1. RESEARCH MATERIALS &
To search for information, fact, or
2. Where to begin…
• There are many reference materials:
– Encyclopedia- look up key words
– Bible- look up key words in the topical index
– Internet- search engines
– Magazines- Not Teen Magazine! Try Time or National
3. But how do I know the info. is true?
• Are my sources reliable?
– 1. Check your information against another source
– 2. Check the tone- Is the author biased/trying to sway
your opinion? They should be OBJECTIVE!
– 3. Is the information up to date?
– 4. Be a detective- Scope out the author! Look up the
author! Are they an expert in the field which they are
• Tip: Is your author a hairstylist writing on new medical
technologies? –OR- a doctor writing on new medical
4. Get your own Original Idea!
• Plagiarism is using another person's words or ideas
without giving credit to that person. Plagiarism is much
• But…who are you really cheating if you plagiarize?
• You don’t learn the skills if you don’t actually do the
work! You’re cheating yourself out of your own
6. Is it really a BIG deal?
• Plagiarism in school/college is grounds for
failure or even expulsion. Plagiarism goes
on your permanent academic record!
• Legal punishments for plagiarism range
from up to $50,000 in fines or 1 year in
• Plagiarism in your job= “You’re fired!”
• Professor John Broderick, ODU English Chair
7. You are plagiarizing if…
• You don’t put the words of another in quotation marks.
• You paraphrase the words of another = simply changing a word or
phrases here and there.
• You don’t clearly acknowledge the source of ideas or material taken
• You don’t make it clear how much you depended on your sources.
Can the reader tell the difference between your research and your
• You don’t document sources adequately
• You purchase a paper online, or “borrow” a friend’s
• You copy and paste from the internet
• Even if you give the original author credit, if your work is made up
mainly of another’s ideas…YOU ARE PLAGIARIZING!
8. What To Do?
• Give Credit where Credit is Due!
• Write down all of the titles, authors, dates,
website addresses, publishers, etc. of all
the reference materials you use!
• But…Where do I find this information?
9. Documenting your sources!
10. Don’t get BUSTED! How to document your
sources of information…
In English, we will use MLA style:
– 1. all information is arranged in alphabetical order by
the author’s last name!
– 2. all information should be double spaced with all
lines after the first indented!
– 3. Punctuation is very important! Your documentation
is not correct unless your punctuation is correct!
11. What should my documentation
• for books:
author's last name, author's first name or initial, Title. where it
was published: company it’s published by, date published. (Print)
Article in Encyclopedia:
Author (if there is one). “Topic.” Title of Encyclopedia. Edition.
Year published. (Print)
– Article in a magazine:
Author’s last name, first name. “Title of article.” Title of Magazine
date article was published: pages of article. (Print)
***(notice double spacing and hanging indent)
12. What should my documentation
• Newspaper article:
• author’s last name, author’s first name. “Title of article.”
Title of newspaper printing date (day month year), edition of
newspaper: pg. (Print)
• Online Newspaper article:
• Author’s last name, author’s first name. “Title of Article.”
Title of newspaper. Day of publication month of publication year
of publication. date of access (day month year) <url>. (Online)
13. What should my documentation
• An entire website:
• Title of site. Ed. Followed by name of editor. Date of publication or
update. Date of access (day month year) <url>. (Online)
Last name of person interviewed, first name. Personal Interview,
*** (notice double spacing and hanging indent)
14. But what if I use someone’s words
or ideas in my paper?
• In-text citations: use in-text citations/parenthetical
documentation after the quote, idea, or information from
• In-text citations look like this: (Smith 5)
– the author’s last name and the page number go in parenthesis
– in-text citations go right inside the period.
* If you write an entire paragraph of info. from another source- you
don’t need these at the end of each sentence…only at the end of
Note: If you mention the author’s name in your info. Then you
only need the page number in ( ).
15. “I can’t find all the info!!!”
• If you cannot find an author- cite the title or a
shortened version of the title and the page #
• Ex: (American Cars 67).
– (“Dolphin in the Atlantic” C5).
– After your information from an online source, simply
cite the author (Davidson). Or the article title (“Boat
Sinks Off Coast”) because there are usually no page
16. In-text Citation Examples
• In his article, White explains that an unnoticed
puck is very familiar to the Admirals. It seems
late goals have been common for the Admirals
this year (C2).
• “Sunday, Gordon charged from 16th to first in
five laps” (Long C3). Moves like this helped
Gordon surpass Earnhardt’s career total.