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  • 1. 1Chapter 14 Computer SoftwareMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 2. 2 Learning ObjectivesDescribe several important trends occurring in computer software.Give examples of several major types of application and system software.McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 3. 3 Learning Objectives (continued)Explain the purpose of several popular software packages for end user productivity and collaborative computing.Outline the functions of an operating system.McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 4. 4 Learning Objectives (continued)Describethe main uses of software programming languages and tools.McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 5. 5 Section I Application Software: End User ApplicationsMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 6. 6 SoftwareTypes of software Application software System softwareMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 7. 7 Software (continued)Application software for end users Application-specific General-purpose Perform common information processing jobs Sometimes known as productivity packagesMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 8. 8 Software Suites and Integrated PackagesSuites are a number of productivity packages bundled together Microsoft Office Lotus SmartSuite Corel WordPerfect Office Sun StarOfficeMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 9. 9 Software Suites and Integrated Packages (continued)Advantages of suites Cost Similar graphical user interface Share common tools Programs are designed to work togetherDisadvantages of suites Large size Many features never used by many end usersMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 10. 10 Software Suites and Integrated Packages (continued)Integrated Packages Combine SOME of the features of several programs Cannot do as much as individual packages or suitesMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 11. 11 Web BrowsersKey software interface to the hyperlinked resources of the World Wide Web and the rest of the Internet Internet Explorer Netscape CommunicatorMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 12. 12 Electronic Mail and Instant MessagingE-Mail Has changed the way people work and communicateInstant Messaging An e-mail/computer conferencing hybrid technology Allows real time communication/collaborationMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 13. 13 Word Processing and Desktop PublishingWord Processing Has computerized the creation, editing, revision, and printing of documents. Advanced featuresDesktop Publishing Design and print newsletters, brochures, manuals, and books Page design process Page makeup or page composition WYSIWYG (what you see is what you get)McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 14. 14 Electronic SpreadsheetsUsed for business analysis, planning, and modelingInvolves designing its format and developing the relationships (formulas)McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 15. 15 Electronic Spreadsheets (continued)Allows end users to perform: What-if Goal-seeking Sensitivity analysisStrength Computation and calculationMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 16. 16 Database ManagementPerforms four primary tasks Database development Define/organize content, relationships, and structure of the data Database Interrogation Selectively retrieve and display information Produce forms, reports, & other documentsMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 17. 17 Database Management (continued)Four primary tasks (continued) Database maintenance Add, delete, update, and correct the data Application development Develop prototypes of web pages, queries, forms, reports, and labelsMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 18. 18 Database Management (continued)Strength Storage of large amounts of dataWeakness Computation and calculationMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 19. 19 Presentation GraphicsHelps convert numeric data into graphic displaysHelps prepare multimedia presentationsEasy to useMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 20. 20 Personal Information ManagersFor end user productivity and collaboration Store, organize, and retrieve information Information about customers Appointments Contact lists Task lists SchedulesMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 21. 21 Groupware Collaboration software Helps workgroups and teams work together to accomplish group assignments Combines a variety of software features and functions  E-mail  Discussion groups and databases  Scheduling  Task management  Audio and videoconferencing  Data sharingMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 22. 22 Other Business SoftwareMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 23. 23 Section II System Software: Computer System ManagementMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 24. 24 System Software OverviewPrograms that manage and support a computer system and its information processing activitiesServes as the software interface between computer networks and hardware and the application programs of end usersMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 25. 25 System Software Overview (continued)Two major categories System management programs  Operating systems  Network management programs  Database management systems  System utilities System development programs  Programminglanguage translators & editors  CASE (computer-aided software engineering)McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 26. 26 Operating SystemsIntegrated system of programs that Manages the operations of the CPU Controls the input/output and storage resources and activities of the computer system Provides various support services as the computer executes application programsMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 27. 27 Operating Systems (continued)Performs five basic functions Provides a user interface Allows humans to communicate with the computer Command-driven Menu-driven Graphical user interfaceMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 28. 28 Operating Systems (continued)Five basic functions (continued) Resource management Manages the hardware and networking resources of the system Virtual memory capabilityMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 29. 29 Operating Systems (continued)Five basic functions (continued) File management Controls the creation, deletion, and access of files of data and programs Keeps track of the physical location of filesMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 30. 30 Operating Systems (continued)Five basic functions (continued) Task management Manages the accomplishment of the computing tasks of end users Multitasking Multiprogramming TimesharingMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 31. 31 Operating Systems (continued)Popular Operating Systems Windows 95, 98, ME NT 2000 XPMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 32. 32 Operating Systems (continued)Popular operating systems (continued) UNIX Linux Mac OS XMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 33. 33 Network Management ProgramsPerform functions such as Automatically checking client PCs and video terminals for input/output activity Assigning priorities to data communication requests from clients and terminals Detecting and correcting transmission errors and other network problems Sometimes functions as middleware that allows diverse networks to communicate with each otherMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 34. 34 Database Management SystemsControls the development, use, and maintenance of databases.Helps organizations use their integrated collections of data records and filesAllows different user application programs to easily access the same databaseSimplifies the process of retrieving information from databasesMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 35. 35 Other System Management ProgramsUtility Programs Perform miscellaneous housekeeping and file conversion functions Data backup Data recovery Virus protection Data compression Data defragmentation Performance monitors and security monitorsMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 36. 36 Programming LanguagesAllows a programmer to develop the sets of instructions that constitute a computer programMachine Language First generation language Written using binary codes unique to each computerMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 37. 37 Programming Languages (continued) Assembler Language Second generation Requires language translator programs called assemblers Allows a computer to convert the instructions into machine instructions Frequently called symbolic languageMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 38. 38 Programming Languages (continued) High-level Languages Third generation Uses instructions, called statements, that use brief statements or arithmetic expressions Uses translator programs called compilers or interpreters Syntax and semanticsMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 39. 39 Programming Languages (continued)Fourth-generation Languages (4GLs) More nonprocedural and conversational than prior languages Natural languages Ease of use gained at the expense of some loss in flexibilityMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 40. 40 Programming Languages (continued)Object-Oriented Languages (OOP) Ties data elements to the procedures or actions that will be performed on them into “objects” Easier to use and more efficient for programming GUIsMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 41. 41 Programming Languages (continued)HTML, XML, and Java Important for building multimedia Web pages, websites, and Web-based applications HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) A page description language that creates hypertext or hypermedia documentsMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 42. 42 Programming Languages (continued) XML (eXtensible Markup Language) Describes the contents of web pages by applying identifying tags or contextual labels to the data Makes the web site more searchable, sortable, and easier to analyze Java Designed for real-time, interactive, Web- based network applications AppletsMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 43. 43 Programming SoftwareHelps programmers develop computer programsTwo basic categories Programming language translators Programming toolsMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 44. 44 Programming Software (continued)Language Translator Programs Assembler Translates symbolic instruction codes into machine language instructions Compiler Translates high-level language statements Interpreter Translates and executes each statement in a program one at a timeMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 45. 45 Programming Software (continued)Programming Tools Programming editors and debuggers Provides a computer-aided programming environment or workbench Diagramming packages Code generators Libraries of reusable objects & code Prototyping tools CASEMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 46. 46 Discussion QuestionsWhat major trends are occurring in software? What capabilities do you expect to see in future software packages?How do the different roles of system software and application software affect you as a business end user? How do you see this changing in the future?McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 47. 47 Discussion Questions (continued)Why is an operating system necessary? Why can’t an end user just load an application program in a computer and start computing?Should a Web browser be integrated into an operating system?McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 48. 48 Discussion Questions (continued)Are software suites, Web browsers, and groupware merging together? What are the implications for a business and its end users?How are HTML, XML, and Java affecting business applications on the Web?McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 49. 49 Discussion Questions (continued)Do you think Windows 2000 and Linux will surpass Unix and Netware as operating systems for network and Web servers?Which application software packages are the most important for a business end user to know how to use?McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 50. 50 Real World Case 1 – Intuit Inc.Why has Intuit’s success improved under Bennett’s leadership?What are several things Intuit could do to successfully compete with Microsoft and others in the future?McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 51. 51 Real World Case 1 (continued)Why does Intuit dominate its small-business software market segment?What software products and services does Intuit have that might support Bennett’s strategy to appeal to larger small businesses?McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 52. 52 Real World Case 1 (continued)Do you agree with CEO Bennett’s strategy to have Intuit compete with Microsoft in the software market for larger small businesses?McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 53. 53 Real World Case 2 – Amazon, Orbitz, and OthersThe Business Case for LinuxWhat are the business and technical benefits of switching from proprietary systems to Linux on Intel-based servers?McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 54. 54 Real World Case 2 (continued)Why can Linux make a strategic difference in the profitability of some companies?What are the limitations of Linux for business use?McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 55. 55 Real World Case 2 (continued)Should most companies investigate the use of Linux for their businesses?Why or why not?McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 56. 56 Real World Case 3 – Burlington Coat Factory and OthersEvaluating Software Suite AlternativesWhat is the business case for switching from Microsoft Office to alternatives like Sun StarOffice or gobeProductive?McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 57. 57 Real World Case 3 (continued)What is the business case against such a switch?What are the weaknesses of the “Office” competitors?McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 58. 58 Real World Case 3 (continued)What are several business or technical improvements the developers of Sun StarOffice or gobeProductive could make to better compete with Microsoft Office?McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 59. 59 Real World Case 4 – Clark Retail & OthersEvaluating Operating System UpgradesWhy do many companies have no plans to switch to Windows XP?McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 60. 60 Real World Case 4 (continued)What is a business case for switching to Windows XP?What is a business case against switching?McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 61. 61 Real World Case 4 (continued)What are several improvements you would like to see Microsoft make in the next version of Windows?McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 62. 62 Real World Case 5 – Dollar Rent A Car & Imperial SugarPioneering Web ServicesWhat are Web services?How are they used?McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 63. 63 Real World Case 5 (continued)What is the purpose and business value of Web services?What is delaying the implementation of Web services at many companies?McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 64. 64 Real World Case 5 (continued)What can companies do now to prepare to implement Web services?What do you see as the future for Web services?McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.