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Introduction The NDA application is the vehicle through which drugsponsors formally propose that the FDA approve a newpharmaceutical product for sale and marketing in the country. The data gathered during the animal studies and humanclinical trials of an Investigational New Drug (IND) become part ofthe NDA. For decades, the regulation and control of new drugs in theUnited States has been based on the New Drug Application (NDA).Since 1938, every new drug has been the subject of an approvedNDA before U.S. commercialization.
Introduction The documentation required in an NDA is supposed totell the drugs whole story, including what happened duringthe clinical tests, what the ingredients of the drug are, theresults of the animal studies, how the drug behaves in thebody, and how it is manufactured, processed and packaged.
New FDCs for approval for Marketing:1) One or more of the active ingredients is a Drug2) Active drug is approved individually but are combined for first time.3)FDCs which are already marketed , but in which it is proposed either to change the ratio of active ingredients or to make a new therapeutic claim.4)FDCs include those whose active ingredients have been widely used in particular indications for years their concomitant use is often necessary and no claim is proposed to be made other than convenience
Guidance Documents for NDAs Guidance documents represent the Agencys current thinking on a particular subject. These documents are prepared for FDA review staff and applicants/sponsors to provide guidelines to the processing, content, and evaluation/approval of applications and also to the design, production, manufacturing, and testing of regulated products.
Guidance Documents for NDAs They also establish policies intended to achieve consistency in the Agencys regulatory approach and establish inspection and enforcement procedures. Because guidances are not regulations or laws, they are not enforceable, either through administrative actions or through the courts. An alternative approach may be used if such approach satisfies the requirements of the applicable statute, regulations, or both.
Goals of the NDA The goals of the NDA are to provide enough information to permit FDA reviewer to reach the following key decisions: Whether the drug is safe and effective in its proposed uses, and whether the benefits of the drug outweigh the risks. Whether the drugs proposed labeling (package insert) is appropriate, and what it should contain. Whether the methods used in manufacturing the drug and the controls used to maintain the drugs quality are adequate to preserve the drugs identity, strength, quality, and purity.
Data required to be submitted with application for permission to market a New Drug:1)IntroductionBrief introduction of the drug and the therapeutic class it belongs.2) Chemical and Pharmaceutical information. Information of active ingredients eg; Generic name , INN. Physiochemical Data eg; Chemical name , structure , emperical Formula , mol wt. Physical properties eg; Solubility , Rotation, Partition coefficient, Dissociation constant. Analytiacal data eg;Elemental Analysis,Mass,NMR,IR,UV spectra,Polymorphic identification. Complete Monograph Specification including eg; quantification of impurities ,Enantiomeric purity,Assay. Dosage form and its composition. Specification of active and inactive ingredients. Outline of the method of the manufacture of the active ingredient. Stability Data.
Data required to be submitted with application for permissionto market a New Drug: Animal pharmacology Summary Specific pharmacological actions. General pharmacological actions. Follow up and Supplemental safety pharmacological studies pharmaacokinetics: absorption,distribution,metabolism,excretion. Animal Toxicology Genral aspects Systemic toxicity studies Male fertility studies female Reproduction and developmental studies local toxicity Allergenicity/Hyper sensitivity Genotoxicity Carcinogenicity
Human/Clinical pharmacology (Phase I) Summary Specific Pharmacological effects. General Phamacological effects Pharmacokinetics,absorption,distribution,metabolism,excretion Pharmacodynamics/early measurement of drug activity Therapeutic exploratory trials (Phase II) Summary Study reports
Data required to be submitted with applicationfor permission to market a New Drug: Therapeutic confirmatory trials (Phase III) Summary Individual study reports with listing of sites and Investigators. Special studies Summary Bio-availability/Bio-equivalence Other Studies eg; geriatrics,paediatrics,pregnant or nursing woman
Regulatory status in other countries Countries where the drug is marketed Approved Approved as IND Withdrawn if any with reasons. Restrictions on use,if any,in countries where marketed. Free sale certificate or certificate of analysis,as appropriate.
Refernces www.geradts.com www.law.duke.edu/journals/journalsource Regulations of Clinical Trials by Rakesh Kumar Rishi,1st ed.