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Leadership Of Indian Coop Dairy Industry
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Leadership Of Indian Coop Dairy Industry

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Competitiveness of Indian dairy industry-since the Amul innovation-A tribute to the "Milkman of India" Dr V.Kurien who passed away recently

Competitiveness of Indian dairy industry-since the Amul innovation-A tribute to the "Milkman of India" Dr V.Kurien who passed away recently

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    Leadership Of Indian Coop Dairy Industry Leadership Of Indian Coop Dairy Industry Document Transcript

    • April 2012/ Volume 2/Issue 4/Article No-11/568-579 ISSN: 2249-7196 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MANAGEMENT RESEARCH AND REVIEW LEADERSHIP OF INDIAN COOPERATIVE DAIRY INDUSTRY: ISSUES, CHALLENGES & STRATEGIES: CONTEXT OF GLOBALIZATION Prof Amit Gupta*1 Research Fellow, National School of Leadership, Bangalore.ABSTRACTDairy industry is of crucial importance to India in terms of livelihoods, poverty alleviationand inclusive growth. Dairy products are a major source of cheap and nutritious food tomillions of people in India and the only acceptable source of animal protein for largevegetarian segment of the population, particularly among the landless, small and marginalfarmers and women.Dairy sector witnessed spectacular growth between 1971-1996, i.e, Operation Flood era. Anintegrated cooperative dairy development program on the proven model of Anand pattern wasimplemented in three phases by National Dairy Development Board, an institution of nationalimportance created for this purpose.The major objective was to provide an assured market round the year to rural milk producersand to establish linkage between rural milk production and urban markets through moderntechnology and professional management.In this article, an attempt has been made to trace the growth of the dairy industry since 1971,driven by the cooperative movement, and analyse the status in the current context ofglobalization and trade liberalization, wherein the constraints of cooperatives need to be seenin light of private sector competition.The critical issues and areas of concern need to be looked into across the dairy industry valuechain spanning from inputs, feed, credit, production, processing, marketing and value addedproduct mix.The primary objective of this secondary research study is to address the following questions:• What is the implication of these changes on the farmers –potential threats andopportunities?• Which models better serve the interest of the farmers?• How can the co-operatives be strengthened to meet the emerging changes?Keywords: Dairy cooperatives, Operation Flood, rural producers, urban markets, inputs,processing, value chainINTRODUCTION & OVERVIEWIndian Dairy Industry is at cross roads. Though the industry has traditionally been dominatedby the government and cooperative sector, strong competition from private sector has madeinroads into the market share of these organizations.*Corresponding Author www.ijmrr.com 568
    • April 2012/ Volume 2/Issue 4/Article No-11/568-579 ISSN: 2249-7196To understand the critical issues facing the industry let us first try and trace the basic valuechain of the cooperative dairies and summarize the salient points of Operation Flood.Arecent World Bank audit shows that of the Rs 200 crores it invested in Operation Flood II,the net return into the rural economy has been a whopping Rs 240, 000 crores per year over aperiod of ten years, or a total of Rs 240,000 crores in all. No other major developmentprogram has matched this input-output ratio.Operation flood, launched in 1970, has been instrumental in helping the farmers mould theirown development. Thus helping reach milk to consumers in 700 towns and cities through aNational Milk Grid. It also help eradicate the need for middleman thereby reducing theseasonal price variations. As a result of cooperative structure the whole exercise ofproduction and distribution of milk and milk products has become economically viable forfarmers to undertake their own. In this manner the farmer himself can enjoy the fruits of hisown labor, instead of surrendering a majority of the profit to corrupt middleman.Far reaching consequences of Operation Flood: The year 1995-96 marked the termination of Operation Flood III, funded by a World Bank loan, EEC food aid and internal resources of NDDB. At the conclusion of Operation Flood III, 72,744 DCSs in 170 milksheds of the country, having a total membership of 93.14 lakh had been organized. The targets set have either been effectively achieved or exceeded. However, procurement targets could not be reached as private agencies started procuring milk from the cooperative villages, following the new deli censing policy under the Governments program of economic liberalization. The conditions for long-term growth in procurement have been created. An assured market and remunerative producer prices for raw milk, technical input services including AI, balanced cattle feed and emergency veterinary health services have all contributed to sustained increases in milk production. Three state-of-the-art dairies designed to produce quality products for both the domestic and export markets have been commissioned. While the demand for milk was rising under Operation Flood the total cattle population remained more or less static. If milk production had to be increased • The buffalo and milk breeds of cattle had to be upgraded • Non-descript cows had to be crossbred with exotic semen to increase their milk production to make them more efficient converters of feed. With this objective in mind, thrust was given to intensive research and development in animal husbandry. Today, animal breeding is an integration of three major areas, artificial insemination and quantitative genetic techniques, embryo transfer and embryo micro manipulation techniques and biotechnology and genetics engineering. The optimal genetic improvement can be achieved by making use of developments in each of these areas. Operation Flood which started in 1970, concluded its Third Phase in 1996. Let us look at whatCopyright © 2012 Published by IJMRR. All rights reserved 569
    • April 2012/ Volume 2/Issue 4/Article No-11/568-579 ISSN: 2249-7196 Operation Flood has achieved in milk. We are not looking simply at the application of science and technology, though both have played a role; we are not looking simply at the creation of farmer-owned structures, though such structures have been necessary to success. What we are looking at is all of this, combined with the orchestration of all policies and programs that affect production. Further, they ensure to the extent possible, that these support mechanism strengthen efforts, rather than stand as obstacles. • Cost reduction and technology management • modernization of process and plant technology • interventions for productivity increase • frontier technologies like DNA vaccines and genetically engineered bovine somatotropin,embryo transfer technology and in vitro fertilization of oocytes The story of Operation Flood can be seen through three angles. One is to consider what it did to the dairy industry. Another point of view is from the eyes of the small farmer. it has revolutionized their way of life. Operation Flood has also established a pattern of success for other countries to followStructure of co-operatives:The basic philosophy of the dairy movement in India as promoted by the Anand pattern whatis today popularly known as AMUL (originally Anand Milk Union Ltd) was to build farmerowned co-operative milk processing facilities that provided farmers an assured outlet for theirproduce and the means to market quality milk and milk products in urban areas with highdemand. A three-tier structure was established that consisted of village level dairy co-operatives that farmers could become members of by paying a onetime membership andcontinue as members by supplying a minimum quantum of milk every year. Each village co-operative had an elected chairperson who represented the village cooperative as members ofdistrict level milk unions. The district milk unions had an elected board from among thechairpersons of village co-operatives and each district union had a liquid milk processingdiary that took care of district level local milk supply. The elected chairperson of each districtunion represented the district milk union on the board of the milk federation that wasresponsible for liquid milk sales as well as production and marketing of milk products. Profitsmade by the Federation are distributed to farmers as "price difference" after keeping somereserve for developmental expensesDairy Extension:Dairy Extension covers a range of activities that provide education, training and otherservices to improve the milk quality and productivity and reduce production costs at thefarmer level. These include farmer training and awareness programs on feeding, hygiene andtreatment of common ailments. Veterinary doctors visit villages for treating major ailments ofmilch animals and to conduct artificial insemination to improve their breed. These extensionactivities are subsidised and supported directly and indirectly by several government schemesand are valued by farmers. ( see Annexure 7 for AI details)Copyright © 2012 Published by IJMRR. All rights reserved 570
    • April 2012/ Volume 2/Issue 4/Article No-11/568-579 ISSN: 2249-7196Milk transportation:Milk is transported in 40 litre cans twice daily to the dairies. If the dairy is at a considerabledistance from the village milk co-operative then milk is transported to nearby chilling centresthat are used to preserve the liquid milk for short periods till it can be transported in bulk tothe dairy. Chilling centres are essential in some locations as the village co-operatives do nothave refrigeration facilities and milk can only be preserved for long periods at temperaturesbelow 4 degrees Centigrade.Milk composition and generic pricing method:Milk supplied by farmers to the village milk co-operative has to meet certain qualitystandards and is purchased and sold on the basis of the percentage of fat and solids non-fat(SNF) that it contains by weight. While the fat part of milk contains energy, the SNF part ofmilk contains vitamins and other nutrients. Dairy processing can separate the two parts andadjust their proportion. The purchase price of milk is usually stated for standard milkcontaining 3.5% Fat and 8.5% Solids Non Fat (SNF). Any variation in the composition fromthe standard leads to an increase or decrease in price based on the price of fat and SNF.Aseptic packaging of Milk:Aseptic packaging in Tetra Fino Aseptic (TFA) is a world-class packaging technology forperishable liquid products from Tetra Pak, the world leaders in liquid food packaging. Theaseptic packaging equipment is capable of UHT (ultra high treatment) processing andaseptically packaging milk in 500 ml packages called TFA, that ensures that milk stayedfresh for upto 8 weeks after dispatch without any refrigeration (until it was opened). Unlikeplastic milk pouches, TFA packages cannot be tampered with and could not be opened andre-sealed. Customers could consume the milk directly without boiling it and thereforedestroying milk nutrients. The UHT technology requires that only the best quality milk besegregated for aseptic packaging in TFA packages. Tetra Brik Aseptic (TBA) is a similaraseptic package from Tetra Pak, except that it is slightly thicker and in a brick form and couldlast for three months. The UHT process for milk was identical for both TFA and TBApackaging.Environmental Change:With the signing of the World Trade Organisation (WTO) agreement by India, foreigncompanies would be able and willing to sell dairy products in India. Companies likeBritannia have already tied up with New Zealand Dairy Board and Fonterra to launch valueadded products, demand for which is likely to grow with increasing disposable incomes andexposure to global trends of the young population. Food, dairy and beverages constitute thehighest “share of wallet” in our consumption basket as far as modern organized retail isconcerned.Bulkiness of the product combined with low margins would effectively prevent any countyfrom shipping liquid milk to India. However, the branded and bulk milk products marketcould be potentially depressed by imports. Indian customers were known to have a liking forCopyright © 2012 Published by IJMRR. All rights reserved 571
    • April 2012/ Volume 2/Issue 4/Article No-11/568-579 ISSN: 2249-7196foreign brands in general and foreign retail brands of cheese, butter, milk powder, thatmatched the prices of Indian brands, could potentially capture some market share even withlittle or no advertising.On the other hand Indian exports of milk and milk products were relatively low and unlessIndian dairies exported more milk products or Indian consumers consumed more milkproducts, there would be a glut in the Indian market.Cooperatives by their very structure are constrained by the inflexibility in diverting fromliquid milk sales to carry out their social responsibility and at the same time give the mostremunerative prices to farmers, irrespective of the quantity procured and the demand in theurban markets. The high price sensitivity of the customer and their unwillingness to pay forpremium products is something that needs to be addressed in marketing strategy.International markets see a wide range of specialised milk products in the supermarkets.These products are relatively expensive and included liquid milk and milk products speciallyformulated for specific uses (such as tea/coffee or milk shake), with specific additives (suchas vitamins and minerals) and for specific types of consumers (such as infants, children,pregnant women, lactating mothers, sports persons,geriatrics and people on a diet). The mootquestion is how many people in India will be interested in such specialised products, andmore importantly, how many people will be willing to pay a premium for such products?What is missed out in this strategic issue by policy makers and activists is that if consumersare willing to pay premium prices for value added products by strategic group segmentation,ultimate beneficiary is the rural producer. Currently almost 90% of milk procured by societiesis sold as liquid milk by cooperatives whereas it is only 20% for the private dairies with afocus on value added products.Macro production figures & per capita availability:Both urban and rural per capita monthly expenditure on milk and milk products categoryhave increased by almost 15 times in the last 40 years since launch of Operation Flood in1970, in the period that India has become the largest producer in the world at 112.5 Milliontons and per capita availability at 263 gms per day as of 2009-10 figures.( Detailed figuresand growth seen in Annexure 1 & 2) The statewise per capita availability of milk and special mention must be made of States withper capita well above the national average, namely Andhra Pradesh ( 342 gms/day), Gujarat (418 gms/day),Haryana ( 662 gms/day),Himachal ( 342 gms/day), Punjab ( 944gms/day),Rajasthan (395 gms/day),Uttaranchal ( 387 gms/day).Regional disparities are significant with the laggards being the Eastern & North EasternStates.Currently co-op prices serve as a bench mark for pricing of dairy. In fact weak co-opscompeting with private sector may severely affect farmer interest. Growth potential istremendous, can the farmers benefit from this opportunity?Copyright © 2012 Published by IJMRR. All rights reserved 572
    • April 2012/ Volume 2/Issue 4/Article No-11/568-579 ISSN: 2249-7196Strengths & Weaknesses of Indian Dairy cooperative system• Largest milk producer in the world: 15% of global output• Value of output almost equals combined output of paddy and wheat!!• 1/5thof the world bovine population• Milch animals: (45% indigenous cattle, 55 % buffaloes, and 10% cross bred cows)• Very low productivity, around 1000 kg/year (world average 2038 kg/year)• Large no. of unproductive animals, low genetic potential, poor nutrition and lack of services key factors for low productivityCritical Issues/ Areas of concern for Dairy industry value chain:Following areas need to be looked into as an ecosystem if India has to improve leadership ofthe cooperative dairy system:• Competitiveness, Cost of production, productivity of animals• Production, processing & marketing infrastructure: only 10% delivered to 400 dairyplants/ free import & export allowed• Focus on buffalo milk specialty• Import of value added products & export of lower value products• Small and marginal farmers own 33 %of land, and about 60% of female cattle andbuffaloes (pro-poor impact)• 75 % of HH have 2-4 animals on average• Dairying is a part of the farming system, not perceived as industry• Feed is mostly residual from crops -cow dung used as manure• Source of regular income, crop income is seasonal, therefore minimizes risk of ruralproducers• Comprises about 1/3rdof the rural incomes• Livestock is a security –asset to be sold in times of crisisRegulatory Environment:Besides the far reaching consequences of Operation Flood which has been outlined above indetail, the industry has gone through following regulatory scenarios, which need to be takencognizance of and the landscape is as follows:• Dairy sector was de-licensed in 1991• Milk and Milk Products Order ( MMPO) 1992: some controls were placed• Collection areas/milk sheds specifiedCopyright © 2012 Published by IJMRR. All rights reserved 573
    • April 2012/ Volume 2/Issue 4/Article No-11/568-579 ISSN: 2249-7196• Processing capacity fixed• Revised MMPO in 2002: controls stand withdrawn• Private sector investment in dairying has increased considerably• Previously, co-operatives did not have any competition from the private sector• To strengthen co-operatives MACS Act,1995 introduced: To reduce government• Interference in mgt• Farmer freedom to govern the organization• Food Safety & Standards Authority of India ( FSSAI): Adulteration of milk-major issue?• Agriculture is a state policy in India• Centre cannot enforce policies, driven by the ideologies and interests of the stategovernment.• Department of Livestock is with the Ministry of Agriculture• Department of livestock has a network of veterinarians providing livestock veterinaryservices• Partial Cost recovery now initiated in several statesBottlenecks in Dairy Value chain: Input/Feed/ Credit/Production/Marketing:It is important to do a thorough analysis of the complete dairy value chain and addressconcerns with respect to each part of the chain, in a more holistic and objective way, so as tofully capitalize on the unfolding opportunities thrown up in the context of globalization andchanging consumer behaviour.Breeding/health/extension• Large majority of indigenous cattle (45% indigenous cattle constituting 55 % buffaloes,and 10% cross bred cows)• National Cattle and Buffalo Breeding Program• Only small percent is covered by AI, rest is dependent on natural breeding; Performanceof AI is not up to mark• State veterinary departments, co-operatives, NGOs, private veterinarians, and paravetsare the service providers• Regions with high producing dairy animals –good coverage• Other areas still lack adequate coverage of services• Extension: Lack of extension –poor feeding practices does not enable farmers tocapitalizeFeedCopyright © 2012 Published by IJMRR. All rights reserved 574
    • April 2012/ Volume 2/Issue 4/Article No-11/568-579 ISSN: 2249-7196• Availability, quality and cost of feed is an issue.• Land is largely rain-fed or dry land (70%), low output of dry fodder• Availability of land for fodder grass• Subsidized feed is available through co-ops, but quality and affordability are issuesCredit• Poor access to institutional credit• Credit through informal channel has very high loan rate, and results in exploitation offarmer through lower milk pricesProduction:• Dairying is a part of the farming system, not dairy as enterprise• Two to four animals on average, milk production is scattered throughout the country• Low productivity, large no. of unproductive animals’ poor genetic resources, lowaffordability of feed as well as poor feeding practices• Farmer has low interest in dairying at times when crops are good• Many areas do not have access to health and breeding servicesMarketing• Two major channels –Co-operative, traditional• Milk prices are set by the co-operatives• Premium on fat content hence buffalo milk fetches higher price, cow milk pricing basedon total solids• Farmer price is Rs. X for cow milk and Rs. X+3 for buffalo milk (1 litre bottle of watercosts Rs. Y- food for thought?)• The trader usually pays a small amount higher than the co-operative price (co-op price isthe benchmark)• In a large part of the country, there are no testing facilities at the village level, hencetransparency of pricing is an issue• Quality of milk depends on amount of time taken for milk to reach to bulkcooling/chilling centreFuture potential of cooperative dairy industry:Following factors augur well for sustainable growth of the industry, if areas of concern areadequately addressed by public and private institutions working in this field, with supportfrom the Government, research and academia.Copyright © 2012 Published by IJMRR. All rights reserved 575
    • April 2012/ Volume 2/Issue 4/Article No-11/568-579 ISSN: 2249-7196• Dairy demand is income elastic. Need to move away from traditional liquid milk marketto cope with increasing demand-supply scenario• Increase in income and increase in population-high growth rate for dairy products(expected to be 7%)/ need to broaden product range in line with consumer expectations• Milk products market booming due to higher incomes: Cheese 100 cr (growing @9%pa)/ Dahi 15,000 cr ( only 10% organized share)/milk based sweets (12,000 cr largelyunorganized)/ milk & fruit based beverages• Increasing potential for export of WMP, SMP, butter & cheese, especially to West Asiancountries and other emerging as well as LDC’s.• High potential for enhancing farmer incomes from dairy enterprise• Important to assess the critical weaknesses in the dairy value chain.• Global integration-quality certification: ISO/ HACCP becoming critical• Technology development in processing/packaging/ biotech related/ fruit processing,etc• Identify approaches to enable farmers to capitalize on these opportunities through accessof credit, inputs, feedstock, technology, genetics, processing, marketing and distributionCONCLUSION AND FUTURE SCOPE OF STUDYWhile remarkable progress has been made due to the “White revolution” and consequentimprovement in rural incomes and urban availability of milk and milk products, putting Indiaon the global map as the world’s largest producer, what needs to be looked into is the postWTO era wherein we need to move up the value chain and balance out interests of allsections of society and enhance the sustainable competitive advantage of the cooperativesector against not only the private sector but also impending imports.The Doha round of trade talks also puts the spotlight on huge farm subsidies of the developednations and in this context we are back to addressing the three questions raised in thebeginning of this paper as to what are the implications, which models serve our interestsbetter and how does the cooperative system come out stronger by anticipating these emergingchanges.REFERENCESDepartment of Animal Husbandry, Dairying & Fisheries, Ministry of Agriculture, GOIIndian Dairy.com WebsiteLivestock Census, Department of Animal Husbandry, Dairying & Fisheries, Ministry ofAgriculture, GoINational Dairy Development Board (NDDB) Website and publicationsNSSO Surveys and Ministry of Statistics & Program ImplementationCopyright © 2012 Published by IJMRR. All rights reserved 576
    • April 2012/ Volume 2/Issue 4/Article No-11/568-579 ISSN: 2249-7196ANNEXURES Annexure 1:Production in IndiaYear Production (Million Tonnes) Per Capita Availibilty (gms/day)1991-92 55.7 1781992-93 58.0 1821993-94 60.6 1871994-95 63.8 1941995-96 66.2 1971996-97 69.1 2021997-98 72.1 2071998-99 75.4 2131999-2000 78.3 2172000-01 80.6 2202001-02 84.4 2252002-03 86.2 2302003-04 88.1 2312004-05 92.5 2332005-06 97.1 2412006-07 100.9 2462007-08 104.8 2522008-09 108.5 2582009-10 112.5 263Source: Department of Animal Husbandry, Dairying & Fisheries, Ministry ofAgriculture, GoICopyright © 2012 Published by IJMRR. All rights reserved 577
    • April 2012/ Volume 2/Issue 4/Article No-11/568-579 ISSN: 2249-7196 Annexure 2:Per Capita Availability of Milk by States (gms/day) 91- 92- 93- 94- 95- 96- 97- 98- 99- 00- 01- 02- 03- 04- 05- 06- 07- 08- 09-State 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10All 178 182 188 191 197 202 207 213 217 220 225 230 231 233 241 246 252 258 263IndiaAndhra 120 124 148 163 162 169 167 185 192 194 209 231 238 250 260 269 298 316 342PradeshArunachal 22 64 62 64 119 115 109 119 119 102 105 112 109 114 113 114 74 55 59PradeshAssam 77 78 78 79 95 79 78 79 71 69 70 71 71 72 72 70 70 70 69Bihar 100 98 96 95 101 100 98 121 119 80 88 92 100 147 154 163 170 172 175Goa 65 68 73 72 73 72 71 88 92 89 91 91 93 110 105 100 101 99 96Gujarat 236 245 249 277 229 289 290 290 297 280 317 321 330 344 349 374 385 402 418Haryana 586 597 605 625 618 617 630 623 631 614 645 647 643 631 628 633 621 644 662Himachal 313 314 330 324 329 316 314 347 349 335 341 339 337 378 373 370 365 365 342PradeshJammu & 204 321 261 210 276 302 345 353 362 348 367 365 363 364 353 325 372 378 382KashmirKarnataka 149 154 160 173 185 191 216 233 241 233 249 229 190 194 197 200 203 215 226Kerala 167 174 181 190 198 199 204 221 227 219 234 203 173 169 171 172 183 197 203Madhya 197 196 195 199 199 192 194 262 261 211 240 236 233 233 262 259 264 271 278PradeshMaharasht 136 138 140 156 163 161 161 168 168 162 172 172 172 176 178 182 184 188 190raManipur 122 119 118 88 80 75 74 87 88 81 86 85 85 90 92 82 91 90 88Meghalaya 76 77 77 77 83 74 73 76 76 74 78 78 78 81 82 82 84 83 83Mizoram 31 34 32 32 31 29 53 65 57 42 43 45 44 46 43 45 48 47 29Nagaland 96 95 93 91 88 86 82 69 69 69 78 78 83 90 96 86 57 67 96Orissa 43 46 47 47 49 54 53 58 66 64 69 68 71 92 95 100 113 110 112Punjab 722 739 776 797 847 823 861 883 902 854 892 895 898 917 943 961 956 955 944Rajasthan 275 276 292 280 294 322 348 356 367 353 376 368 371 376 387 408 408 399 395Sikkim 194 191 186 192 204 190 188 186 185 173 187 222 231 221 232 230 229 226 210Tamilnadu 164 167 168 175 180 183 185 199 210 211 219 198 198 204 231 232 232 234 237Tripura 31 33 33 35 35 36 45 69 69 64 77 66 68 70 70 71 72 74 77Uttar 199 204 207 209 216 215 221 238 243 223 241 245 250 254 262 267 274 278 283PradeshWest 120 118 119 123 130 123 123 125 123 116 120 120 120 124 126 126 129 131 133BengalA&N 227 219 223 215 173 170 169 179 184 165 177 195 183 165 135 155 149 154 137IslandsChandigar 141 147 145 142 143 148 147 139 134 129 131 127 127 115 116 124 108 101 95hDadra &Nagar 59 196 129 144 87 89 86 106 13 97 100 97 95 45 53 54 47 91 86Haveli Copyright © 2012 Published by IJMRR. All rights reserved 578
    • April 2012/ Volume 2/Issue 4/Article No-11/568-579 ISSN: 2249-7196Daman & 0 25 26 25 25 16 17 26 144 17 17 17 16 10 11 13 12 15 15DiuDelhi 65 65 67 66 69 61 59 61 60 56 58 57 56 54 54 48 46 65 72Lakshadw 55 55 50 53 54 107 97 72 47 88 90 87 43 45 64 76 74 84 84eepPondicher 90 89 103 98 90 44 43 109 106 102 104 101 107 108 108 117 107 101 96ryChhattisga - - 100 105 103 102 103 103 101 103 106 110rhUttaranch - - 323 344 339 365 364 361 358 355 351 387alJharkhand - - 90 96 94 92 127 126 131 132 132 130Source : Department of Animal Husbandry, Dairying & Fisheries, Ministry of Agriculture, GoI Copyright © 2012 Published by IJMRR. All rights reserved 579