Computer network Report


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Computer network Report

  1. 1. COMPUTER NETWORK PROJECT FILE IT-366 PRACTICAL NO. 1  STUDY THE PHYSICAL MEDIA OF CONNECTIVITYThe physical media of connectivity specifies the physical and electrical characteristics ofthe connections that make up the network. It is made up of cables, connectors,repeaters etc. It can be think of a hardware layer totally. When a message is to betransmitted to some other station in a network the message is created at applicationlayer and travel through other layers to physical layer. The physical layer gets thismessage packet at least, and it only needs to convert the characters of message packetinto electrical signals. This layer does not need to process routing information, computeaddresses, add check bits or other contents of a message packet, as all these jobs aredone by upper layers and then the packet is handed over to physical layer.  Something Related to Physical Media  Twisted pair - Wire twisted to avoid crosstalk interference. It may be shielded or unshielded. o UTP-Unshielded Twisted Pair. Normally UTP contains 8 wires or 4 pair. 100 meter maximum length. 4-100 Mbps speed. o STP-Shielded twisted pair. 100 meter maximum length. 16-155 Mbps speed. Lower electrical interference than UTP.Unshielded Twisted Pair Shielded Twisted Pair
  2. 2. COMPUTER NETWORK PROJECT FILE IT-366 Coaxial - Two conductors separated by insulation such as TV 75 ohm cable. Maximum length of 185 to 500 meters. o Thinnet - Thinnet uses a British Naval Connector (BNC) on each end. Thinnet is part of the RG-58 family of cable*. Maximum cable length is 185 meters. Transmission speed is 10Mbps. Thinnet cable should have 50 ohms impedance and its terminator has 50 ohms impedance. A T or barrel connector will have no impedance. Maximum thinnet nodes are 30 on a segment. One end of each cable is grounded. o Thicknet - Half inch rigid cable. Maximum cable length is 500 meters. Transmission speed is 10Mbps. Expensive and is not commonly used. (RG-11 or RG-8). A vampire tap or piercing tap is used with a transceiver attached to connect computers to the cable. 100 connections may be made. The computer has an attachment unit interface (AUI) on its network card which is a 15 pin DB-15 connector. The RG value for cable types refers to its size. Coax cable types:  RG-58 /U - 50 ohm, with a solid copper wire core for thin ethernet.  RG-58 A/U* - 50 ohm, with a stranded wire core.  RG-58 C/U* - Military version of RG-58 A/U.  RG-59 - 75 ohm, for broadband transmission such as cable TV.  RG-62 - 93 ohm, primarily used for ArcNet.  RG-6 - Used for satellite cable (if you want to run a cable to a satellite!).  RG-8 - 50 ohm thick ethernet.  RG-11 - 75 ohm thick ethernet.
  3. 3. COMPUTER NETWORK PROJECT FILE IT-366 Coaxial Cable Fiber-optic - Data is transmitted using light rather than electrons. Usually there are two fibers, one for each direction. Cable length of 2 Kilometers. Speed from 100Mbps to 2Gbps. This is the most expensive and most difficult to install, but is not subject to interference. Two types of cables are: o Single mode cables for use with lasers has greater bandwidth and costs more. Injection laser diodes (ILD) work with single mode cable. o Multimode cables for use with Light Emitting Diode (LED) drivers. All signals appear to arrive at the same time. P intrinsic N diodes or photodiodes are used to convert light to electric signals when using multimode. Types of fiber cable include: Fiber thickness (microns) Cladding thickness (microns) Mode 8.3 125 single 62.5 125 multi 50 125 multi 100 140 multi Fiber Optic Cable
  4. 4. COMPUTER NETWORK PROJECT FILE IT-366 Physical Media Comparisons Media Distance(meters) Speed Approx Cost/station UTP 100 4-100Mbps $90 STP 100 16-155Mbps $125 Thinnet 185 10Mbps $25 Thicknet 500 10Mbps $50 Fiber 2000 100Mbps-2Gbps $250 (multimode) Cable Standards The Electronic Industries Association and Telecommunications Industries Association (EIA/TIA) defined a standard called EIA/TIA 568 which is a commercial building wiring standard. It defines transmission speed and twists per foot. Category Speed Notes 1 None Used for old telephone systems 2 4Mps 3 10Mps The minimum category for data networks 4 16Mps 5 100Mps Cat 5 network cable, used by most networks today 6 Data patch, Two pair with foil and braided shield 7 Undefined 8 Flat cable for under carpets with two twisted pair Plenum cable with two twisted pair. It is safe if youre 9 having a fire. The maximum transmission length is 100 meters. This cable is susceptible to interference. STP Shielded twisted pair has a maximum cable length of 100 meters (328 feet). Data rate from 16 to 155 Mbps. Cables require special connectors for grounding. Resists interference. Costs more than UTP or Thinnet, but not as much as Thicknet or Fiber-optic.
  5. 5. COMPUTER NETWORK PROJECT FILE IT-366 PRACTICAL NO. 2  STUDY THE PIN STRUCTURE OF CROSS-OVER CABLEAn Ethernet crossover cable is a type of Ethernet cable used to connect computingdevices together directly where they would normally be connected via a network switch,hub or router, such as directly connecting two personal computers via their networkadapters The 10BASE-T and 100BASE-TX Ethernet standardsuse one wire pair for transmission in each direction. The Tx+ line from each deviceconnects to the tip conductor, and the Tx- line is connected to the ring. This requiresthat the transmit pair of each device be connected to the receive pair of the device onthe other end. When a terminal device is connected to a switch or hub, this crossover isdone internally in the switch or hub. A standard straight through cable is used for thispurpose where each pin of the connector on one end is connected to the correspondingpin on the other connector. One terminal device may be connected directly to anotherwithout the use of a switch or hub, but in that case the crossover must be doneexternally in the cable. Since 10BASE-T and 100BASE-TX use pairs 2 and 3, these twopairs must be swapped in the cable. This is a crossover cable. A crossover cable mustalso be used to connect two internally crossed devices (e.g., two hubs) as the internalcrossovers cancel each other out. This can also be accomplished by using a straightthrough cable in series with a modular crossover adapter.Because the only difference between the T568A and T568B pin/pair assignments arethat pairs 2 and 3 are swapped, a crossover cable may be envisioned as a cable withone connector following T568A and the other T568B. Such a cable will work for10BASE-T or 100BASE-TX. 1000BASE-T4 (Gigabit crossover), which uses all fourpairs, requires the other two pairs (1 and 4) to be swapped and also requires thesolid/striped within each of those two pairs to be swapped.
  6. 6. COMPUTER NETWORK PROJECT FILE IT-366  Two pairs crossed, two pairs uncrossed 10baseT/100baseTX crossover (Connection 1 is T568B, Connection 2 is T568A)In practice, it does not matter if your Ethernet cables are wired as T568A or T568B, justso long as both ends follow the same wiring format. It is just as valid to make a four-paircrossover using T568A, or a two pair crossover using T568B, as it is to wire them theway shown here. Typical commercially available "pre-wired" cables can follow eitherformat depending on who made them. What this means is that you may discover thatone manufacturers cables are wired one way and anothers the other way, yet both are"correct" and will work. In either case, T568A or T568B, a normal (un-crossed) cable willhave both ends wired according to the layout in the Connection 1 column.
  7. 7. COMPUTER NETWORK PROJECT FILE IT-366 PRACTICAL NO. 3  STUDY THE DIFFERENT LAN TECHNOLOGIESIn general terms, LAN (Local Area Network) refers to a group of computersinterconnected into a network so that they are able to communicate, exchangeinformation and share resources (e.g. printers, application programs, database etc). Inother words, the same computer resources can be used by multiple users in thenetwork, regardless of the physical location of the resources.Each computer in a LAN can effectively send and receive any information addressed toit. This information is in the form of data packets. The standards followed to regularizethe transmission of packets, are called LAN standards. There are many LAN standardsas Ethernet, Token Ring , FDDI etc. Usually LAN standards differ due to their mediaaccess technology and the physical transmission medium. Some popular technologiesand standards are being covered in this practical.  Media Access Control methods There are different types of Media Access Control methods in a LAN, the prominent ones are mentioned below : o Ethernet - Ethernet is a 10Mbps LAN that uses the Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) protocol to control access network. When an end station (network device) transmits data, every end station on the LAN receives it. Each end station checks the data packet to see whether the destination address matches its own address. If the addresses match, the end station accepts and processes the packet. If they do not match, it disregards the packet. If two end stations transmit data simultaneously, a collision occurs and the result is a composite, garbled message. All end stations on the network, including the transmitting end stations, detect the collision and ignore the message. Each end station that wants to transmit waits a random amount of time and then attempts to transmit again. This method is usually used for traditional Ethernet LAN. o Token Ring - This is a 4-Mbps or 16-Mbps token-passing method, operating in a ring topology. Devices on a Token Ring network get access to the media through token passing. Token and data pass to each station on the ring. The devices pass the token around the ring until one of the computer who wants to transmit data , takes the token and replaces it with a frame. Each device passes the frame to the next
  8. 8. COMPUTER NETWORK PROJECT FILE IT-366 device, until the frame reaches its destination. As the frame passes to the intended recipient, the recipient sets certain bits in the frame to indicate that it received the frame. The original sender of the frame strips the frame data off the ring and issues a new token. o Fast Ethernet - This is an extension of 10Mbps Ethernet standard and supports speed upto 100Mbps. The access method used is CSMA/CD .For physical connections Star wiring topology is used. Fast Ethernet is becoming very popular as an upgradation from 10Mbps Ethernet LAN to Fast Ethernet LAN is quite easy. o FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface) - FDDI provides data speed at 100Mbps which is faster than Token Ring and Ethernet LANs . FDDI comprise two independent, counter-rotating rings : a primary ring and a secondary ring. Data flows in opposite directions on the rings. The counter-rotating ring architecture prevents data loss in the event of a link failure, a node failure, or the failure of both the primary and secondary links between any two nodes. This technology is usually implemented for a backbone network. Topologies The various ways in which cables are arranged constitute the topologies in a LAN. Some of the Ethernet Topologies are described here : o Bus Topology : Thick and thin Ethernet LANs use a bus topology, in which devices connect directly to the backbone at both the physical and logical levels . This type of LAN is very easy to use and cheap to implement, but the problem is to troubleshoot and maintain. o Star Topology : In this topology , a individual twisted pair or fiber optic cable is coming from each node and terminating at central network concentrator as hub/switch.The star wiring simplifies LAN administration and maintenance.
  9. 9. COMPUTER NETWORK PROJECT FILE IT-366 o Token Ring Topology : Stations on a Token Ring network attach to the network using a multistation access unit (MAU ) through UTP/STP cable. Although the Token Ring is logically a ring, physically it is a star, with devices radiating from each MAU. Lan Components There are essentially five basic components of a LAN o Network Devices such as Workstations, Printers, File Servers which are normally accessed by all other computers o Network Communication Devices i.e. devices such as hubs, routers, switches etc., used for network operations o Network Interface Cards (NICs) for each network device required to access the network . o Cable as a physical transmission medium. o Network Operating System - software applications required to control the use of the network LAN standards
  10. 10. COMPUTER NETWORK PROJECT FILE IT-366 Network Communication Devices A LAN comprises of different communication devices across the network such as the following : o Repeater : A Device that amplifies and regenerates signals , so that they can travel for longer distance on the cable. o Router : The basic function of the router is to route the traffic from one network to another network efficiently. It provide intelligent redundancy and security required to select the optimum path. Usually routers are used for connecting remote networks. o Hub : A typical hub is a multi-port repeater. The signals received at the backbone is regenerated and transmitted to all other ports. o Switch : This is a device with multiple ports which forwards packets from one port to another. In case of 10Mbps Ethernet switch, each port supports dedicated 10Mbps bandwidth. Ethernet switch is fast emerging as a replacement of the traditional thick backbone and best way to improve performance of the network. Physical Transmission Media Cables constitute the Physical Transmission Medium in a LAN and could be of the following types. o Coaxial cable : Coaxial cable consists of a stiff copper conductor wire as core surrounded by an insulating material. There are two type of coaxial cables used in Ethernet LAN - Thick coaxial cable used for distances upto 500m and thin coaxial cables upto 185m. o Twisted pair cable: They are four pairs of insulated copper conductors twisted and bounded by single plastic sheath with or without conductor shield termed as STP and UTP respectively.
  11. 11. COMPUTER NETWORK PROJECT FILE IT-366 o Fiber Optic Cables : In Fiber Optic cable, the medium used is optical fiber instead of any conductors .The information is transmitted in form of optical signal. Due to the high speed of optical signals the cable can support high bandwidth for longer distance. Depending upon the type of fiber, there are two types of Fiber Optic cables, single mode and multi-mode. Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) In recent years, with the boom in information technology leading to new GUI based applications, more emphasis is being given to improving backbone and inter LAN performance. This has lead to a new concept of connecting the backbone through ATM switches. ATM ( asynchronous transfer mode) is the switching technology where data is sent in forms of fixed length cells instead of packets of various lengths. The speed of , in case of the ATM switches, is comparatively much faster than the traditional Ethernet switch, as the network overhead is less for ATMs. Internet Access over LAN There are various methods of connecting a LAN to the Internet Gateway, which are explained as below : Dial-up Leased Line ISDN VSAT Technology RF Technology (Wireless Access) Cable Modem
  12. 12. COMPUTER NETWORK PROJECT FILE IT-366o Dial – Up A common way of accessing Internet over LAN is the Dial- Up approach. In this method, a remote user gets to Internet as follows - Initially the remote user¹s PC is linked to the local gateway through an existing dialup line using modems, once the user has reached the local gateway, further routing up to Internet is taken care of, by the local gateway itself. The routing procedures are transparent to the end user.o Leased line Leased line facility provides reliable, high speed services starting as low as 2.4kbps and ranging as high as 45 Mbps (T3 service). A leased line connection is an affordable way to link two or more sites for a fixed monthly charge. Leased Lines can be either fiber optic or copper lines High capacity leased line service is an excellent way to provide data, voice and video links between sites. Leased line service provides a consistent amount of bandwidth for all your communication needs.o ISDN Integrated Services digital Network (ISDN) is a digital telephone system. ISDN involves the digitization of telephone network so that voice, data, graphics, text, music, video and other source material can be provided to end users from a single end-user terminal over existing telephone wiring.
  13. 13. COMPUTER NETWORK PROJECT FILE IT-366 ISDN BRI (Basic Rate ISDN) delivers two 64 kbps channels called B channels and one at 16kbps (D channel). ISDN offers speed at 64 Kbps and 128 Kbps and is an alternative for those with a need for greater Bandwidth than dial service.For utilizing the ISDN service, the User needs to have an ISDN Terminal Adapter and an ISDN Card on the system.o VSAT VSAT technology has emerged as a very useful, everyday application of modern telecommunications. VSAT stands for Very Small Aperture Terminal and refers to receive/transmit terminals installed at dispersed sites connecting to a central hub via satellite using small diameter antenna dishes (0.6 to 3.8 meter). VSAT technology represents a cost effective solution for users seeking an independent communications network connecting a large number of geographically dispersed sites. VSAT networks offer value-added satellite-based services capable of supporting the Internet, data, voice/fax etc. over LAN. Generally, these systems operate in the Ku- band and C-band frequencies.o Cable Modem The Internet Access over cable modem is a very new and fast emerging technology. A "Cable Modem" is a device that allows high speed data access via a cable TV (CATV) network. A cable modem will typically have two connections, one to the cable wall outlet and the other to the PC. This will enable the typical array of Internet services at speeds of 100 to 1000 times as fast as the telephone modem. The speed of cable modems range from 500 Kbps to 10 Mbps.
  14. 14. COMPUTER NETWORK PROJECT FILE IT-366 PRACTICAL NO. 4  STUDY THE FUNCTIONING OF A SWITCHA switch is more sophisticated than a hub, giving you more options for networkmanagement, as well as greater potential to expand. A switch filters the data packets,and only sends the packet to the port which is connected to the destination address ofthat packet. It does this by keeping a table of each destination address and its port.When the switch receives a packet, it reads the destination address and thenestablishes a connection between the source port and the destination port. After thepacket is sent, the connection is terminated.  Function As with hubs, Ethernet implementations of network switches support either 10/100 Mbit/s or 10/100/1000 Mbit/s ports Ethernet standards. Large switches may have 10 Gbit/s ports. Switches differ from hubs in that they can have ports of different speed.The network switch, packet switch (or just switch) plays an integral part in most Ethernet local area networks or LANs. Mid-to-large sized LANs contain a number of linked managed
  15. 15. COMPUTER NETWORK PROJECT FILE IT-366 switches. Small office, home office (SOHO) applications typically use a single switch, or an all-purpose converged device such as gateway access to small office/home office broadband services such as DSL router or cable, Wi-Fi router. In most of these cases, the end user device contains a router and components that interface to the particular physical broadband technology, as in the Linksys 8-port and 48-port devices. User devices may also include a telephone interface to VoIP. If you are setting up a home or small office network an ideal solution is to use a switch with 5 to 8 ports. Switches can be linked together as your network expands. For a good entry level switch to meet this requirement we recommend the 5 Port 10/100Base-TX Ethernet N-Way Switch (Part No. 32981) or the 8 Port 10/100Base-TX Fast Ethernet N-Way Switch (Part No. 32982) The compact 8 Port 10/100Base-TX Fast Ethernet Switch features Auto MDI/MDI-X on all ports, 10/100Mbit/sec Auto-Negotiation, and full and half-duplex modes and can be desktop or wall mounted.If you require a larger switch with rackmount capability choose the 16 Port10/100 Base-TX Fast Ethernet N-Way Switch (Part No. 25020) or 24 Port10/100 Base-TX Fast Ethernet N-Way Switch (Part No. 25021).These 19" rackmount switchesare the perfect solution forexpanding a 10/100 network.  Gigabit Ethernet Switches Our GIGA N-Way Switches provide cost effective scalability of the network by utilising the existing copper CAT5e cabling environment. Connectivity is not sacrificed because the same cabling is used for Ethernet, Fast Ethernet and Gigabit Ethernet. These switches also incorporate VLAN technology. This feature is accessed from a console port on the switch and provides network administrators advanced configuration options and the ability to set up “virtual” LANs which function as separate, secure network segments.
  16. 16. COMPUTER NETWORK PROJECT FILE IT-366 The LINDY 24 Port 10/100Base-TX + 2 Port 1000Base-T GIGA N-Way Switch (Part No. 25000) is ideal for linking backbone connections between servers and network switches.24 Port 10/100Base-TX Switchwith two 10/100/1000Base-TGigabit Ethernet Ports with VLANtechnology.
  17. 17. COMPUTER NETWORK PROJECT FILE IT-366 PRACTICAL NO. 5  STUDY THE FUNCTIONING OF A ROUTERA router (pronounced /ˈraʊtər/ in the USA and Australia, /ˈruːtər/ in Canada, the UK, andIreland, these last two making a pronounced distinction with the tool used to rout wood)is a networking device whose software and hardware are usually tailored to the tasks ofrouting and forwarding information. For example, on the Internet, information is directedto various paths by routers.Routers connect two or more logical subnets, which do not necessarily map one-to-oneto the physical interfaces of the router. The term "layer 3 switch" often is usedinterchangeably with router, but switch is a general term without a rigorous technicaldefinition. In marketing usage, it is generally optimized for Ethernet LAN interfaces andmay not have other physical interface types. In comparison, a network hub does not doany routing, instead every packet it receives on one network line gets forwarded to allthe other network lines. Cisco 1800 Router  Routers operate in two different planes: o Control plane, in which the router learns the outgoing interface that is most appropriate for forwarding specific packets to specific destinations, o Forwarding plane, which is responsible for the actual process of sending a packet received on a logical interface to an outbound logical interface.
  18. 18. COMPUTER NETWORK PROJECT FILE IT-366  Types Of RoutersRouters may provide connectivity inside enterprises, between enterprises and theInternet, and inside Internet Service Providers (ISP). The largest routers (for examplethe Cisco CRS-1 or Juniper T1600) interconnect ISPs, are used inside ISPs, or may beused in very large enterprise networks. The smallest routers provide connectivity forsmall and home offices.  Routers for Internet connectivity and Internal use Routers intended for ISP and major enterprise connectivity will almost invariably exchange routing information with the Border Gateway Protocol (BGP).RFC4098 defines several types of BGP-speaking routers: o Edge Router: Placed at the edge of an ISP network, it speaks external BGP (eBGP) to a BGP speaker in another provider or large enterprise Autonomous System (AS). o Subscriber Edge Router: Located at the edge of the subscribers network, it speaks eBGP to its providers AS(s). It belongs to an end user (enterprise) organization. o Inter-provider Border Router: Interconnecting ISPs, this is a BGP speaking router that maintains BGP sessions with other BGP speaking routers in other providers ASes. o Core router: A router that resides within the middle or backbone of the LAN network rather than at its periphery. Within an ISP: Internal to the providers AS, such a router speaks internal BGP (iBGP) to that providers edge routers, other intra-provider core routers, or the providers inter-provider border routers. "Internet backbone:" The Internet does not have a clearly identifiable backbone, as did its predecessors. See default-free zone (DFZ). Nevertheless, it is the major ISPs routers that make up what many would consider the core. These ISPs operate all four types of the BGP-speaking routers described here. In ISP usage, a "core" router is internal to an ISP, and used to interconnect its edge and border routers. Core routers may also have specialized functions in virtual private networks based on a combination of BGP and Multi-Protocol Label Switching (MPLS). Routers are also used for port fowarding for private servers.
  19. 19. COMPUTER NETWORK PROJECT FILE IT-366 PRACTICAL NO. 6 Study LAN(star topology) in labs.STAR TOPOLOGY:Star networks are one of the most common computer network topologies. In itssimplest form, a star network consists of one central switch, hub or computer, whichacts as a conduit to transmit messages.The star topology reduces the chance of network failure by connecting all of thesystems to a central node. When applied to a bus-based network, this central hubrebroadcasts all transmissions received from any peripheral node to all peripheralnodes on the network, sometimes including the originating node.This is a form of LAN architecture is which nodes on a network are connected to acommon central hub or switch, and this is done by the use of dedicated links.The Star topology is now emerging as the most common network layout used today inLAN layout. Each workstation is connected point-to-point to a single central location
  20. 20. COMPUTER NETWORK PROJECT FILE IT-366 FEATURES:1) The network is an optical network with a star shaped topology.2) The network system is applicable to any netnetwork with a logical topology of mesh,ring, star, or a mixture of these topologies.3) The path and the signal destination can be configured dynamically by selecting theopticalsignal wavelength.4) Network nodes can be added, moved, or replaced in a few seconds.  Lan(star topology) in labs:GoalThe main goal of this lab is to get you familiar with the equipment and the basics ofsetting up a network. You become acquainted with setting up a LAN with a single IPsubnet and also learn how to how to analyze traffic using tcpdump and ethereal.PrerequisitesBefore you start this lab you should be able to -  Execute basic command in Red Hat Linux.  Understanding of IP Addressing scheme.  Setup the network configuration using ifconfig or the Gnome/KDE.Setup The setup of this lab is very simple. You need to connect 4 Linux PCs in a star topology using an Ethernet hub.
  21. 21. COMPUTER NETWORK PROJECT FILE IT-366 Network topology for lab PC Name IP Address of Ethernet Interface eth0 PC1 PC2 PC3 PC4 Compare between Hub & Switch.2. Write advantage and disadvantage of peer-to-peer and client/server architectures.3. What is the MAC address of a network card? How does it differ from an IP address?4. Explain the types of star topology Ethernets.5. Compare Bus vs. Star topology Ethernet.6. Design and implement a network that compound three star subnet. (based on S/W &H/W techniques).
  22. 22. COMPUTER NETWORK PROJECT FILE IT-366 PRACTICAL NO. 7  INSTALL AND CONFIGURE LAN CARD  Hardware InstallationOpening the Case Shut off the system if it is on .Remove all cables connecting to thecomputer .Locate the screws holding the case cover in place on the frame. Remove thescrews attaching the cover to the frame .Many new systems have tight cases and/orspecial cases. Removing the casing might require some prying. Use a flat-headscrewdriver to push the case open against the front panel. Seek assistance if youcannot open the case alone. If the case seems really peculiar. Check your computersuser manual first to see if they instruct you on how to open your computer. Fig 1. LAN card  Locating the Expansion Slots
  23. 23. COMPUTER NETWORK PROJECT FILE IT-366Place the open computer frame on its side with the motherboard facing up. This meansyou can see the motherboard from a birds eye view. The motherboard is the biggestboard you can see within the frame. It usually covers an entire side and has othersmaller boards sticking up from it.Looking at the motherboard, try to locate theexpansion slots. Expansion slots are either long black strips or short white strips thatlook like Lego blocks standing up. ISA slots are black. PCI slots are white. Open slotsare those that do not have other boards inserted in them. Fig 2. LAN card slot locationWhich lan card you having? Refer to the LAN card manual for the hardware installation.and after hardware installation:1. Double click the My Computer icon on your desktop.2. Locate and double click on the Control Panel icon.3. Next double click the Network icon to open the Network Control PanelThe Local Area Connection window will list the Network Adapters, Network Protocols,and Network Clients that you have installed on your system. The specific configurationwill likely vary from the process.If TCP/IP is already installed, it will appear in the list ofinstalled protocols. Click once on the listed item Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) - this willselect this item. Now click the Properties button.Verify both the Obtain an IP address
  24. 24. COMPUTER NETWORK PROJECT FILE IT-366automatically and the Obtain DNS server address automatically radio buttons areselected. Click on the Advanced button.In the Advanced TCP/IP Settings window, clickon the DNS tab. Uncheck the box Register this connections addresses in DNS towardthe bottom of the screen.Click OK to close the Advanced TCP/IP Settings window. ClickOK to close the Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties window. Continue by clicking theOK button to close the Local Area Connection Properties window. Close the Networkand Dial-up Connections window. Fig 3. USB LAN card  Installing Your New CardDetermine which interface (ISA or PCI) your card uses. ISA is long and the goldcontacts are large. PCI is much shorter and smaller.Next, check to see if the expansionslot opening next to the slot is covered. If it is, remove the cover by unscrewing it fromthe frame or popping it out. (IMPORTANT: Keep the screw and the slot cover.) If youhave a new case that has slot covers built in you will have to remove them manuallywith a screwdriver. Please refer to your user manual for details.When the slot cover hasbeen removed, insert your card into the expansion slot on the motherboard. Press firmlyso the entire part of the card that has the gold contacts goes completely into theexpansion slot on the motherboard and will go no further. Do not use any tools to try tohammer the card in if it does not fit.
  25. 25. COMPUTER NETWORK PROJECT FILE IT-366Make sure the side of the card resembling the expansion slot cover you just removed iscovering most of the open slot.Screw the card into place with the screw you removedfrom the expansion slot cover or a new screw. PRACTICAL NO. 8  INSTALL AND CONFIGURE WINDOW 2000 SERVERAs a Microsoft Windows 2000 Server support professional, one of your tasks may be toinstall the operating system.Step #1: Plan your installationWhen you run the Windows 2000 Server Setup program, you must provide informationabout how to install and configure the operating system. Thorough planning can makeyour installation of W2K more efficient by helping you to avoid potential problems duringinstallation. An understanding of the configuration options will also help to ensure thatyou have properly configured your system.I wont go into that part right now but here are some of the most important things youshould take into consideration when planning for your Windows Server 2000 installation:  Check System Requirements  Check Hardware and Software Compatibility  Determine Disk Partitioning Options  Choose the Appropriate File System: FAT, FAT32, NTFS  Decide on a Workgroup or Domain Installation  Complete a Pre-Installation ChecklistAfter you made sure you can go on, start the installation process.Step #2: Beginning the installation processYou can install Windows 2000 Server in several methods - all are valid and good, it alldepends upon your needs and your limitations.  Manual installations usually come in 3 flavors:  Boot from CD - No existing partition is required.
  26. 26. COMPUTER NETWORK PROJECT FILE IT-366  Boot from the 4 Setup Boot Disks, then insert the CD - No existing partition is required.  Boot from an MS-DOS startup floppy, go to the command prompt, create a 4GB FAT32 partition with FDISK, reboot, format the C partition youve created, then go to the CD drive, go into the I386 folder, and run the WINNT.EXE command.  Run an already installed OS, such as Windows NT 4.0 Server. From within NT 4.0 go to the I386 folder in the W2K installation CD and run the WINNT32.EXE command.  If you want to upgrade a desktop OS such as Windows 98 into Windows 2000 Professional you can follow the same procedure as above (You cannot upgrade Windows 98 into W2K Server).There are other non-manual installation methods, such as using an unattended filealong with a uniqueness database file, using Sysprep, using RIS or even runningunattended installations from within the CD itself, but we wont go into that right now.It doesnt matter how you run the setup process, but the moment it runs - all setupmethods look alike.Step #3: The text-based portion of the Setup programThe setup process begins loading a blue-looking text screen (not GUI). In that phaseyou will be asked to accept the EULA and choose a partition on which to install W2K,and if that partition is new, youll be asked to format it by using either FAT, FAT32 orNTFS. 1. Start the computer from the CD. 2. You can press F6 if you need to install additional SCSI adapters or other mass- storage devices. If you do you will be asked to supply a floppy disk with the drivers and you CANNOT browse it (or a CD for that matter). Make sure you have one handy. 3. Setup will load all the needed files and drivers. 4. Select To Setup W2K Now. If you want, and if you have a previous installation of the OS, you can try to fix it by pressing R. If not, just press ENTER.
  27. 27. COMPUTER NETWORK PROJECT FILE IT-3665. In case your server is a new one, or it is using a new hard disk that hasnt been partitioned yet, youll get a warning message. Read it, and if you want to continue, press C.6. Read and accept the licensing agreement and press F8 if you accept it.7. Select or create the partition on which you will install W2K. Depending upon your existing disk configuration choose one of the following: If the hard disk is not yet partitioned, you can create and size the partition on which you will install Windows 2000. Press C.
  28. 28. COMPUTER NETWORK PROJECT FILE IT-366  If the hard disk is new and you want to create a partition that will span the entire hard disks size - press Enter.Other optionsL  If the hard disk is already partitioned, but has enough unpartitioned disk space, you can create an additional partition in the unpartitioned space.  If the hard disk already has a partition that is large enough, you can install Windows 2000 on that partition. If the partition has an existing operating system, you will overwrite that operating system if you accept the default installation path. However, files other than the operating system files, such as program files and data files, will not be overwritten.  If the hard disk has an existing partition, you can delete it to create more unpartitioned space for the new partition. Deleting an existing partition erases all data on that partition.If you select a new partition during Setup, create and size only the partition on whichyou will install Windows 2000. After installation, use Disk Management to partition theremaining space on the hard disk. 8. Select a file system for the installation partition. After you create the partition on which you will install W2K, you can use Setup to select the file system with which to format the partition. W2K supports the NTFS file system in addition to the file allocation table (FAT) and FAT32 file systems. Windows Server 2003, Windows XP Professional, Windows 2000, and Windows NT are the only Microsoft operating systems that you can use to gain access to data on a local hard disk that is formatted with NTFS. If you plan to gain access to files that are on a local W2K partition with the Microsoft Windows 95 or Windows 98 operating systems, you should format the partition with a FAT or FAT32 file system. We will use NTFS. 9. Setup will then begin copying necessary files from the installation point (CD, local I386 or network share). 10. Note: If you began the installation process from an MS-DOS floppy, make sure you have and run SMARTDRV from the floppy, otherwise the copying process will probably last more than an hour, perhaps even more. With SMARTDRV (or if setup was run by booting from CD) the copying will probably last a few minutes, no more than 5 max.
  29. 29. COMPUTER NETWORK PROJECT FILE IT-366 11. The computer will restart in graphical mode, and the installation will continue.Step #4: The GUI-based portion of the Setup programThe setup process reboots and loads a GUI mode phase.It will then begin to load device drivers based upon what it finds on your computer. Youdont need to do anything at this stage.If your computer stops responding during this phase (the progress bar is stuck almosthalf-way, and there is no disk activity) - shut down your computer and begin removinghardware such as PCI and ISA cards. If it works for you then later try to figure out howto make that specific piece of hardware work (its probably not in the HCL). 1. Click Customize to change regional settings, if necessary.  Current System Locale - Affects how programs display dates, times, currency, and numbers. Choose the locale that matches your location, for example, French (Canada).  Current Keyboard Layout - Accommodates the special characters and symbols used in different languages. Your keyboard layout determines which characters appear when you press keys on the keyboard.If you dont need to make any changes just press Next.
  30. 30. COMPUTER NETWORK PROJECT FILE IT-366If you do need to make changes press Customize and add your System Locale etc.Note for Hebrew users: In W2K it is NOT SAFE to install Hebrew language support atthis phase!!! Trust me, do it later. If you dont listen to me, good chances are that youllget ???? fonts in some Office applications such as Outlook and others.Read the Install Hebrew on Windows 2000 page for more info. 2. Type your name and organization. 3. Type the product key.If youd like to skip this step in the future, please read Install Windows 2000 WithoutSupplying the CD Key. 4. Enter the appropriate license type and number of purchased licenses.
  31. 31. COMPUTER NETWORK PROJECT FILE IT-3665. Type the computer name and a password for the local Administrator account. The local Administrator account resides in the SAM of the computer, not in Active Directory. If you will be installing in a domain, you need either a pre-assigned computer name for which a domain account has been created, or the right to create a computer account within the domain.6. Choose which components to install or remove from the system.7. Select the date, time, and time zone settings.
  32. 32. COMPUTER NETWORK PROJECT FILE IT-366 6. Setup will now install the networking components.After a few seconds you will receive the Networking Settings window. BTW, if you havea NIC that is not in the HCL (see the Whats the HCL? page) and W2K cannot detect it,or if you dont have a NIC at all, setup will skip this step and you will immediately go tothe final phase of the setup process.Press Next to accept the Typical settings option if you have one of the followingsituations:
  33. 33. COMPUTER NETWORK PROJECT FILE IT-366  You have a functional DHCP on your network.  You have a computer running Internet Connection Sharing (ICS).  Youre in a workgroup environment and do not plan to have any other servers or Active Directory at all, and all other workgroup members are configured in the same manner.Otherwise select Custom Settings and press Next to customize your network settings. 7. Highlight the TCP/IP selection and press Properties.In the General tab enter the required information. You must specify the IP address ofthe computer, and if you dont know what the Subnet Mask entry should be - you cansimply place your mouse pointer over the empty area in the Subnet Mask box and clickit. The OS will automatically select the value it thinks is good for the IP address youprovided.Lamer note: In the above screenshot Ive configured the computer with a valid IPaddress for MY network, along with the Default Gateway and the address of MY DNSserver. Your settings may differ.If you dont know what these values mean, or if you dont know what to write in them,press cancel and select the Typical Settings option. You can easily change these valueslater. 8. In the Workgroup or Domain window enter the name of your workgroup or domain.  A workgroup is a small group of computers on a network that enables users to work together and does not support centralized administration.  A domain is a logical grouping of computers on a network that has a central security database for storing security information. Centralized security and administration are important for computers in a domain because they enable an administrator to easily manage computers that are geographically distant from each other. A domain is administered as a unit with common rules and procedures. Each domain has a unique name, and each computer within a domain has a unique name.
  34. 34. COMPUTER NETWORK PROJECT FILE IT-366If youre a stand-alone computer, or if you dont know what to enter, or if you dont havethe sufficient rights to join a domain - leave the default entry selected and press Next.If you want to join a domain (NT 4.0 domain of W2K/2003 Active Directory domain)enter the domains name in the "Yes, make this computer a member of the followingdomain" box.To successfully join a domain you need the following:  The person performing the installation must have a user account in Active Directory. This account does not need to be the domain Administrator account.and  The computer must have an existing computer account in the Active Directory database of the domain that the computer is joining, and the computer must be named exactly as its domain account is named.or  The person performing the installation must have appropriate permission to create a domain account for the computer during installation.Also, you need to have connectivity to the domains domain controllers (only to the PDCif on an NT 4.0 domain) and a fully functional DNS server (only in AD domains). Readthe Joining a Domain in Windows XP Pro and Requirements when Joining a Domainpages for more on this issue.
  35. 35. COMPUTER NETWORK PROJECT FILE IT-366Enter the Active Directory domain name (in the form of xxx.yyy, for example:DPETRI.NET) or the NetBIOS name of the NT 4.0 domain (in the form of xxx, forexample: DPETRI). Press Next.Note: If you provide a wrong domain name or do not have the correct connectivity to thedomains DNS server you will get an error message.A username/password window will appear. Enter the name and password of thedomains administrator (or your own if youre the administrator on the target domain).Note: Providing a wrong username or password will cause this phase to fail. 9. Next the setup process will finish copying files and configuring the setup. You do not need to do anything. 10. After the copying and configuring phase is finished, if Windows Server 2003 finds that you have a badly configured screen resolution it will advise you to change it and ask you if you see the new settings right. 11. Setup finishes and displays the finish window. Unfortunately, you must press Finish in order to reboot..
  36. 36. COMPUTER NETWORK PROJECT FILE IT-36612. Windows 2000 reboots and you should get the CTRL-ALT-DEL window.13. Thats it! youre done!
  37. 37. COMPUTER NETWORK PROJECT FILE IT-366 PRACTICAL NO. 9  STUDY AND INSTALL VIRTUAL NETWORKA virtual private network (VPN) is a computer network in which some of the linksbetween nodes are carried by open connections or virtual circuits in some largernetworks, such as the Internet, as opposed to running across a single private network.The Link Layer protocols of the virtual network are said to be tunneled through thetransport network. One common application is to secure communications through thepublic Internet, but a VPN does not need to have explicit security features such asauthentication or content encryption. For example, VPNs can also be used to separatethe traffic of different user communities over an underlying network with strong securityfeatures, or to provide access to a network via a customized or private routingmechanisms.VPN service providers may offer best-effort performance, or may have a defined servicelevel agreement (SLA) with their VPN customers. Generally, a VPN has a topologymore complex than point-to-point.  Categorization by user administrative relationshipsThe Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) has categorized a variety of VPNs, some ofwhich, such as Virtual LANs (VLAN) are the standardization responsibility of otherorganizations, such as the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)Project 802, Workgroup 802.1 (architecture). Originally, Wide Area Network (WAN) linksfrom a telecommunications service provider interconnected network nodes within asingle enterprise. With the advent of LANs, enterprises could interconnect their nodeswith links that they owned. While the original WANs used dedicated lines and layer 2multiplexed services such as Frame Relay, IP-based layer 3 networks, such as theARPANET, Internet, military IP networks (NIPRNET, SIPRNET, JWICS, etc.), becamecommon interconnection media. VPNs began to be defined over IP networks [1]. Themilitary networks may themselves be implemented as VPNs on common transmissionequipment, but with separate encryption and perhaps routers.
  38. 38. COMPUTER NETWORK PROJECT FILE IT-366  Security and mobilityMobile VPNs are VPNs for mobile and wireless users. They apply standards-basedauthentication and encryption technologies to secure communications with mobiledevices and to protect networks from unauthorized users. Designed for wirelessenvironments, Mobile VPNs provide an access solution for mobile users who requiresecure access to information and applications over a variety of wired and wirelessnetworks. Mobile VPNs allow users to roam seamlessly across IP-based networks andin and out of wireless-coverage areas without losing application sessions or droppingthe secure VPN session. For instance, highway patrol officers require access tomission-critical applications as they travel between different subnets of a mobilenetwork, much as a cellular radio has to hand off its link to repeaters at different celltowers.The Host Identity Protocol (HIP), under study by the Internet Engineering Task Force, isdesigned to support mobility of hosts by separating the role of IP addresses for hostidentification from their locator functionality in an IP network. With HIP a mobile hostmaintains its logical connections established via the host identity identifier whileassociating with different IP addresses when roaming between access networks.  Virtual Private Network Implementation Example  Remote access for employeesRemote access for Electronic, Inc. employees is deployed by using remote access VPNconnections across the Internet based on the settings configured in Commonconfiguration for the VPN server and the following additional settings.The following illustration shows the Electronic, Inc. VPN server that provides remoteaccess VPN connections.
  39. 39. COMPUTER NETWORK PROJECT FILE IT-366o Domain configuration  For each employee that is allowed VPN access: The remote access permission on the dial-in properties of the user account is set to Control access through Remote Access Policy. The user account is added to the VPN_Users Active Directory group.o Remote access policy configuration  To define the authentication and encryption settings for remote access VPN clients, the following remote access policy is created: Policy name: Remote Access VPN Clients Conditions: o NAS-Port-Type is set to Virtual (VPN) o Windows-Groups is set to VPN_Users o Called-Station-ID is set to Permission is set to Grant remote access permission Profile settings: o Authentication tab: Extensible Authentication Protocol is enabled and Smartcard or other certificate (TLS) is configured to use the installed computer certificate (also known as the machine certificate). Microsoft Encrypted Authentication version 2 (MS-CHAP v2) and Microsoft Encrypted Authentication (MS-CHAP) are also enabled. o Encryption tab: Strong and Strongest are the only options that are selected.o PPTP-based remote access client configuration  The New Connection Wizard is used on client computers to create a VPN connection with the following setting: Host name or IP address: On the Networking tab, Type of dial-up server I am calling is set to Point-to- Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP). This is done to provide better performance when connecting. When Type of dial-up server I am calling is set to Automatic, an Internet Protocol security (IPSec) security association (SA) for an Layer Two Tunneling Protocol (L2TP) connection is attempted first. By configuring the connection for PPTP, the IPSec SA for an L2TP connection is not attempted.o L2TP/IPSec remote access client configuration  The remote access computer logs on to the Electronic, Inc. domain using a LAN connection to the Electronic, Inc. intranet and receives a certificate
  40. 40. COMPUTER NETWORK PROJECT FILE IT-366 through auto-enrollment. Then, the New Connection Wizard is used to create a VPN connection with the following setting:  Host name or IP address: VPN connection settings are modified as follows:  On the Networking tab, Type of dial-up server I am calling is set to Layer-2 Tunneling Protocol (L2TP). When Type of dial-up server I am calling is set to Automatic, an IPSec SA for an L2TP connection is attempted first. If the IPSec SA is not successful, then a PPTP connection is attempted. In this case, the network administrator for Electronic, Inc. does not want remote access clients that are capable of establishing an L2TP connection to fall back to the PPTP connection.