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  • This slide was added as a transitional slide to next topic
  • This is a new slide
  • Slides 26 to 28 were previously cleared for a previous presentation, FDA science forum, may 2006.
  • Slides 29 to 30 were taken from the guidance as cited, verbatim.
  • Slides 31 to 34 were taken from the guidance as cited, verbatim.
  • The FDA website was added at the bottom
  • The word “hypothetical” was added to the title.
  • The word “hypothetical” was added to the title.

Transcript

  • 1. INDA
  • 2. IND ApplicationAbout the Regulation • Provides procedures for use of investigational new drugs • Exempts products from premarketing approval requirements: – Registration, listing, interstate distribution – Labeling – GMPs • Applies to most studies to determine drug safety & effectiveness
  • 3. When IND Application is Not RequiredClinical Study Situations • Drug legally marketed for indicated use – Study not intended to support new indication or significant labeling change – Study not intended to support significant change in advertising – Study doesn’t involve change in route of admin, dosage, or use that significantly increases patient risks • IVD biological for confirmatory diagnostic procedure • Intended for tests of in vitro or lab research animals • Placebo products
  • 4. “Treatment” INDWhen Used • Drug intended to treat or diagnose serious or life- threatening condition • No satisfactory alternative available • Controlled clinical trials in progress under IND – Or when trials completed & FDA review of request to market is pending • Sponsor actively pursuing device marketing approval with FDA
  • 5. “Emergency Use” INDWhen Used • Need FDA authorization to use experimental drug in an emergency situation that does not allow time for submission of an IND in accordance with  21 CFR Part 312 • May be used for patients ineligible per existing study protocol(s), or if approved study protocol does not exist
  • 6. IND ApplicationProduct Labeling Requirements • Immediate package must be labeled: – “Caution: New Drug – Limited by Federal (or United States) law to investigational use” • No false or misleading statements • No representation that drug is safe or effective for indicated use
  • 7. IND ApplicationPromotion & Charging for Investigational Drugs • No representation that drug is safe or effective for indicated use • No commercial distribution or test marketing • No prolongation of study • Prior written approval from FDA required to “charge” for drug, unless being used under “treatment” IND
  • 8. IND ApplicationClinical Study Phases • Phase 1 – first time in human – Small number of healthy volunteers – Closely monitored – focus on safety • Phase 2 – controlled studies to evaluate effectiveness – Small number of subjects with condition to be treated – Closely monitored – focus on efficacy (& safety) • Phase 3 – expanded controlled & uncontrolled studies – Large number of subjects with condition to be treated – Focus on efficacy (& safety)
  • 9. IND Application ContentsAdministrative Details • Sponsor responsibility • Submit original & 2 copies of application • FDA notifies Sponsor in writing of date application is received • IND in effect 30 days after FDA receipt of application, unless FDA notifies Sponsor otherwise
  • 10. IND Review/ApprovalFDA’s Considerations • Subject safety & welfare • Rendered ≤ 30 days of FDA receipt – Only disapproval or early approval is rendered in writing • Clinical hold may be ordered if: – Sponsor fails to comply with applicable regulations – Sponsor is non-responsive to requests for add’l info – Subject risks outweigh benefits – Unreasonable to proceed due to inadequacy of investigational plan, manufacturing or monitoring
  • 11. Clinical HoldsTo Delay/Suspend A Study • Phase I clinical holds – Subject safety concerns • Phase II & III clinical holds – Concerns about safety or efficacy • Treatment IND clinical holds – Alternative treatment drug now commercially available – Sponsor not diligently pursuing marketing approval – Administrative oversights by Sponsor
  • 12. IND Application ContentsAn Overview • Cover sheet/application form (Form FDA-1571) • Table of contents • Introductory statement • General investigational plan • Investigator brochure • Protocol(s) • Chemistry, manufacturing & control info
  • 13. IND Application ContentsAn Overview • Pharmacology & toxicology info • Previous human experience with drug • Add’l info as required: – Drug dependence/abuse potential – Radioactive drugs – Pediatric studies • Add’l info as requested by FDA
  • 14. IND Application ContentsApplication Form - FDA 1571 • Required for initial IND & all subsequent submissions • Provides basic info about Sponsor & submission contents • Must be signed & dated – Obligates Sponsor to comply with laws & regs
  • 15. IND Application ContentsIntroductory Statement • Drug name, structure, pharmacological class, development history, foreign testing
  • 16. IND Application ContentsGeneral Investigational Plan • Summary of studies anticipated in first year • Study rationale
  • 17. IND Application ContentsInvestigator Brochure • Package insert • Early versions contain more pre-clinical data • Later versions more heavily weighted with clinical data
  • 18. IND Application ContentsProtocol(s) • Must include at least the initial protocol • Phase I – protocol outline: – No. subjects planned – Eligibility requirements – Dosing – Safety assessments • Phase II & III – detailed protocols
  • 19. IND Application ContentsChemistry, Manufacturing & Controls • Manufacturing process • Raw materials & finished product testing • May refer to drug master file or previous application
  • 20. IND Application ContentsPharmacology & Toxicology • Non-clinical study summaries of pharmacological & toxicological effects
  • 21. IND Application ContentsPrevious Human Experience • Foreign trials • Data from other INDs, NDAs
  • 22. IND Application ContentsAdditional Info • Other relevant info • Minutes of FDA meetings • Copies of referenced materials • Address issues re: possible drug abuse, dependence, radioactivity, etc.
  • 23. IND AmendmentsNecessary When: • New protocol introduced • Changes made to protocol that may affect: – Scientific soundness of study – Rights, safety or welfare of study subjects • Addition of new study investigators (FDA Form 1572) • New/revised information not related to protocol – New pharmacology, toxicology, chemistry, clinical info – Discontinuance of a study
  • 24. IND Safety ReportsFDA Form 3500A • Any unexpected, serious adverse experience associated with drug use – 15 calendar days • Any finding from animal studies suggesting significant risk for human subjects – 15 calendar days • Any unexpected fatal or life-threatening experience associated with drug use – 7 calendar days
  • 25. IND Annual ReportsWhen Required • Due within 60 days of IND anniversary • Individual study information • Summary information for all studies, including: – Summary of safety results & significant changes in product manufacturing, pre-clinical study status – General investigational plan for upcoming year – Any Investigator Brochure revisions – Significant Ph I protocol modifications – Significant foreign marketing developments during prior year – Log of outstanding business
  • 26. IND Review/ApprovalFDA Meetings • Pre-IND Submission – Facilitates planning for IND • End of Phase II – Facilitates planning for later studies • Pre-NDA or Pre-BLA – Facilitates preparation & review of NDA
  • 27. Sponsors & InvestigatorsResponsibilities • Similar to 21 CFR 812
  • 28. IRBResponsibilities • As identified in 21 CFR 50, 56
  • 29. IND RegulationReference Documents & Links (www.fda.gov/cder) • CDER Guidance: IND Application Process (interactive session) http://www.fda.gov/cder/regulatory/applications/ind_page_1.htm
  • 30. IND RegulationReference Documents & Links (www.fda.gov/cder) • FDA Guidance for Financial Disclosure by Clinical Investigators • FDA Guidance for IRBs & Clinical Investigators • FDA Guidance for Monitoring Clinical Investigations • FDA/ORA Compliance Program Guidance for Bioresearch Monitoring of Clinical Investigations
  • 31. The IND Application  Preclinical testing/investigation • In vitro tests/animal testing – “reasonably safe” determination (21 C.F.R. § 312.23) • Pharmacological data • Toxicity testing  “Good Laboratory Practice” (GLP) (21 C.F.R. Part 58) • Governs preclinical testing conduct – Organization, personnel, facilities, study conduct, and records retentionWorking with FDA: Biological Products and Clinical Development Ke Liu
  • 32. The IND Process Application Components  Cover sheet Form 1571 (21 C.F.R. § 312.23(a)(1))  Table of contents (21 C.F.R. § 312.23(a)(2))  Introductory statement and general investigational plan (21 C.F.R. § 312.23(a) (3)) • Brief 2-3 page summary • Helps FDA anticipate sponsor needsWorking with FDA: Biological Products and Clinical Development Ke Liu
  • 33. The IND Application Components  Investigator’s brochure (21 C.F.R. § 312.23(a)(5)) • Compilation of the clinical and non-clinical data on the investigational product(s) that are relevant to the study of the product(s) in human subjects • Facilitates investigator understanding of rationale of key features of the protocol (dose frequency/interval, methods of administration)  Protocols (21 C.F.R. § 312.23(a)(6))  Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Control (CMC) information (21 CFR § 312.23(a)(7)) • Information on drug substance, drug product (preparation, manufacturer, components, etc.)Working with FDA: Biological Products and Clinical Development Ke Liu
  • 34. The IND Application Components  Sponsor’s pharmacological and toxicological studies (21 C.F.R. § 312.23(a)(8)) • Description of pharmacological effects, ADME • Integrated summary of toxicological effects in animals and in vitro studies – Study reports should be available to FDA within 120 days of the start of the human study  Previous human experience summaries (21 C.F.R. § 312.23(a)(9)) • previous human experience should be presented in an integrated summaryWorking with FDA: Biological Products and Clinical Development Ke Liu
  • 35. Phases of Clinical Product DevelopmentWorking with FDA: Biological Products and Clinical Development Ke Liu
  • 36. FDA IND Review Process Team Approach Decision Making  Communication  Evidence-based  Multidisciplinary  Safety-dependent  Consensus building  Phase-dependentWorking with FDA: Biological Products and Clinical Development Ke Liu
  • 37. Phase 1 Studies  Initial administration of drug to humans  Assessment of human toxicology  Determine Maximum Tolerated Dose (MTD) or Optimal Biological Dose (OBD)Working with FDA: Biological Products and Clinical Development Ke Liu
  • 38. Phase 2 Studies Begin if Phase 1 studies do not reveal unacceptable toxicity. Primarily focus on collection of preliminary data on • whether the drug has effect in a defined patient population • the relationship between dose and effectiveness. Continue to evaluate safety and short-term side effects. For controlled trials, patients receiving the drug are compared with similar patients receiving a different treatment -- usually a placebo or a different drug.Working with FDA: Biological Products and Clinical Development Ke Liu
  • 39. Phase 3 Studies Begin if preliminary evidence of effectiveness is shown during phase 2. Gather more information about safety and effectiveness in a defined population. May form the primary basis of an efficacy claimWorking with FDA: Biological Products and Clinical Development Ke Liu
  • 40. Review for Phase 1 Trials Pre-IND meetings with the sponsor (although not a requirement) IND submissionNon-Clinical Review Clinical Review Pharm/ToxWorking with FDA: Biological Products and Clinical Development Ke Liu
  • 41. Regulatory Considerations  The product manufacturing and characterization?  The level of safety assurance needed for beginning clinical trials  Clinical study designWorking with FDA: Biological Products and Clinical Development Ke Liu
  • 42. Clinical Review  Clinical Protocol  Protection of human subjectsWorking with FDA: Biological Products and Clinical Development Ke Liu
  • 43. What is a Clinical Protocol  Written plan for how the drug is to be studied and the procedures to be followed by each investigatorWorking with FDA: Biological Products and Clinical Development Ke Liu
  • 44. Contents of a Clinical Protocol (21 C.F.R. § 312.23 (a) (6))1. A statement of the objectives and purpose of the study.2. The criteria for patient selection and for exclusion of patients and an estimate of the number of patients to be studied.3. A description of the design of the study, including the kind of control group to be used, if any, and a description of methods to be used to minimize bias on the part of subjects, investigators, and analysts.4. The method for determining the dose(s) to be administered, the planned maximum dosage, and the duration of individual patient exposure to the drug.Working with FDA: Biological Products and Clinical Development Ke Liu
  • 45. Contents of a Clinical Protocol (21 C.F.R. § 312.23 (a) (6)) (cont.) 5. A description of the observations and measurements to be made to fulfill the objectives of the study. 6. A description of clinical procedures, laboratory tests, or other measures to be taken to monitor the effects of the drug in human subjects and to minimize risk. 7. The name and address and a statement of the qualifications of investigators (Form 1572); the name and address of the research facilities to be used; and the name and address of each reviewing Institutional Review Board Details of the clinical protocol depend on the phase of the studyWorking with FDA: Biological Products and Clinical Development Ke Liu
  • 46. Major Review Elements for a Phase 1 Clinical Protocol  Patient population  Dose, schedule and administration  Dose escalation  Dose Limiting Toxicity (DLT) definition and Optimal Maximum Dose determinationWorking with FDA: Biological Products and Clinical Development Ke Liu
  • 47. Major Review Elements for a Phase 1 Clinical Protocol (cont.)  Stopping rules  Safety monitoring and evaluation  Safety Reporting  Case Report Form  Informed consent  Investigator’s brochure if applicable (21 C.F.R. § 312.23(a)(5))Working with FDA: Biological Products and Clinical Development Ke Liu
  • 48. Clinical Review  Clinical Protocol  Protection of human subjectsWorking with FDA: Biological Products and Clinical Development Ke Liu
  • 49. Protection of Human Subjects  Informed consent (21 C.F.R. Part 50) • Ensures voluntary participation • Required disclosures: – Risks, benefits, and alternative treatments • No contracting out of liability • “No more than minimal risk”  “Institutional Review Boards” (IRBs) (21 C.F.R. Part 56) • Composed of at least 5 members from the health care community and public • Approve and monitor protocol • Authority to approve, require modifications, or disapprove researchWorking with FDA: Biological Products and Clinical Development Ke Liu
  • 50. Protection of Human Subjects (cont.)  IRBs should review proposed clinical trial within a reasonable time  IRBs should provide dates for the following • Approval/favorable opinion; • Modifications required prior to its approval/favorable opinion; • Disapproval/negative opinion; and • Termination/suspension of any prior approval/favorable opinionWorking with FDA: Biological Products and Clinical Development Ke Liu
  • 51. Obligations of Sponsors and Investigators in the Conduct of Clinical Trials  Sponsor obligations (21 C.F.R. § 312.50) • Management of IND • Safety reports • Transportation/shipment of drug • Collection of unused drug • Records: maintenance and retention  Investigator obligations (21 C.F.R. § 312.60) • Assure IRB review and informed consent • Adherence to protocol • Adverse event reporting • Trial supervision • Records: maintenance and retentionWorking with FDA: Biological Products and Clinical Development Ke Liu
  • 52. FDA Review and Decision-Making  FDA inaction in 30 days triggers the study under the IND to “proceed” or  FDA issuance of “clinical hold”Working with FDA: Biological Products and Clinical Development Ke Liu
  • 53. “Clinical Hold” (21 C.F.R. § 312.42)  A clinical hold is an order issued by FDA to the sponsor of an IND to delay or to suspend a clinical investigation  Partial or complete clinical hold • Partial – A delay or suspension of only part of the clinical work requested under the IND • Complete – A delay or suspension of all clinical work requested under an IND  Can occur during phase I, II, or IIIWorking with FDA: Biological Products and Clinical Development Ke Liu
  • 54. Hold Reasons (21 C.F.R. § 312.42) 1. Human subject exposure to an unreasonable and significant risk of illness or injury; 2. Incomplete information to assess the risk to subjects; 3. Deficient plan or protocol (additional for Phase 2 or 3); 4. Misleading, erroneous, or materially incomplete investigator brochure; or 5. Unqualified clinical investigators.Working with FDA: Biological Products and Clinical Development Ke Liu
  • 55. Analysis of IND Review Decisions in OCTGT between October 1, 2002 and December 31, 2004Working with FDA: Biological Products and Clinical Development Ke Liu
  • 56. Common Deficiencies Leading to Clinical Hold  Citations for Pharmacology, Toxicology and or CMC • Refer to other sessions of this course  Most common clinical deficiencies were related to unreasonable and significant risk with need for change to the eligibility criteria, safety monitoring plan and stopping rules  The second most common citations were related to insufficient information to assess the risk to subjectsWorking with FDA: Biological Products and Clinical Development Ke Liu
  • 57. Common Clinical Reasons for Clinical Hold by Citations  Patient population: • Eligibility and/or exclusion criteria inappropriate • Number of subjects not specified or unreasonable  Starting dose: • Insufficient data to support the intended starting dose • Product preparation or formulation inadequately describedWorking with FDA: Biological Products and Clinical Development Ke Liu
  • 58. Common Clinical Reasons for Clinical Hold by Citations  Dose regimen: • Administration of product risky or inadequately described • Proposed dose increases too aggressive • Failure to stagger enrollment of new product with unknown risks • Dose modification plan unreasonable • Repeat treatment plan unreasonable or not supported • ReportingWorking with FDA: Biological Products and Clinical Development Ke Liu
  • 59. Common Clinical Reasons for Clinical Hold by Citations  Safety monitoring: • Anticipated toxicities inadequately monitored • Lack of appropriate Toxicity Scale • Individual Patient Treatment Discontinuation Criteria absent or unreasonable • Study Stopping Rules absent or unreasonable • Withdrawn subjects not adequately followed • Long term follow up for patients absent or inadequately described • Adverse eventWorking with FDA: Biological Products and Clinical Development Ke Liu
  • 60. Some Unique Issues Related to OCTGT Regulated Products  Cancer vaccines  Cell therapies  Gene therapiesWorking with FDA: Biological Products and Clinical Development Ke Liu
  • 61. Some Unique Issues Pertaining to Cancer Vaccines, Cell Therapies and Gene Therapies  Product manufacturing and characterization, especially autologous products  Unique aspects of early phase studies • Metabolism does not follow standard pharmacokinetics and/or pharmacodynamics • Distinct product mechanism of action requires different trial design – Defining optimal biologic dose (OBD) rather than maximum tolerated dose (MTD) – Consideration of unique toxicity profiles and monitoring – Long term follow-up issuesWorking with FDA: Biological Products and Clinical Development Ke Liu
  • 62. Considerations for Early Cancer Vaccine Trial Designs  Patient eligibility • Consider enrolling patients with a single tumor histology in phase I trials – Safety, feasibility and optimal dose regime • Consider evaluating the product in later phase trials in different histologies if promisingWorking with FDA: Biological Products and Clinical Development Ke Liu
  • 63. Considerations for Early Cancer Vaccine Trial Designs (cont.)  Eligibility For some cancers, if the standard treatment has low expectations for patient benefits or has severe toxicity • Consider enrolling patients before such treatment • Proceed to standard treatment if disease progresses with the investigational treatmentWorking with FDA: Biological Products and Clinical Development Ke Liu
  • 64. Considerations for Early Cancer Vaccine Trial Designs (cont.)  Dose Escalation • Cancer vaccines in general have a favorable toxicity profile • Consider other alternative approaches for dose escalation in early phase cancer vaccine trials such as accelerated titration designs – Not to sacrifice the evaluation of the toxicities – Reduce the chances that subjects receive suboptimal doses of cancer vaccine – Shorten the time interval before late phase trials startWorking with FDA: Biological Products and Clinical Development Ke Liu
  • 65. Gene Therapy Clinical Trials – Observing Participants for Delayed Adverse Events How does one determine whether long-term observations should be performed in a particular clinical trial? Guidance for industry: http://www.fda.gov/cber/gdlns/gtclin.pdfWorking with FDA: Biological Products and Clinical Development Ke Liu
  • 66. Criteria to Assess Potential Delayed Risks of Gene Therapy Is your gene therapy product only used for ex vivo modification of cells? Yes NoAre vector sequences integrated? Do preclinical study results Does vector have potential for show Persistence of Yes latency and reactivation ? vector sequences? Yes No to either No to both Clinical protocols Risk is low.should include long-term Long-term follow-up Follow-up observations Observations may not be necessary Working with FDA: Biological Products and Clinical Development Ke Liu
  • 67. Good Clinical Practice (GCP)Working with FDA: Biological Products and Clinical Development Ke Liu
  • 68. GCP  Good clinical practice (GCP) is an international ethical and scientific quality standard for designing, conducting, recording, and reporting trials that involve the participation of human subjects. • See Guidance for Industry: E6 Good Clinical Practice Consolidated Guidance (April 1996) http://www.fda.gov/cder/guidance/959fnl.pdfWorking with FDA: Biological Products and Clinical Development Ke Liu
  • 69. Principles of ICH GCP 1. Clinical trials should be conducted in accordance with the ethical principles that have their origin in the Declaration of Helsinki, and that are consistent with GCP and the applicable regulatory requirement(s). 2. Before a trial is initiated, foreseeable risks and inconveniences should be weighed against the anticipated benefit for the individual trial subject and society. A trial should be initiated and continued only if the anticipated benefits justify the risks. 3. The rights, safety, and well-being of the trial subjects are the most important considerations and should prevail over interests of science and society. 4. The available nonclinical and clinical information on an investigational product should be adequate to support the proposed clinical trial.Working with FDA: Biological Products and Clinical Development Ke Liu
  • 70. Principles of ICH GCP (cont.) 5. Clinical trials should be scientifically sound, and described in a clear, detailed protocol. 6. A trial should be conducted in compliance with the protocol that has received prior institutional review board (IRB)/independent ethics committee (IEC) approval/favorable opinion 7. The medical care given to, and medical decisions made on behalf of, subjects should always be the responsibility of a qualified physician or, when appropriate, of a qualified dentist. 8. Each individual involved in conducting a trial should be qualified by education, training, and experience to perform his or her respective task(s).Working with FDA: Biological Products and Clinical Development Ke Liu
  • 71. Principles of ICH GCP (cont.) 9. Freely given informed consent should be obtained from every subject prior to clinical trial participation. 10. All clinical trial information should be recorded, handled, and stored in a way that allows its accurate reporting Interpretation, and verification. 11. The confidentiality of records that could identify subjects should be protected, respecting the privacy and confidentiality rules in accordance with the applicable regulatory requirement(s). 12. Investigational products should be manufactured, handled, and stored in accordance with applicable good manufacturing practice (GMP). They should be used in accordance with the approved protocol. 13. Systems with procedures that assure the quality of every aspect of the trial should be implemented.Working with FDA: Biological Products and Clinical Development Ke Liu
  • 72. FDA Regulations Relating to Good Clinical Practice and Clinical Trials  Electronic Records; Electronic Signatures (21 CFR Part 11)  Human Subject Protection (Informed Consent) (21 CFR Part 50)  Additional Safeguards for Children in Clinical Investigations of FDA- Regulated Products (Interim Rule) (21 CFR Part 50, subpart D)  Financial Disclosure by Clinical Investigators (21 CFR Part 54)  Institutional Review Boards (21 CFR Part 56)  Investigational New Drug Application (21 CFR Part 312)  Forms 1571 (Investigational New Drug Application) and 1572 (Statement of Investigator)  Applications for FDA Approval to Market a New Drug (21 CFR Part 314)  Applications for FDA Approval of a Biologic License (21 CFR Part 601)  Investigational Device Exemptions (21 CFR Part 812)  Premarket Approval of Medical Devices (21 CFR Part 814)  http://www.fda.gov/oc/gcp/regulations.htmlWorking with FDA: Biological Products and Clinical Development Ke Liu
  • 73. Discussion of the Hypothetical Case  What were the problems? • Rationale • Objective • Patient eligibility • Trial design • Treatment: dose, schedule, route etc. • Safety monitoring and follow up • Informed consent • IRB approval • IND submissionWorking with FDA: Biological Products and Clinical Development Ke Liu
  • 74. Discussion of the Hypothetical Case  Solutions • Follow regulations • Follow GCP • Interactions with FDA – Early interactions with FDA are critical – Know your guidance documents – Consider early in translational research the questions that will be asked at the clinical trial phase – Phone, face to face; formal or informal: dialogue is encouragedWorking with FDA: Biological Products and Clinical Development Ke Liu
  • 75. Quiz Questions Choose the most appropriate answer for questions 1-3Working with FDA: Biological Products and Clinical Development Ke Liu
  • 76. Question 1. In developing a clinical protocol, the following should be considered I. Objectives and purposes of the study II. Inclusion and exclusion criteria III. Design of the study including the dose, schedule and the route of administration IV.Plans for evaluation and monitoring of the trial subjects A. I, II, III B. I, III C. III D. II, IV E. I, II, III, IVWorking with FDA: Biological Products and Clinical Development Ke Liu
  • 77. Answer to question 1: EWorking with FDA: Biological Products and Clinical Development Ke Liu
  • 78. Question 2. All of the following are true regarding IB and its contents except A. A brief description of the drug substance and the formulation, including the structural formula, if known. A summary of the pharmacological and toxicological effects of the drug in animals and, to the extent known, in humans. B. A summary of the pharmacokinetics and biological disposition of the drug in animals and, if known, in humans. C. A summary of information relating to safety and effectiveness in humans obtained from prior clinical studies. (Reprints of published articles on such studies may be appended when useful.) D. A description of possible risks and side effects to be anticipated on the basis of prior experience with the drug under investigation or with related drugs, and of precautions or special monitoring to be done as part of the investigational use of the drug. E. All clinical studies require IB.Working with FDA: Biological Products and Clinical Development Ke Liu
  • 79. Answer to question 2: EWorking with FDA: Biological Products and Clinical Development Ke Liu
  • 80. Question 3. Which of the following constitutes a reason that FDA may use to put a study on clinical Hold? A. The sponsor did not have a pre-IND meeting with FDA before IND submission. B. One of associate investigators is not a dentist. C. The investigator brochure is misleading, erroneous, or materially incomplete. D. The sponsor complains that the 30-day IND review is too slow.Working with FDA: Biological Products and Clinical Development Ke Liu
  • 81. Answer to question 3: CWorking with FDA: Biological Products and Clinical Development Ke Liu
  • 82. Choose true or false for the following statements (questions 4-5): Question 4. All human subjects who are exposed to gene therapy products must be followed for life to observe the delayed adverse events. Question 5. Safety evaluation remains top priority in all phases of clinical studies.Working with FDA: Biological Products and Clinical Development Ke Liu
  • 83. Answer to question 4: False Answer to question 5: TrueWorking with FDA: Biological Products and Clinical Development Ke Liu