HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT OFNURSING PROFESSION ,PERSPECTIVES OF NURSINGPROFESSION – NATIONAL ANDGLOBAL
E Evaluator: Mrs. Bindu Presented by : Ms Amala Joy P I Year M.Sc Nursing S.C.O.N
WHY TO STUDY HISTORY looking back gives you a vision of where you want to go….. provides an understanding of the heritage behind nursing as a career highlights the contributions of eminent nurses towards the development of the nursing profession.
INTRODUCTIONHistory -Events from past leading up to presentNursing had significant effect on peoples livesProfession of nursing evolved as societys health care needs increased
Foundation of professional practice arise from the theories of nursing, relevance to basic social values, educational preparation, motivation, autonomy, a sense of commitment a sense of community and a code of ethics
NURSING The unique function of the nurse isto assist the individual, sick or well, in theperformance of those activities contributing tohealth, its recovery or to a peaceful death, thatthe client would perform unaided if he had thenecessary strength, will or knowledge and to dothis in such a way as to help the client gainindependence as rapidly as possible. (Virgenia Henderson)
PROFESSION A profession is anoccupation based on specializedintellectual study and training, thepurpose of which is to supply skilledservice with ethical components toothers for a definitive fee or salary.
NURSING THROUGHCENTURIESBeginning to nineteenth century Teachings of the early Christian church Deaconess Phoeba – First visiting nurse 17 th to middle 19 th century – ‘ Darkest period’ in nursing Florence Nightingale – changed the history
Twentieth century Nurses began to assume expanded and advanced practice roles 1901 – Army nurse corps 1908 - Navy nurse corps 1920 - Nursing specialization
Twenty first century Established Centre for ethics and human rights Revision of nursing practice and school curriculum Nursing care occurs in multiple care settings
FACTORS INFLUENCEDNURSING PRACTICE1. Religion “Love thy neighbour as thyself” Early religious values such as self denial, spiritual calling, and devotion to duty and hard work dominated nursing throughout its history2. War Crimean war – role of nightingale
American civil war World war I and II Vietnam war3.Societal attitude No respect for women – poorly educated Charles Dickens – showed low morale standards of nursing care in his writings Doctors hand maiden
4. Demographic changes Shift from rural to urban areas – higher incidence of chronic and long term illness5. Womens issues Low status of women Illiteracy
EMINENT PERSONALITIES INTHE HISTORY OF NURSINGFLORENCE NIGHTINGALE (1820 – 1910)Born on May 12 – called to fulfill the “mission of mercy”“ Lady with the lamp”Reformed hospitalsProduced and implemented public health policies – political nurseTraining school for nurses in 1860
CLARA BARTON (1812 -1912)School teacher, volunteered as a nurse during the American civil warOrganized the nursing servicesEstablished the American Red cross
LINDA RICHARDS (1841 – 1930)First American trained nurseIntroduced nurses notes and doctors ordersInitiated for wearing uniforms for nursesPioneer in psychiatric and industrial nursing
MARY MAHONEY (1845 – 1926)First African- American professional nurseWorked for the acceptance of African- Americans in nursing and for the equal opportunities
LILLIAN WALD (1867 – 1940)Founder of public health nursingServices to poor in slumsVisiting nursing services
LAVINIA L DOCK (1858 -1956)Feminist, writer, political activistPrecursor to the current National league for Nursing
MARGARET H SANGER (1879 – 1966)Founder of planned parenthoodImprisoned for opening the first birth control information clinic
MARY BRECKINRIDGE (1881 – 1965)Established the Frontier nursing services
Nurse – ‘nutricius’ – means nourishingPerformed by priestesses and associated with temple worshipsDeacons, widows and virgins played a significant roleWomen joined to escape from poverty and starvation during warsHoly wars – knights – gained status for nursingIndustrial and intellectual revolutions – high rate of mortality, no guarantee of survival- entry of Florence nightingale
HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES ININDIADuring 700 – 600 B.C ‘Sushrutha Samhita’ was written by the great surgeon ‘Sushrutha’, who said “ The physician, the patient, the drugs and the nurse are the four feet’s or padas of the medicine, upon which the cure depends”.
The first nursing school started in 250 B.C during Charakan time and only men were considered pure enough to be nurses. First hospital – started by East India Company in 1664 at Fort, St. George Madras – for soldiers St. Stephens Hospital Delhi – 1864 - First to train Indian girls as nurses.
Modern nursing influenced by Florence Nightingale‘Suggestions on a system of nursing for hospitals in India’Military nursing – earliest type of nursing1861 - reforms in military hospitals all over the world
1854 – Training school started in Madras for midwives1871 – First nursing school started at Madras General Hospital Available nurse were Anglo- Indians and Christians1891 – Indian nurses came for training. Bai Kashibai Ganpal was the first Indian nurse to come for training1905 – T.N.A.I established
1926 – Madras state formed the first registration council. 1946 – First four year Basic Bachelor degree program established in R.A.K, Delhi and C.M.C Vellore. 1960 – First Masters Degree program was started in R.A.K College of Nursing Delhi.
MEN IN NURSINGGood Samaritan – first man to provide nursing careGroup of men in 300 A.D started a hospital and provided nursing care during the black plague epidemicMilitary, religious and lay orders of men continued to provide nursing care in middle ages
Two patron Saints – St. John of God and St. Camillus1888 – Nursing schools for men started in Newyork1901 – U.S military nursing changed from predominantly male to femaleAfter Korean war men were again permitted in nursing practice as well as schoolsIn 1966 less than 1% male nursesIn 1996 5% of nurses are males
CURRENT TRENDS Nursing as a Profession Nursing Education Nursing Practice Nursing Informatics Nursing Research
NURSING AS A PROFESSIONEmergence of more men.Increased level of knowledge, clinical competencies, values and attitude became more important
1. SCOPE OF NURSING Promoting health and wellness Preventing illness Restoring health Care of the dying
2 . STANDARDS OF NURSING PRACTICE ANA Nursing Standards Assessment Diagnosis Outcome identification Planning Implementation Evaluation
3 . ANA Standards of Professional performance Quality of practice Education Professional practice evaluation Collegiality Collaboration Ethics Research Resource utilization Leadership
4 . Code of Ethics Philosophical ideas of right and wrong that defines the principles you use to provide care to your clients.
NURSING EDUCATION Significant amount of formal education isrequired to become a nurse.SCOPE OF EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMMES1. Registered Nursing Programmes > Diploma programmes > Associate degree programmes > Baccalaureate degree programmes
2 . Graduate Nursing Education > Masters programme > Doctoral programme3 . Continuing and In service Education
NURSING PRACTICENursing Practice ActsLicensure and certification
NURSING RESEARCHFocuses on EBP (Evidence based practice) in order to improve the knowledge and skills in patient care.Recently it is focusing on the research skills to address the emerging issues of importance towards nursing.
NURSING INFORMATICS IN CLINICAL PRACTICE Used in all areas of nursing like assessment, planning, implementation and evaluation. IN ADMINISTRATION *MIS It helps the nurse managers in the areas of quality management, unit staffing and reporting
>Nursing Office AutomationIN NURSING RESEARCH Nurse researchers can use its advantage in the areas of literature review, data gathering, data analysis and in preparation and communication of research findings
IN NURSING EDUCATION >> Computer assisted learning >> Computer assisted Interactive video instructions >> Teleconferencing >> M- learning
CURRENT STATUS OF MEN INNURSING Competitive and challenging career 5.4% of total nurses in U.S is men 13% total nursing students are men
SCOPE OF NURSING IN INDIA STAFF NURSE NURSING SUPERVISORASSISTANT NURSING SUPERIENDENT
DEPUTY NURSING SUPERIENDENT NURSING SUPERIENDENT DIRECTOR OF NURSING
NURSING ORGANIZATIONSParticipation enhances-> the growth of involved individuals-> nurses collectively influence policies affecting nursing practice
INTERNATIONAL ORGANISATIONS1. American Nurses Association > Founded in 1896 > foster high standards of nursing practice > promote educational and professional advancements
2. Canadian Nurses Association. Developed national standards and code of ethics3. National League for Nursing > formed in 1952 > foster nursing services and nursing education > Interested non nursing personnels can be the members
4. INTERNATIONAL COUNCIL OF NURSES > Established in 1899 > provides an organization through which member national associations can work together to promote the health of the people and the care of sick.
PROFESSIONALORGANIZATIONS IN INDIA1. T.N.A.I ( Trained Nurses Association of India)2. S.N.A ( Student Nurses Association )3. I.N.C ( Indian Nursing Council )
FUTURE TRENDS INNURSINGFour major arenas influence the pathwayfor the Future includes:o Nursing Philosophyo Nursing Practiceo Nursing Educationo Nursing Research
Juliet Sylvia, Nursing is a caring science – a reflection,2010, Indian journal of continuing nursing education, volume 2, issue no - , Pp :7-10, July-December Premila Lee,Vathsala Sadan, Nursing Informatics,2008, Indian journal of continuing nursing education, volume 9,issue no - ,Pp : 6-9, January
Karuppaiah a, Josephine R, Professional power in nursing,2008, Indian journal of continuing education,volume 9,issue no - , Pp : 10-13, January-JuneDr.Rajinder Mahal,Dr.Usha Ukande, Nurse and nursing: Evolution and future,2011,Indian journal of nursing studies, volume 2, No – 1, Pp:2,3,January – June
Manivannan.C, Men in nursing,2009, Trends in nursing administration and education, volume 2, no :3, Pp:31-33, July- DecemberElizabeth.A.Curtis, Jan de Vries,Fintan K Sheerin, Developing leadership in nursing: exploring core factors,2011, British journal of nursing, volume 20, no: 5, Pp:306-309
Sivalakshmi, A Study to assess the image of nursing and perception of independent nursing practice as expressed by panchayat leaders in rural areas of Madurai with a view to develop an awareness package on nursing,2010, trends in nursing administration and education, vol :3, No :1, Pp:31-35, January – June.
BOOK REFERENCESZeewekh.J.A,Jo Carol Claborn (2003) Nursing today – Transition and trends, fourth edition, saunders publications, Missouri, Pp : 30-80, 142-186,304-347Finkelman.A, Carole kenner (2010) Professional nursing concepts – competencies for quality leadership, Jones and Bartlett publishers, London Pp : 79 - 132
Bolander. B.V (1994), ‘Soresen and Luckmanns’ Basic nursing-A psychophysiologic approach, third edition, saunders publications, Philadelphia, Pp : 12 - 28Roux Gayle, Halsteas.A.J (2009), Issues and trends in nursing,Jones and Bartlett publishers, Boston, Pp : 5-56, 127-188
Joglekar.S.K (1996) Hospital ward management – Professional adjustments and trends in nursing, Vora medical publications Bombay Pp : 77-82,132- 153,157-167Potter.A.P, Perry.A.G (2009) Fundamentals of Nursing, seventh edition, Mosby-Elsevier publications, Missouri, Pp : 1-13
Kozier Barbara, Erb Glenora..et al (2000),Fundamentals of Nursing, sixth edition, Prentice Hall Health publications, New Jersey, Pp :2 – 27
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