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Everything about alkaloids

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  1. 1. Alkaloids Dr. AmitrRatn Gangwal Indore India (images and structures are taken from internet and not the authors original content or creation)
  2. 2. Plant secondary metabolites Alkaloid
  3. 3. Dhatura fruit: To Lord Shiva
  4. 4. Celebrities (brat/s) Rahul Mahajan Lindsay Lohan Britney Spears Jaswant Singh (exception) Paris Hilton Fardin Khan
  5. 5. Most of them were convicted in court on account of using or possessing cocaine and other banned drugs. Few famous/celebrated drugs obtained from plants are:
  6. 6. • Cocaine • Atropine • Papevarine • Morphine • Quinine • Codeine • Thebaine • Caffeine • Reserpine • Nicotine • Vincristine and vinblastine etc
  7. 7. Vinca rosea/Sadabahar/Periwinkle
  8. 8. They all are alkaloids and possess important pharmacological actions viz anticancer, hypotensive, relaxants, painkiller etc.
  9. 9. Most of the allopathic drugs used today, trace their roots to plants metabolites in general and to alkaloids in particular.
  10. 10. Jumbo molecules
  11. 11. Vincristine
  12. 12. Reserpine
  13. 13. Tubocurarine
  14. 14. Introduction They are alkali like compound. Mainly obtained from plants. Should possess nitrogen atom essentially in the ring (heterocyclic form)
  15. 15. Should be potent. Should respond to classical four tests meant for their identification.
  16. 16. Distribution: Solanaceae Rubiaceae Liliaceae Amaryllidaceae are the few families, plants of which are rich in alkaloids.
  17. 17. Example of lower plant possessing alkaloids is fungal alkaloid providing ergot which possess a gamut of biological actions.
  18. 18. Properties Mainly colorless, crystalline solid. But coniine, sparteine and nicotine are liquid and berberine and betanidine possess colors.
  19. 19. In general alkaloidal salts are soluble in water and their free forms are soluble in organic solvents (mainly ether and chloroform). Some of the pseudo and proto alkaloids show higher solubility in water e. g. colchicine and caffeine.
  20. 20. They are basic in nature due to the lone pair of electrons on nitrogen. Their salt formation with an inorganic acid prevents many a time their decomposition.
  21. 21. Extraction One has to consider following steps in sequential manner for the extraction of alkaloids:
  22. 22. Separation of the alkaloid from unwanted material(Hardly any plant which contains only one alkaloid exclusively.) Separation of each individual alkaloid from the mixture using chromatographic techniques.
  23. 23. Extraction depends mainly on: The alkaline nature of most alkaloids
  24. 24. The ability and ease of formation of alkaloidal salt with acids Relative solubilities of resulting salts either in organic or aqueous media.
  25. 25. Identification tests Mayer’s reagent Dragendorff’s reagent Wagner’s reagent Hager’s reagent But proto and pseudo alkaloids do not respond to these tests and so they got the names.
  26. 26. Functions in plants Waste metabolites Waste products or secretary products They play defensive roles in plants. But their exact role in plants is a debatable issue.
  27. 27. Nomenclature From the generic name Atropine from Atropa belladona From the specific name Belladonine from A. belladona From common name Ergotamine from ergot
  28. 28. From their specific pharmacological actions Narcotine from Papaver somniferum Morphine from p somniferum. From the name of discoverer Pelletierine from the bark of Puniea granatum. Generally with all the alkaloids suffix ine is added.
  29. 29. Classification They can be classified based on their: pharmacological actions biosynthetic precursors and mostly used chemical structure which we will see in detail:
  30. 30. Pyrorolidine alkaloids: hygrine Piperizine:lobeline Tropane: atropine Quinoline: quinine Isoquinoline:morphine
  31. 31. Aporphine: boldine Indole: ergometrinine Imidazole: pilocarpine Purine: caffeine Steroidal: solanidine
  32. 32. Biosynthesis They are mainly derived from aromatic amino acids in the plants. But again few alkaloids defy this rule.
  33. 33. Some interesting facts about alkaloids
  34. 34. Hemlock alkaloid (Conium maculatum)
  35. 35. Opium poppy
  36. 36. No manipulation in opium alkaloids can be done without the permission of Govt. of India. Neemuch and Ghazipur: Govt. opium factories. Alkaloid colony in Neemuch. Alkaloids pvt. ltd. (Secunderabad, AP)
  37. 37. Individual drugs Opium
  38. 38. Thank you