Introduction to Linux_by_Amit & Jiban


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A basic introduction to Linux: The history

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  • If you are here you probably wonder about what is Linux and if it will be a good idea to switch to use Linux instead of Windows.
    Today class is an introductory class for Linux. Class following this one will be hands on Linux introduction.
  • You'd be amazed how many people make this complaint. They come to Linux, expecting to find essentially a free, open-source version of Windows. Quite often, this is what they've been told to expect by over-zealous Linux users. However, it's a paradoxical hope. As a simple example, consider driver upgrades: one typically upgrades a hardware driver on Windows by going to the manufacturer's website and downloading the new driver; whereas in Linux you upgrade the kernel. This means that a single Linux download & upgrade will give you the newest drivers available for your machine, whereas in Windows you would have to surf to multiple sites and download all the upgrades individually. It's a very different process, but it's certainly not a bad one. But many people complain because it's not what they're used to.
    But switching from Windows to Linux is like switching from a car to a motorbike. They may both be OSes/road vehicles. They may both use the same hardware/roads. They may both provide an environment for you to run applications/transport you from A to B. But they use fundamentally different approaches to do so.
    Windows/cars are not safe from viruses/theft unless you install an antivirus/lock the doors. Linux/motorbikes don't have viruses/doors, so are perfectly safe without you having to install an antivirus/lock any doors.
    Linux users are in more of a community. They don't have to buy the software, they don't have to pay for technical support. They download software for free & use Instant Messaging and web-based forums to get help. They deal with people, not corporations.
  • Along the bottom of your screen is the panel , which contains many interesting features. Starting at the far left, there's that lovely red fedora, which is the icon for your main menu. Click it, an
    To the right of the main menu is a collection of icons, shown in Figure 3-2, that opens popular applications.
  • The layout location of these items can be customized, but the term used for each of them remains the same.
    The menu panel stretches across the top of the screen. It contains three menus and a number of default icons that start software applications. It also provides a clock, volume control applet, and a notification area.
    The desktop area is the screen space between the menu panel and the window list panel. The Computer, Home Directory, and Trash icons are located in the top left corner of this area. Those users more familiar with Microsoft Windows may equate these icons to the My Computer, My Documents, and Recycle Bin, respectively.
    The window list panel is located at the bottom of the screen. It features the Show Desktop icon, running applications as icons, and it gives access to the workplace switcher and the trash.
  • To open Terminal window right click on the desktop
    This grid of four boxes on the left represents four monitors. This really isn't four monitors; it's as if you had four different monitors connected to your computer. If you need more space to lay out files, or to segment your multimedia applications from your office applications while you're working, you can click in one of the empty boxes to access a completely fresh, uncluttered copy of your desktop along with a fresh panel. You can see which of your virtual desktops has open windows by looking in this box.
  • Standard way of interacting with linux. Will work with all version of Linux.
    X windows: GUI in linux.
    pwd – print working directory
    /home/perry (you see working directory)
    perry@nugget1 – what user you logged in as and what machine you logged into
    ls – list the contents of the directory
    cd – change directory
    cd.. - Moves you to the previous directory
    Tab on the keyboard will complete the command
    cp – copy
    UP arrow on your keyboard is the history command. It will allow you to go back to the previous command.
    clear – clears the screen.
    rm – remove file “– i” inquire to make sure we want to remove this file
    y or yes – it will do it
    mv – moves file from one name to the different one
    mkdir – make directory
    rmdir – to remove empty directory
    ls – F – to classify files in a directory
    ls – l – see more complete list of the directory’s contents
    ls – a – list all the files in a directory, including hidden
    ls – t – sorts by time
    ls – r – reverse the oldest files first
    Directory: /
    Executable program: *
    Hidden file: .
    [] matches any on of the characters that are enclosed in the brackets
    With [] to indicate range of characters
    ^ (circumflex) (caret) used as the first character in the bracket, it matches any character not in the list.
    Ls b[^a,f]g display any file that begins with b and ends in g and where the second letter in the text string is neither an “a” nor an “f”.
    Grep “^on” * |* all the files in your home directory are searched for any occurrence of the letters “on” at the beginning of a line
    To move file content to another file: cat <fileneame> <filename> > <filename>
  • Introduction to Linux_by_Amit & Jiban

    1. 1. LINUXLINUX INTRODUCTIINTRODUCTI ONONPresenter: Amit Kumar Nath & Jiban Krishna Adhikary
    2. 2. PHASE 01: LINUX BASICS Introduction To Linux
    3. 3. OVERVIEWOVERVIEW  What is Unix/Linux?  History of Linux  Features Supported Under Linux  The future of Linux
    4. 4. BEFORE LINUXBEFORE LINUX  In 80’s, Microsoft’s DOS was the dominated OS for PC  Apple MAC was better, but expensive  The history of Linux began with Unix in 1969  Unix was created at Bell Labs with the goals: Simplicity Recyclable code Written in C as opposed to assembly  UNIX was much better, but much, much more expensive. Only for minicomputer for commercial applications  People was looking for a UNIX based system, which is cheaper and can run on PC  Both DOS, MAC and UNIX were proprietary, i.e., the source code of their kernel is protected  No modification is possible without paying high license fees
    5. 5. GNU PROJECTGNU PROJECT  Established in 1984 by Richard Stallman, who believes that software should be free from restrictions against copying or modification in order to make better and efficient computer programs GNU is a recursive acronym for “GNU's Not Unix” Aim at developing a complete Unix-like operating system which is free for copying and modification Companies make their money by maintaining and distributing the software, e.g. optimally packaging the software with different tools (Redhat, Slackware, Mandrake, SuSE, etc) Stallman built the first free GNU C Compiler in 1991. But still, an OS was yet to be developed
    6. 6. BEGINNING OF LINUXBEGINNING OF LINUX  A famous professor Andrew Tanenbaum developed Minix, a simplified version of UNIX that runs on PC  Minix is for class teaching only. No intention for commercial use  In Sept 1991, Linus Torvalds, a second year student of Computer Science at the University of Helsinki, developed the preliminary kernel of Linux, known as Linux version 0.0.1
    7. 7. Message from Professor Andrew Tanenbaum " I still maintain the point that designing a monolithic kernel in 1991 is a fundamental error. Be thankful you are not my student. You would not get a high grade for such a design :-)“ (Andrew Tanenbaum to Linus Torvalds) Soon more than a hundred people joined the Linux camp. Then thousands. Then hundreds of thousands It was licensed under GNU General Public License, thus ensuring that the source codes will be free for all to copy, study and to change.
    8. 8. LINUX TODAYLINUX TODAY  Linux has been used for many computing platforms – PC, PDA, Supercomputer,…  Not only character user interface but graphical user interface is available  Commercial vendors moved in Linux itself to provide freely distributed code. They make their money by compiling up various software and gathering them in a distributable format – Red Hat, Slackware, etc
    9. 9. In order to encourage wide dissemination of his OS, Linus made the source code open to public. At the end of 1992 there were about a hundred Linux developers. Next year there were 1000. And the numbers multiplied every year. Recent estimates say about 29 million people use Linux worldwide. The effects of the dot-com bust, IT slowdown and global economic recession can be clearly seen. Source: The Linux Counter Linux: No of Users GROWING AND GROWING…GROWING AND GROWING…
    10. 10. WHY A PENGUIN?  Penguin as logo/mascot for Linux was discussed first in early 1996 by several people in the linux-kernel mailing list. The idea of such mascot came from Alan Cox first.  The first person called the penguin “Tux” was James Hughes who said that it stood for “(T)orvalds (U)ni(X)”  From the letter of Linus Torvalds: ‘Now, when you think about penguins, first take a deep calming breath, and then think “cuddly”. Take another breath, and think “cute”. Go back to “cuddly” for a while (and go on breathing), then think “contented”…. But the simple, single penguin would be the logo, and the others would just be that cuddly penguin being used as an actor in some tableau.’
    11. 11. != Linux is Not WindowsLinux is Not Windows Problem #1: Linux isn't exactly the same as Windows. Problem #2: Linux is too different from Windows Problem #3: Culture shock Problem #5: The myth of "user-friendly"
    12. 12. WHY SHOULD YOU USE LINUX?  No threat of viruses  Linux systems are extremely stable  Linux is Free  Linux comes with most of the required software pre-installed  Update all your software with minimum fuss  Linux never gets slow  Linux does not need defragmentation  Linux can even run on oldest hardware  Adding more software is a matter of a few clicks  Most Windows-only apps have their either their native version or alternatives for Linux  With Linux, you get the highest degree of possible customizability
    13. 13. FORGET ABOUT VIRUSES!!  Security has always been the number one priority with Linux  Linux has a robust security system  There do not exist viruses for the Linux platform
    14. 14. IS YOUR SYSTEM UNSTABLE ?  Have you ever lost your precious work because Windows crashed? Have you ever gotten the "blue screen of death" or error messages telling you that the computer needs to be shut down for obscure reasons?  Crashes or freezes are not prevalent in Linux
    15. 15. LINUX IS FREE!!  Linux is free and always will be as compared to the very costly Windows and Mac OSX  Using pirated Windows is a bad thing
    16. 16. LINUX COMES WITH SOFTWARE BUILT-IN!!  When the system has installed, why would you still need to install stuff ?  Common software such as music player, web browser, video player, image editor, PDF reader, chat messenger, office apps
    17. 17. UPDATING IN A SINGLE CLICK!  Just like Windows’ Update tool, Linux has a more better alternative to it to update all your system in a few clicks
    18. 18. Linux Distributions: Red Hat Linux : One of the original Linux distribution. The commercial, nonfree version is Red Hat Enterprise Linux, which is aimed at big companies using Linux servers and desktops in a big way. (NJIT) Free version: Fedora Project. Debian GNU/Linux : A free software distribution. Popular for use on servers. However, Debian is not what many would consider a distribution for beginners, as it's not designed with ease of use in mind. SuSE Linux : SuSE was recently purchased by Novell. This distribution is primarily available for pay because it contains many commercial programs, although there's a stripped-down free version that you can download. Mandrake Linux : Mandrake is perhaps strongest on the desktop. Originally based off of Red Hat Linux. Gentoo Linux : Gentoo is a specialty distribution meant for programmers.
    19. 19. The right Linux desktop There are two major desktops in the Linux world: GNOME and KDE. What you're looking at in a default Fedora installation is a Red Hat-customized version of GNOME, called Bluecurve GNOME.
    20. 20. Default Fedora Desktop The default desktop has three distinct areas. From top to bottom, the areas are: The menu panel The desktop area The window list panel
    21. 21. THE MENU PANELTHE MENU PANEL  Applications - The Applications menu contains a variety of icons that start software applications. It is similar to the Microsoft Windows Start menu.  Places - The Places menu contains a customizable list of directories, mounted volumes, recent documents, and a Search function. Volumes that are mounted may be external USB drives (flash, hard disk, CD, etc.), directories shared across a network, or other media devices such as a portable music player.  System - The System menu contains a variety of items.
    22. 22. SYSTEMSYSTEM MENUMENU  Log Out  About  Help  Lock Screen  Preferences  System Settings: configuration tools that are for administrative purposes and usually require root access; that is, when those applications are started, the root password must be entered to continue.
    23. 23. OTHERS:  Mozilla Firefox web browser  Evolution mail client and personal information manager  Writer is a word processing program  Impress is for creating and giving presentations  Calc is a spreadsheet tool
    24. 24. THE DESKTOP AREATHE DESKTOP AREA  Computer - This contains all volumes (or disks) mounted on the computer. These are also listed in the Places menu. Computer is equivalent to My Computer on Microsoft Windows.  Home - This is where the logged-in user stores all files by default, such as music, movies, and documents. There is a different home directory for each user, and by default users cannot access each others' home directories. Home is equivalent to My Documents on Microsoft Windows.  Trash - Deleted files are moved to Trash. Empty Trash by right-clicking the icon and clicking Empty Trash. To permanently delete a file and bypass the file's move to Trash, hold down the [Shift] key when deleting the file. Right-clicking on the desktop presents a menu of actions related to the desktop area. For example, clicking on Change Desktop Background lets you choose a different image or photograph to display on the desktop. It is possible to choose not to have any desktop background.
    25. 25. OTHER SOFTWARE INSTALLEDOTHER SOFTWARE INSTALLED  Audio Player: The XMMS (X Multimedia System), which is used to play digital sound files  CD Player: The default CD player  Sound Juicer CD Ripper: Burn your own CDs  Messaging Client: GAIM supports AIM, MSN, ICQ, and many other popular IM networks  gFTP: Useful for grabbing files through FTP (File Transfer Protocol)
    26. 26. Terminal Window 4 MONITORS
    27. 27. Linux text-based interfaceLinux text-based interface command to show the content of current directory command to show the content of current directory with option -al The prompt $ shows that bash shell is using All LINUX commands start with the name of the command and can be followed by options and arguments.
    28. 28. LINUX SHELLLINUX SHELL  Shell interprets the command and request service from kernel  Similar to DOS but DOS has only one set of interface while Linux can select different shell  Bourne Again shell (Bash), TC shell (Tcsh), Z shell (Zsh) Kernel Bash, Tcsh, Zsh ls pwd whoami  Different shell has similar but different functionality  Bash is the default for Linux  Graphical user interface of Linux is in fact an application program work on the shell
    29. 29. Commands: / (root directory) /root – home directory of the user root pwd – you can see your home directory df – to see disk space available cd – to change to different directory or to go back to home dir .. - move to parent directory ls – list the contents of a directory; Options: -l (more info) -a (displays hidden files) -t (sort by time) -r (oldest first) Example: ls –ltr : display an long list of files that are sorted by time, display the oldest ones first Some of the basic commands you should learn are the ones that help you navigate the file system.
    30. 30. cp : copy one file to another rm : remove a file man : ask for the manual (or help) of a command e.g. man cd ask for the manual of the command cd cat : to show the content of a text file e.g. cat abc.txt show the content of abc.txt whoami : to show the username of the current user Directory is denoted by a / (slash) character Executable program by a * Hidden file preceded by a . (dot)
    31. 31. Names in blue are directories, indicated by a letter d at the beginning of the line The concept of simple file and directory is similar to DOS
    32. 32. PHASE 01: COMPLETED!
    34. 34. BASICS OF LINUX SYSTEM ADMINISTRATION: WORKING AT THE CONSOLE  1. Before you begin You need a working Linux system that includes the bash shell, so you can practice the commands and techniques covered in this knowledge path. o 2. Get comfortable with the bash shell Roll up your sleeves and get your hands on Linux, starting with fundamentals of the bash shell's command line, including basic bash commands, environment variables, and system information; finding, listing, moving, copying, and archiving files. o 3. Search and edit text files Working in a command shell environment such as bash involves manipulating text: cutting and pasting, joining strings together, sorting, and concatenating. o 4. Take control of processes Managing processes is everyday work for Linux administrators and developers. Learn how to shuffle processes between foreground and background, find out what's running, kill processes, and keep processing running after you've left for the day. Also learn how to set and change process priorities.
    35. 35. PHASE 02: FEDORA INSTALLATION  1. Select Install or Upgrade Fedora.
    36. 36. PHASE 02: FEDORA INSTALLATION  2. Language Selection.
    37. 37. PHASE 02: FEDORA INSTALLATION  3. Select appropriate Keyboard.
    38. 38. PHASE 02: FEDORA INSTALLATION  4. Select Basic Storage device, if your hard drive is locally attached.
    39. 39. PHASE 02: FEDORA INSTALLATION  5. Storage device Warning, Click Yes to discard any data.
    40. 40. PHASE 02: FEDORA INSTALLATION  6. Set Hostname for your Fedora installation.
    41. 41. PHASE 02: FEDORA INSTALLATION  7. Click on Configure Network button if you want to configure network during installation.
    42. 42. PHASE 02: FEDORA INSTALLATION  8. Click Wired tab and click on Add button. Select Connect automatically, go to ipv4 settings tab and select Method and select Manual in drop down. Fill address box with IP Address, Netmask, Gateway and DNS.
    43. 43. PHASE 02: FEDORA INSTALLATION  9. Select nearest city in your Time Zone.
    44. 44. PHASE 02: FEDORA INSTALLATION  10. Set root password.
    45. 45. PHASE 02: FEDORA INSTALLATION  11. Select appropriate Partition as per your requirement.
    46. 46. PHASE 02: FEDORA INSTALLATION  12. Verify Filesystem partition here or you can edit filesystem if you want.
    47. 47. PHASE 02: FEDORA INSTALLATION  13. Format Warning, click on Format if you are OK with it.
    48. 48. PHASE 02: FEDORA INSTALLATION  14. If you are confirmed, then click on Write Change to Disk.
    49. 49. PHASE 02: FEDORA INSTALLATION  15. File system Formatting.
    50. 50. PHASE 02: FEDORA INSTALLATION  16. Install Boot Loader and if you want to set password for Boot Loader set it.
    51. 51. PHASE 02: FEDORA INSTALLATION  17. Click on Customize now and select your software’s for installation and then click on Next.
    52. 52. PHASE 02: FEDORA INSTALLATION  18. Select optional Packages and click on Next install it.
    53. 53. PHASE 02: FEDORA INSTALLATION  19. Installation started, this may take several minutes as per selection of packages.
    54. 54. PHASE 02: FEDORA INSTALLATION  20. Packages installation is in progress.
    55. 55. PHASE 02: FEDORA INSTALLATION  21. Installation completed, Please remove CD/DVD and Reboot system.
    56. 56. PHASE 02: FEDORA INSTALLATION  22. Screen of GRUB Boot Loader, use arrow keys to select Fedora Linux to boot.
    57. 57. PHASE 02: FEDORA INSTALLATION  23. Post installation of Fedora, Welcome Screen.
    58. 58. PHASE 02: FEDORA INSTALLATION  24. License Information.
    59. 59. PHASE 02: FEDORA INSTALLATION  25. Create non-administrative user.
    60. 60. PHASE 02: FEDORA INSTALLATION  26. Set Date and Time for the system.
    61. 61. PHASE 02: FEDORA INSTALLATION  27. Hardware Profile Submitting to Fedora Project.
    62. 62. PHASE 02: FEDORA INSTALLATION  28. First Login Screen of Fedora!
    63. 63. PHASE 02: FEDORA INSTALLATION  29. Fedora Desktop Screen.
    64. 64. PHASE 02:COMPLETED!!
    65. 65. REFERENCES  1. step-installation-guide-with-screenshots/  2. p/l-kp-command/  3.