Personal Characteristics and Sales Aptitude: Criteria for Selecting Salespeople
Salespeople Born or Made? <ul><li>Training and development represent critical determinants of future success. </li></ul><u...
Management’s Role Mark W. Johnston and Gary W. Marshall, Sales Force Management,  McGraw Hill, 2006
Management’s Role Mark W. Johnston and Gary W. Marshall, Sales Force Management,  McGraw Hill, 2006
Variables That Cause Differences in Performance <ul><li>Factors controlled or influenced by sales managers account for the...
Costs of Inappropriate Selection <ul><li>Odds a salesperson will quit or be terminated in first five years of employment =...
Characteristics of Successful Salespeople <ul><li>Aptitude and personal characteristics may place an upper limit on an ind...
Research into Personal Characteristics <ul><li>Personal factors influencing variance in sales performance fall into:  </li...
Summary of the Effect of Variables on Salesperson Performance *Inappropriate or illegal in selecting a job candidate. Vari...
Summary of the Effect of Variables on Salesperson Performance *Inappropriate or illegal in selecting a job candidate. Vari...
Summary of the Effect of Variables on Salesperson Performance *Inappropriate or illegal in selecting a job candidate. Vari...
Summary of the Effect of Variables on Salesperson Performance *Inappropriate or illegal in selecting a job candidate. Vari...
Women in Sales and Sales Management Mark W. Johnston and Gary W. Marshall, Sales Force Management,  McGraw Hill, 2006
Compensation Discrepancies Mark W. Johnston and Gary W. Marshall, Sales Force Management,  McGraw Hill, 2006
The Importance of Image Source: Melinda Ligos, “Does Image Matter?” Sales & Marketing Management, March 2001, pp. 52–56. W...
The Importance of Image Source: Melinda Ligos, “Does Image Matter?” Sales & Marketing Management, March 2001, pp. 52–56. W...
The Educated Sales Force Source: Christen P. Heide,  Dartnell’s 30th Sales Force Compensation Survey (Chicago: The Dartnel...
Impact of Age on Sales Force Mark W. Johnston and Gary W. Marshall, Sales Force Management,  McGraw Hill, 2006
How to Build Trust Mark W. Johnston and Gary W. Marshall, Sales Force Management,  McGraw Hill, 2006
Sales Performance Key Characteristics Mark W. Johnston and Gary W. Marshall, Sales Force Management,  McGraw Hill, 2006
Key Terms <ul><li>Selection Criteria </li></ul><ul><li>Physical Characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioral Variables </l...
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Personal characteristics and sales aptitude

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Personal characteristics and sales aptitude

  1. 1. Personal Characteristics and Sales Aptitude: Criteria for Selecting Salespeople
  2. 2. Salespeople Born or Made? <ul><li>Training and development represent critical determinants of future success. </li></ul><ul><li>A strong ego, self-confidence, decisiveness, and a need for achievement must also be extant in sales force candidates. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Management’s Role Mark W. Johnston and Gary W. Marshall, Sales Force Management, McGraw Hill, 2006
  4. 4. Management’s Role Mark W. Johnston and Gary W. Marshall, Sales Force Management, McGraw Hill, 2006
  5. 5. Variables That Cause Differences in Performance <ul><li>Factors controlled or influenced by sales managers account for the largest variance in sales performance. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>role perception </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>motivation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Research suggests successful salespeople are both born and made. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Costs of Inappropriate Selection <ul><li>Odds a salesperson will quit or be terminated in first five years of employment = 50/50. </li></ul><ul><li>People lacking the necessary personal traits/abilities tend to leave the company before training and experience can turn them into productive sales performers. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Characteristics of Successful Salespeople <ul><li>Aptitude and personal characteristics may place an upper limit on an individual's ability to perform in a sales job. </li></ul><ul><li>Enthusiasm consistently ranks among the most important personal attributes in selling. </li></ul><ul><li>General sales experience typically means more than specific product or industry experience. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Research into Personal Characteristics <ul><li>Personal factors influencing variance in sales performance fall into: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>physical and behavioral characteristics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>psychological traits and abilities </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Summary of the Effect of Variables on Salesperson Performance *Inappropriate or illegal in selecting a job candidate. Variable Percentage of Variance in Performance Explained Demographic and physical characteristics—physical traits Age* < 5% Gender* < 5% Physical appearance < 5% Background and experience—developmental education and work experience Personal history and family background* Almost 21% Level of educational attainment < 5% Educational content < 5% Sales experience < 5% Nonsales work experience < 5%
  10. 10. Summary of the Effect of Variables on Salesperson Performance *Inappropriate or illegal in selecting a job candidate. Variable Percentage of Variance in Performance Explained Current status and lifestyle—present marital, family, and financial status Marital/family status* Almost 12% Financial status Approximately 6% Activities/lifestyle* < 5% Aptitude—enduring personal characteristics that determine an individual’s overall ability to perform a sales job Intelligence < 5% Cognitive ability Almost 7% Verbal intelligence < 5% Math ability < 5% Sales aptitude < 5%
  11. 11. Summary of the Effect of Variables on Salesperson Performance *Inappropriate or illegal in selecting a job candidate. Variable Percentage of Variance in Performance Explained Personality—enduring personal traits that reflect an individual’s consistent reactions to situations encountered in the environment Responsibility <5% Dominance <5% Sociability < 5% Self-esteem < 5% Creativity/flexibility <5% Need for achievement/intrinsic reward <5% Need for power/extrinsic reward < 5%
  12. 12. Summary of the Effect of Variables on Salesperson Performance *Inappropriate or illegal in selecting a job candidate. Variable Percentage of Variance in Performance Explained Skills—learned proficiencies and attitudes necessary for effective performance of specific job tasks (these can change with training and experience) Vocational skills Almost 9.5% Sales presentation Almost 5% Interpersonal < 5% General management A little over 9% Vocational esteem <5%
  13. 13. Women in Sales and Sales Management Mark W. Johnston and Gary W. Marshall, Sales Force Management, McGraw Hill, 2006
  14. 14. Compensation Discrepancies Mark W. Johnston and Gary W. Marshall, Sales Force Management, McGraw Hill, 2006
  15. 15. The Importance of Image Source: Melinda Ligos, “Does Image Matter?” Sales & Marketing Management, March 2001, pp. 52–56. What type of sales representative has a tougher time making sales? A sloppily dressed sales rep 94% An unstylish sales rep (haircut, out of style outfit) 75 A physically unattractive sales rep 59 An overweight sales rep 54 A sales rep with a heavy accent 54 A very young looking sales rep 32 An older looking sales rep 8
  16. 16. The Importance of Image Source: Melinda Ligos, “Does Image Matter?” Sales & Marketing Management, March 2001, pp. 52–56. What type of sales representative would you avoid hiring? A sloppy dresser 80% A rep who used salty language 78 A rep with visible body piercing or tattoos 77 An unstylish look 51 Male overweight 37 Female overweight 23 A heavy regional foreign accent 20 An unattractive female 20 An unattractive male 13 A very youthful appearance 12 Any older look 2
  17. 17. The Educated Sales Force Source: Christen P. Heide, Dartnell’s 30th Sales Force Compensation Survey (Chicago: The Dartnell Corporation, 1999), p. 173. Health service 100 Electronic components 67 Pharmaceuticals 100 Communications 56 Air transportation 100 Banking 46 Printing/Publishing 84 Construction 40 Rubber/Plastics 83 Trucking/Warehousing 33 Manufacturing 78 Real estate 33 Electronics 77 Retail 29 Chemicals 73 Transportation equipment 28 Business services 72
  18. 18. Impact of Age on Sales Force Mark W. Johnston and Gary W. Marshall, Sales Force Management, McGraw Hill, 2006
  19. 19. How to Build Trust Mark W. Johnston and Gary W. Marshall, Sales Force Management, McGraw Hill, 2006
  20. 20. Sales Performance Key Characteristics Mark W. Johnston and Gary W. Marshall, Sales Force Management, McGraw Hill, 2006
  21. 21. Key Terms <ul><li>Selection Criteria </li></ul><ul><li>Physical Characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioral Variables </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological Traits </li></ul><ul><li>Skills Variables </li></ul>

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