HAWTHRONE EXPERIMENTS Research & Presenting by: Amrita Banerjee, Anupriya Baranwal, Sneha Poddar, Rubina Khatoon,  Digvija...
About <ul><li>Western Electric Company </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Engaged in manufacturing equipment for the telephone industry...
The Essence of Human Relation <ul><li>Organizational situation. </li></ul><ul><li>Social process. </li></ul>
Finally… <ul><li>The term was coined in 1955 by Elton Mayo, Whitehead & Roethlisberger. </li></ul><ul><li>Research began w...
Experiment # 1  -  Illumination Experiments (1924 – 1927) <ul><li>Varied levels of illumination. </li></ul><ul><li>- highe...
Experiment & Result <ul><li>Increased illumination – both group – production increased. </li></ul><ul><li>Intensity of ill...
Final Conclusion <ul><li>Illumination – No effect on productivity. </li></ul><ul><li>Human factor is responsible </li></ul...
Experiment # 2 – Relay Assembly Test Room Experiments (1927 – 1928) <ul><li>Sets a relay assembly test room. </li></ul><ul...
Changes & Outcomes <ul><li>Each girl’s extra pay was based on the other five. </li></ul><ul><li>Two 5min. rest later made ...
Contd... <ul><li>In the evening break snack was provided. </li></ul><ul><li>Change in working hours i.e. instead 5.00 p.m....
Final Result <ul><li>Change in Girl’s attitude – work & work group. </li></ul><ul><li>Stability. </li></ul><ul><li>Sense o...
Experiment # 3 – Mass Interviewing Experiments (1928 – 1930) <ul><li>20,000 interviews conducted during 1928-30. </li></ul...
Major Finding <ul><li>Complaint is not necessarily an objective recital of facts. </li></ul><ul><li>Objects, persons, and ...
Contd… <ul><li>Status of the worker in the company – work allotted to him. </li></ul><ul><li>Satisfaction or Dissatisfacti...
Conclusion <ul><li>Not satisfactory. </li></ul><ul><li>Workers behavior influenced by group behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>St...
Experiment # 4 – Bank Wiring Observation Room Experiments (1931 – 1932) <ul><li>Analyze the functioning of small group & i...
Contd… <ul><li>Hourly wage rate – average output of each worker. </li></ul><ul><li>Bonus – average group output. </li></ul...
Reason for restricted output <ul><li>Fear for unemployment. </li></ul><ul><li>Fear of raising the standard. </li></ul><ul>...
Result <ul><li>Workers sets certain norms. </li></ul><ul><li>Informal relationship – important factor. </li></ul><ul><li>W...
Implication of Hawthorne Experiments <ul><li>Multiple needs. </li></ul><ul><li>Interpersonal relations & Work situations. ...
Contd… <ul><li>Leadership. </li></ul><ul><li>Supervision. </li></ul><ul><li>Communication. </li></ul>
Criticism of Hawthorne Experiments <ul><li>Productivity is Ignored. </li></ul><ul><li>Incomplete Package. </li></ul>
Contd… <ul><li>Missing link between humanization & Productivity. </li></ul><ul><li>Keeping Employee happy is not enough. <...
 
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Hawthrone Experiments

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this is ppt for hawthrone experiments conducted in the year 1924.

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Hawthrone Experiments

  1. 1. HAWTHRONE EXPERIMENTS Research & Presenting by: Amrita Banerjee, Anupriya Baranwal, Sneha Poddar, Rubina Khatoon, Digvijay N. Singh, Amit Keshri & Amit Saboo
  2. 2. About <ul><li>Western Electric Company </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Engaged in manufacturing equipment for the telephone industry. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High standards, concern for welfare of employees regarding wages and hours. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No worker strike in over 20 years. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High employee morale. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. The Essence of Human Relation <ul><li>Organizational situation. </li></ul><ul><li>Social process. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Finally… <ul><li>The term was coined in 1955 by Elton Mayo, Whitehead & Roethlisberger. </li></ul><ul><li>Research began with a study conducted by Hawthorne at Western Electric Company. </li></ul><ul><li>Conducted Research in Four Phases: </li></ul><ul><li>- Illumination Experiments </li></ul><ul><li>- Relay Assembly Test Room Experiments </li></ul><ul><li>- Mass Interviewing Experiments </li></ul><ul><li>- Bank Wiring Observation Room Experiments </li></ul>
  5. 5. Experiment # 1 - Illumination Experiments (1924 – 1927) <ul><li>Varied levels of illumination. </li></ul><ul><li>- higher illumination – increase productivity </li></ul><ul><li>First experiment </li></ul><ul><li>- Two separate groups </li></ul><ul><li>- one group – varied intensities of illumination </li></ul><ul><li>- second group – constant intensities of illumination </li></ul>
  6. 6. Experiment & Result <ul><li>Increased illumination – both group – production increased. </li></ul><ul><li>Intensity of illumination – decreased – production still increase. </li></ul><ul><li>Production decrease – when intensity of illumination gets to the level of moonlight. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Final Conclusion <ul><li>Illumination – No effect on productivity. </li></ul><ul><li>Human factor is responsible </li></ul><ul><li>New Experiments started. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Experiment # 2 – Relay Assembly Test Room Experiments (1927 – 1928) <ul><li>Sets a relay assembly test room. </li></ul><ul><li>Two girls. </li></ul><ul><li>Four more girls – coworkers. </li></ul><ul><li>Work – assembly of telephone relays. </li></ul><ul><li>Output depend – speed & continuity </li></ul><ul><li>One observer </li></ul>
  9. 9. Changes & Outcomes <ul><li>Each girl’s extra pay was based on the other five. </li></ul><ul><li>Two 5min. rest later made it to 10min. </li></ul><ul><li>Frequent break decrease the rhythm of work. </li></ul><ul><li>In the Morning break coffee or soup served along with sandwich </li></ul>
  10. 10. Contd... <ul><li>In the evening break snack was provided. </li></ul><ul><li>Change in working hours i.e. instead 5.00 p.m. changed to 4.30 p.m. later 4.00 p.m. </li></ul><ul><li>Each change introduced </li></ul><ul><li>- Absenteeism Decreased </li></ul><ul><li>- Morale Increased </li></ul><ul><li>- Less Supervision </li></ul><ul><li>Revert back all changes – production increased </li></ul>
  11. 11. Final Result <ul><li>Change in Girl’s attitude – work & work group. </li></ul><ul><li>Stability. </li></ul><ul><li>Sense of belongingness. </li></ul><ul><li>More freedom of work – responsibility & self discipline. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Experiment # 3 – Mass Interviewing Experiments (1928 – 1930) <ul><li>20,000 interviews conducted during 1928-30. </li></ul><ul><li>Direct questioning </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantage – not get to the root of the problem </li></ul><ul><li>Now non-directive interviewing. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Major Finding <ul><li>Complaint is not necessarily an objective recital of facts. </li></ul><ul><li>Objects, persons, and events are carriers of social meanings. </li></ul><ul><li>Personal situation of the worker is a configuration of emotional balancing. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Contd… <ul><li>Status of the worker in the company – work allotted to him. </li></ul><ul><li>Satisfaction or Dissatisfaction - Social status and social rewards. </li></ul><ul><li>Social Demand – Social experiences </li></ul>
  15. 15. Conclusion <ul><li>Not satisfactory. </li></ul><ul><li>Workers behavior influenced by group behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Study started on shop situation. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Experiment # 4 – Bank Wiring Observation Room Experiments (1931 – 1932) <ul><li>Analyze the functioning of small group & impact on individual behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>14 male workers employed </li></ul><ul><li>- 9 wireman </li></ul><ul><li>- 3 soldermen </li></ul><ul><li>- 2 inspectors </li></ul><ul><li>Work - to attach wire to switches. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Contd… <ul><li>Hourly wage rate – average output of each worker. </li></ul><ul><li>Bonus – average group output. </li></ul><ul><li>To earn more – produce more. </li></ul><ul><li>To earn bonus – help each other </li></ul><ul><li>Workers decided target for themselves – lower than companies. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Reason for restricted output <ul><li>Fear for unemployment. </li></ul><ul><li>Fear of raising the standard. </li></ul><ul><li>Protection of slower workers. </li></ul><ul><li>Satisfaction on the part of management. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Result <ul><li>Workers sets certain norms. </li></ul><ul><li>Informal relationship – important factor. </li></ul><ul><li>Workers counseled – good human relations in regards to – </li></ul><ul><li>- personal adjustment </li></ul><ul><li>- Supervision </li></ul><ul><li>- employee relations </li></ul><ul><li>- management – employee relations. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Implication of Hawthorne Experiments <ul><li>Multiple needs. </li></ul><ul><li>Interpersonal relations & Work situations. </li></ul><ul><li>Informal relations. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Contd… <ul><li>Leadership. </li></ul><ul><li>Supervision. </li></ul><ul><li>Communication. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Criticism of Hawthorne Experiments <ul><li>Productivity is Ignored. </li></ul><ul><li>Incomplete Package. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Contd… <ul><li>Missing link between humanization & Productivity. </li></ul><ul><li>Keeping Employee happy is not enough. </li></ul>

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