Rahul's research

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  • Quantitative research focuses on the left brain - objective, comfortable with logic, numbers, and unchanging static data and detailed, convergent reasoning rather than divergent reasoning. Qualitative research deals with the right brain - the hemisphere accountable for processing data as words, emotions, feelings, emotions, colour, and music.
  • Rahul's research

    1. 1. QUALITATIVE & QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH Presented By:- Guided by:-
    2. 2. OVERALL FRAMEWORK
    3. 3. KEEP IN MIND THAT … • Qualitative research generally deals in words, images and the subjective • Quantitative research generally deals in numbers, logic and the objective
    4. 4. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH Agenda Definition  When to use? Types FOCUS GROUPS IN DEPTH INTERVIEW PROJECTIVE TECH. Pros&Cons • Research used in range of activities from exploratory designs to means of completing explanations • Qualitative research assumes that people have meaningful actions or experiences that can be interpreted
    5. 5. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH • Identification of a given question; opportunity or information requirements • Interest in obtaining insights for motivational /social (group) or emotional and attitudinal (individual) factors • In IR: primary data of spectras or supporting explanations and argument • (Cf. In marketing: for new product launch, new service development or repositioning current product
    6. 6. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH FOCUS GROUPS Agenda Definition  When to use? Types FOCUS GROUPS IN DEPTH INTERVIEW PROJECTIVE TECH. Pros&Cons Characteristics: • 6-12 people • Lead by a trained moderator • in-depth discussion on 1 particular topic or concept • Relaxed, informal atmosphere • 1-3 hour duration Goal: • Learn and understand what people say and why?
    7. 7. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH FOCUS GROUPS
    8. 8. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH FOCUS GROUPS ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES Synergy Representativeness Spontaneity Misjudgement Speed  Security Flexibility Inexpensive Lack of analysis Moderator Subjectivity
    9. 9. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH IN-DEPTH INTERVIEW Characteristics: Agenda Definition  When to use? Types FOCUS GROUPS IN DEPTH INTERVIEW PROJECTIVE TECH. Pros&Cons • A well trained interviewer+interviewee • Interviewee is exposed to set of probing questions • Usually face to face • Interviewer encourages the interviewee to talk more Goal: • To collect as much as memory, attitudinal and behavioral data from the subject
    10. 10. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH IN-DEPTH INTERVIEW Applications: -Interviews with professionals -Interviews with witnesses -When detailed probing is needed -Discussion of sensitive, confidential issues -When strong, social norms exist -Interviews with competitors
    11. 11. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH IN-DEPTH INTERVIEW ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES Concentrated Expensive issue maximum probing Free exchange of information Easier to arrange Best for intimate, sensitive issues Flexibility Time consuming Exhausting for Interviewer Interviewer errors Respondent bias or reliability
    12. 12. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH PROJECTIVE TECHNIQUE Definition:* Agenda Definition  When to use? Types FOCUS GROUPS IN DEPTH INTERVIEW PROJECTIVE TECH. Pros&Cons • These are unstructured prompts or stimulus that encourage the respondent to project their underlying motivations, beliefs, attitudes, or feelings onto an ambiguous situation • They are all indirect techniques that attempt to disguise the purpose of the research *Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Qualitative_marketing_research
    13. 13. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH PROJECTIVE TECHNIQUES Projective Techniques Word Association Sentence Completion Tests Cartoon Tests Role Playing Third-Person Techniques Picture Interpretation /Story Telling
    14. 14. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH PROJECTIVE TECHNIQUES Types: 1. Word Association Customers are required to show response to the concept they are told within 2-3 sec.
    15. 15. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH PROJECTIVE TECH. 2. Sentence Completion Customers are required to complete sentences or stories in their own words • • • People who are concerned about pharmacology … When I think of a disease … I drink a Coca-Cola, usually when .
    16. 16. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH PROJECTIVE TECH. 3. Cartoon Tests
    17. 17. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH PROJECTIVE TECH. 4. Role Playing • Respondents are asked to assume the behavior of someone else • Useful for emphatic approaches for conflict resolution
    18. 18. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH PROJECTIVE TECH. 5. Third Person Way of learning respondents feelings or opinions by asking them to answer for a third party : “your neighbour” “most people” “typical person”
    19. 19. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH PROJECTIVE TECH. 6.Picture Interpretation A technique whereby respondents are shown a picture and are asked to tell a story describing it
    20. 20. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH PROJECTIVE TECH. ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES Elicit Participation responses that subjects would be unwilling to give Underlying Motivations, Beliefs, Attitudes of the respondents Skills are required to analyse the responses Expensive
    21. 21. QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH SURVEY SURVEY METHOD: • STRUCTURED QUESTIONNAIRE • GIVEN TO A SAMPLE OF A POPULATION • DESIGNED TO GAIN SPECIFIC INFORMATION
    22. 22. QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH SURVEY Survey Methods Telephone Personal In-Home Traditional Telephone By appointment Computer-Assisted Telephone Interviewing Mail Random Personal Interviewing Mail Interview Electronic E-mail Mail Panel Internet
    23. 23. QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH - EXPERIMENTATION EXPERIMENTATION METHOD: • Scientific investigation in which • an investigator manipulates and controls one or more independent variables and • observes the dependent variable for variation concomitant to the manipulation of the independent variables.*
    24. 24. QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES Specific Limited research problem Clear independent and dependent variable High level of reliability Minimum personal judgement outcomes due to structured method Unability to control the environment Expensive(large number of respondents)
    25. 25. COMPARISON OF QUALITATIVE-QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH CHARACTERISTICS Research Objectives QUALITATIVE QUANTITATIVE Discovery of new Validation of ideas,insights facts,estimates, and feelings relationships Type Of Research Usually exploratory Type Of Questions Openended,semistructured, unstructured, probing Descriptive and causal Mostly structured
    26. 26. COMPARISON OF QUALITATIVE-QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH contd. Time Of Execution QUALITATIVE Short Time Frames QUANTITATIVE Usually long time frames Sample Size Type Of Analyses Small Subjective, Interpretitive Large Statistical, Researcher Skills Psychology, Sociology,CB, Social Psychology Statistics, MR, DSS, Decision Models CHARACTERISTICS Representativeness Limited Descriptive,causal Good
    27. 27. SUMMARY • Qualitative methods focus on generating exploratory initial/progressive insights into questions and problems • Depth probing of hidden attitudes, feelings or behaviour • Focus Groups • In depth Interviews • Projective Techniques
    28. 28. SUMMARY • Quantitative Research is interested in using formalised, standard structured questioning, whereby response options are pre-determined • Usually to be administered to significantly large numbers of people. Descriptive (Surveys) Causal (Experimentation)
    29. 29. Reference: 1:Reasearch Methodology By C.R.Kothari
    30. 30. THANK YOU…….
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