Graduate Nursing Education > Masters programme > Doctoral programme3 . Continuing and In service Education
  • 38. NURSING PRACTICENursing Practice ActsLicensure and certification
  • 39. NURSING RESEARCHFocuses on EBP (Evidence based practice) in order to improve the knowledge and skills in patient care.Recently it is focusing on the research skills to address the emerging issues of importance towards nursing.
  • 40. NURSING INFORMATICS IN CLINICAL PRACTICE Used in all areas of nursing like assessment, planning, implementation and evaluation. IN ADMINISTRATION *MIS It helps the nurse managers in the areas of quality management, unit staffing and reporting
  • 41. >Nursing Office AutomationIN NURSING RESEARCH Nurse researchers can use its advantage in the areas of literature review, data gathering, data analysis and in preparation and communication of research findings
  • 42.  IN NURSING EDUCATION >> Computer assisted learning >> Computer assisted Interactive video instructions >> Teleconferencing >> M- learning
  • 43. CURRENT STATUS OF MEN INNURSING Competitive and challenging career 5.4% of total nurses in U.S is men 13% total nursing students are men
  • 44. SCOPE OF NURSING IN INDIA STAFF NURSE NURSING SUPERVISORASSISTANT NURSING SUPERIENDENT
  • 45. DEPUTY NURSING SUPERIENDENT NURSING SUPERIENDENT DIRECTOR OF NURSING
  • 46. ROLES AND FUNCTIONS OFTHE NURSE CAREGIVER COMMUNICATOR TEACHER CLIENT ADVOCATE COUNSELOR CHANGE AGENT LEADER MANAGER
  • 47.  CASE MANAGER RESEARCH CONSUMER
  • 48. EXPANDED CAREER ROLESADVANCED PRACTICE NURSING1. NURSE PRACTIONER2. CERTIFIED NURSE MIDWIFE3. CLINICAL NURSE SPECIALIST4. CERTIFIED REGISTERED NURSE ANESTHETIST
  • 49. 5. NURSE RESEARCHER6. NURSE ADMINISTRATOR7. NURSE EDUCATOR8. NURSE ENTREPRENEUR
  • 50. FACTORS INFLUCINGCOMTEMPORARY NURSEPRACTICEECONOMICSCONSUMER DEMANDSFAMILY STRUCTURESCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGYLEGISLATIONWOMENS MOVEMENTCOLLECTIVE BARGAININGNURSING SHORTAGE
  • 51. NURSING ORGANIZATIONSParticipation enhances-> the growth of involved individuals-> nurses collectively influence policies affecting nursing practice
  • 52. INTERNATIONAL ORGANISATIONS1. American Nurses Association > Founded in 1896 > foster high standards of nursing practice > promote educational and professional advancements
  • 53. 2. Canadian Nurses Association. Developed national standards and code of ethics3. National League for Nursing > formed in 1952 > foster nursing services and nursing education > Interested non nursing personnels can be the members
  • 54. 4. INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OF NURSES > Established in 1899 > provides an organization through which member national associations can work together to promote the health of the people and the care of sick.
  • 55. PROFESSIONALORGANIZATIONS IN INDIA1. T.N.A.I ( Trained Nurses Association of India)2. S.N.A ( Student Nurses Association )3. I.N.C ( Indian Nursing Council )
  • 56. FUTURE TRENDS INNURSINGFour major arenas influence the pathwayfor the Future includes:o Nursing Philosophyo Nursing Practiceo Nursing Educationo Nursing Research
  • 57. Juliet Sylvia, Nursing is a caring science – a reflection,2010, Indian journal of continuing nursing education, volume 2, issue no - , Pp :7-10, July-December Premila Lee,Vathsala Sadan, Nursing Informatics,2008, Indian journal of continuing nursing education, volume 9,issue no - ,Pp : 6-9, January
  • 58. Karuppaiah a, Josephine R, Professional power in nursing,2008, Indian journal of continuing education,volume 9,issue no - , Pp : 10-13, January-JuneDr.Rajinder Mahal,Dr.Usha Ukande, Nurse and nursing: Evolution and future,2011,Indian journal of nursing studies, volume 2, No – 1, Pp:2,3,January – June
  • 59. Manivannan.C, Men in nursing,2009, Trends in nursing administration and education, volume 2, no :3, Pp:31-33, July- DecemberElizabeth.A.Curtis, Jan de Vries,Fintan K Sheerin, Developing leadership in nursing: exploring core factors,2011, British journal of nursing, volume 20, no: 5, Pp:306-309
  • 60. Sivalakshmi, A Study to assess the image of nursing and perception of independent nursing practice as expressed by panchayat leaders in rural areas of Madurai with a view to develop an awareness package on nursing,2010, trends in nursing administration and education, vol :3, No :1, Pp:31-35, January – June.
  • 61. BOOK REFERENCESZeewekh.J.A,Jo Carol Claborn (2003) Nursing today – Transition and trends, fourth edition, saunders publications, Missouri, Pp : 30-80, 142-186,304-347Finkelman.A, Carole kenner (2010) Professional nursing concepts – competencies for quality leadership, Jones and Bartlett publishers, London Pp : 79 - 132
  • 62. Bolander. B.V (1994), ‘Soresen and Luckmanns’ Basic nursing-A psychophysiologic approach, third edition, saunders publications, Philadelphia, Pp : 12 - 28Roux Gayle, Halsteas.A.J (2009), Issues and trends in nursing,Jones and Bartlett publishers, Boston, Pp : 5-56, 127-188
  • 63. Joglekar.S.K (1996) Hospital ward management – Professional adjustments and trends in nursing, Vora medical publications Bombay Pp : 77-82,132- 153,157-167Potter.A.P, Perry.A.G (2009) Fundamentals of Nursing, seventh edition, Mosby-Elsevier publications, Missouri, Pp : 1-13
  • 64. Kozier Barbara, Erb Glenora..et al (2000),Fundamentals of Nursing, sixth edition, Prentice Hall Health publications, New Jersey, Pp :2 – 27
  • 65. INTERNET REFERENCEShttp://www.minoritynurse.com/http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/820146http://www.tnaionline.org/http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/nursing/htnl