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Chap010 MIS
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Chap010 MIS

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  • 1. 1Chapter10 Developing Business/Information Technology SolutionsMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 2. 2 Learning ObjectivesUse the systems development process outlined in this chapter, and the model of IS components from Chapter 1 as problem- solving frameworks to help propose information systems solutions to simple business problems.McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 3. 3 Learning Objectives (continued)Describe how you might use each of the steps of the information systems development cycle to develop and implement an e-business system.Explain how prototyping improves the process of systems development for end users and IS specialists.McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 4. 4 Learning Objectives (continued)Identifythe activities involved in the implementation of new information systems.Describe evaluation factors that should be considered in evaluating the acquisition of hardware, software, and IS services.McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 5. 5 Section I Developing e-Business SystemsMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 6. 6 Information Systems DevelopmentThe systems approach to problem solving applied to the development of information system solutions to business problems.McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 7. 7 The Systems ApproachThe systems approach to problem solving Recognize and define a problem or opportunity using systems thinking Develop and evaluate alternative system solutionsMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 8. 8 The Systems Approach (continued)Systems approach to problem solving (continued) Selectthe system solution that best meets your requirements Design the selected system solution Implement and evaluate the success of the designed systemMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 9. 9 The Systems Approach (continued)Systems Thinking “seeing the forest AND the trees” Seeing “interrelationships” among “systems” rather than linear cause-and- effect chains when events occur Seeing “processes” of change among “systems” rather than discrete “snapshots” of change, whenever change occurs.McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 10. 10 The Systems Approach (continued) Systems thinking (continued) Use a systems context Try to find systems, subsystems, and components of systems in any situation you are studyingMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 11. 11 The Systems Development CycleInvestigationAnalysisDesignImplementationMaintenanceMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 12. 12 PrototypingThe rapid development and testing of working models of new applications in an interactive, iterative process.Sometimes called rapid application design (RAD).Simplifies and accelerates systems design.McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 13. 13 Prototyping (continued) The prototyping processMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 14. 14 Starting the Systems Development ProcessSystems Investigation Phase Feasibility studies Organizational feasibility Economic feasibility Technical feasibility Operational feasibilityMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 15. 15 Starting the Systems Development Process (continued)McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 16. 16 Starting the Systems Development Process (continued)McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 17. 17 Starting the Systems Development Process (continued) Cost/Benefit Analysis Tangible costs Intangible costs Tangible benefits Intangible benefitsMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 18. 18 Starting the Systems Development Process (continued)McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 19. 19 Systems AnalysisSystems analysis is an in-depth study of end user information needs that produces functional requirements.McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 20. 20 Systems Analysis (continued)Traditionally involves a detailed study of… Information needs of the company & end users Activities, resources, & products of one or more of the present information systems The IS capabilities required to meet information needs of the company, the end users, and all business stakeholders that may use the systemMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 21. 21 Systems Analysis (continued)Organizational analysis Study Management structure The people Business activities Environmental systems The current information systemMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 22. 22 Systems Analysis (continued)Analysis of the present system Analyze how the present system.. Uses hardware Uses software Is networked Uses people resources to convert data resources into information products. How the IS activities of input, processing, output, storage, and control are accomplished.McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 23. 23 Systems Analysis (continued)Functional requirements analysis What type of information does each business activity require? Format, volume, frequency, response times What are the information processing capabilities required? Input, processing, output, storage, controlMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 24. 24 Systems Analysis (continued)Functional requirements analysis (continued) Finally, develop functional requirements End user information requirements that are not tied to the hardware, software, network, data, and people resources Goal – identify what should be done, not how to do it.McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 25. 25 Systems DesignSpecifies HOW the system will meet the information needs of usersFocuses on three major products User interface design Data design Database structures Process design Processing and control proceduresMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 26. 26 Systems Design (continued)User interface design Focuses on supporting the interactions between end users and the computer-based applications Display screens Interactive user/computer dialogues Audio responses Forms, documents, and reportsMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 27. 27 Systems Design (continued)System specifications Formalizes the design of the application’s user interface methods & products Formalizes database structures Formalizes processing and control proceduresMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 28. 28 End User DevelopmentIS professionals play a consulting role Training in the use of application packages Assistance with the selection of hardware and software Assistance in gaining access to organization databases Assistance in the analysis, design, and implementation of your applicationMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 29. 29 End User Development (continued)The application development process Output What information is needed and in what form? Input What data are available? From what sources? In what form?McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 30. 30 End User Development (continued)The application development process (continued) Processing What operations or transformation processes will be required to convert available inputs into the desired output? What software package can best perform the required operations?McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 31. 31 End User Development (continued)The application development process (continued) Storage Control How will you protect against accidental loss or damage to end user files?McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 32. 32 End User Development (continued)McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 33. 33 Section II Implementing e-Business SystemsMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 34. 34 ImplementationThis is the actual deployment of the information technology system.Follows the investigation, analysis, and design stages of the systems development cycle.McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 35. 35 Implementing New SystemsMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 36. 36 Evaluating Hardware, Software, & ServicesMay require suppliers to present bids and proposals based on system specifications Minimum acceptable physical & performance characteristics for all hardware and software requirements are established Large businesses and government agencies formalize requirements by listing them in a Request for Proposal (RFP) or a Request for Quotation (RFQ)McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 37. 37 Evaluating Hardware, Software, and Services (continued)May use a scoring system for evaluation Determine evaluation factors and assign pointsPerformance of hardware and software must be demonstrated and evaluated May use benchmark test programsMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 38. 38 Evaluating Hardware, Software, and Services (continued)Hardware evaluation factors Performance Speed, capacity, throughput Cost Lease or purchase price Cost of operations and maintenanceMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 39. 39 Evaluating Hardware, Software, and Services (continued)Hardware evaluation factors (continued) Reliability Risk of malfunction & maintenance requirements Error control and diagnostic features Compatibility With existing hardware and software? With hardware & software provided by competing suppliers?McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 40. 40 Evaluating Hardware, Software, and Services (continued)Hardware evaluation factors (continued) Technology Year of product life cycle Does it use a new, untested technology? Does it run the risk of obsolescence? Ergonomics “human factors engineered”? User-friendly? Safe, comfortable, easy to use?McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 41. 41 Evaluating Hardware, Software, and Services (continued)Hardware evaluation factors (continued) Connectivity Easily connected to WANs and LANs that use different types of network technologies and bandwidth alternatives? Scalability Can it handle the processing demands of end users, transactions, queries, & other processing requirements?McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 42. 42 Evaluating Hardware, Software, and Services (continued)Hardware evaluation factors (continued) Software Is system and application software available that can best use this hardware? Support Is support available?McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 43. 43 Evaluating Hardware, Software, and Services (continued)Software evaluation factors Quality Bugfree? Efficiency Well-developed system of program code that does not use much CPU time, memory capacity, or disk space?McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 44. 44 Evaluating Hardware, Software, and Services (continued)Software evaluation factors (continued) Flexibility Can it handle our processes easily without major modification? Security Does it provide control procedures for errors, malfunctions, and improper use?McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 45. 45 Evaluating Hardware, Software, and Services (continued)Software evaluation factors (continued) Connectivity Web-enabled? Language Is the programming language familiar to internal software developers?McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 46. 46 Evaluating Hardware, Software, and Services (continued)Software evaluation factors (continued) Documentation Well-documented? Help screens and helpful software agents? Hardware Does existing hardware have the features required to best use this software?McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 47. 47 Evaluating Hardware, Software, and Services (continued)Software evaluation factors (continued) Other factors Performance, cost, reliability, availability, compatibility, modularity, technology, ergonomics, scalability, and support characteristicsMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 48. 48 Evaluating Hardware, Software, and Services (continued)Evaluating IS Services Performance Past performance in view of past promises Systems development Are website and other e-business developers available? Quality and costMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 49. 49 Evaluating Hardware, Software, and Services (continued)Evaluating IS services (continued) Maintenance Is equipment maintenance provided? Quality and cost Conversion What systems development & installation services will they provide during the conversion period?McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 50. 50 Evaluating Hardware, Software, and Services (continued)Evaluating IS services (continued) Training Provided? Quality and cost Backup Are similar computer facilities available nearby for emergency backup purposes?McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 51. 51 Evaluating Hardware, Software, and Services (continued)Evaluating IS services (continued) Accessibility Services from local or regional sites? Customer support center? Customer hot line? Business position Financially strong with good industry market prospects?McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 52. 52 Evaluating Hardware, Software, and Services (continued)Evaluating IS services (continued) Hardware Provide a wide selection of compatible hardware devices and accessories? Software Offer a variety of useful e-business software and application packages?McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 53. 53 Other Implementation ActivitiesTesting May involve website performance testing Testing and debugging software Testing new hardware Reviewing prototypes of displays, reports, and other output Should occur throughout the development processMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 54. 54 Other Implementation Activities (continued)Documentation Sample data entry screens, forms, and reports are examples. Serves as a method of communication among the people responsible for developing, implementing, and maintaining the system A detailed record of the system’s design Important in diagnosing errors & making changesMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 55. 55 Other Implementation Activities (continued)Training End users must be trained to operate a new e-business system or implementation will fail May be limited in scope or may involve all aspects of the proper use of the new system Managers and end users must be educated in how the new technology impacts business operations and managementMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 56. 56 Other Implementation Activities (continued)Conversion methods Parallel Both old and new systems are operated until the project development team and end users agree to switch completely Phased Only parts of the new application or only a few locations at a time are convertedMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 57. 57 Other Implementation Activities (continued)Conversion methods (continued) Pilot One department or other work site serves as a test site Plunge A direct cutover to the newly developed systemMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 58. 58 Other Implementation Activities (continued)McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 59. 59 Other Implementation Activities (continued)IS Maintenance Systems maintenance Postimplementation reviewMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 60. 60 Discussion QuestionsWhy has prototyping become a popular way to develop e-business applications. What are prototyping’s advantages and disadvantages?What are the three most important factors you would use in evaluating computer hardware? Computer software?McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 61. 61 Discussion Questions (continued)Assume that in your first week on a new job you are asked to use a type of business software that you have never used before. What kind of user training should your company provide to you before you start?What is the difference between the parallel, plunge, phased, and pilot forms of IS conversion? Which strategy is best?McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 62. 62 Discussion Questions (continued)What are several key factors in designing a successful e-commerce or internet website?McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 63. 63 Real World Case 1 – Fidelity InvestmentsEvaluating Usability in Website DesignIs a usability lab like Fidelity’s necessary, or are there other alternatives for testing usability in website design?Which is the better approach?McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 64. 64 Real World Case 1 (continued)Evaluate the suggestions for good website design shared by companies in this case. Which are the most important to you?In what order would you rate the companies in this case in terms of website design?McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 65. 65 Real World Case 1 (continued)What are your choices for the top five design failures at business websites?Why were those your choices?McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 66. 66 Real World Case 2 – PacifiCorp, Reynolds, & Zurich NAThis case describes a change in focus in IT project management from time to market and market share goals, to profitable projects completed on time and on budget.Why has there been a change of focus in IT project management?Is this change necessary?McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 67. 67 Real World Case 2 (continued)What are the reasons for the difference in the project management focus of the meetings held by PacifiCorp and Reynolds?Which is more important?McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 68. 68 Real World Case 2 (continued)What are the benefits to IT project management of project status transparency and the project agreement as practiced by Zurich NA?Will the change in focus in IT project management stifle creativity and innovation in business system design?McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 69. 69 Real World Case 3 – IMG WorldwideIT Resource Acquisition StrategiesDo you agree with the methods and criteria that Gergely Tapolyai of IMG uses to evaluate IT products?McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 70. 70 Real World Case 3 (continued)What characteristics of the OshKosh B’Gosh buying process should be implemented by other companies?McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 71. 71 Real World Case 3 (continued)What other evaluation methods and criteria (whether mentioned in this case or not) are crucial to the IT acquisition process?Why?McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 72. 72 Real World Case 4 – Macy’s and Lands’ EndSystems Design Criteria for Website ShopabilityConsiderations Trust Categories Search Product pages NavigationMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 73. 73 Real World Case 4 (continued)How does the Macy’s website measure up to the five shopability criteria discussed in this case?Which do you like best? Macy’s or the Lands’ End websites.McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 74. 74 Real World Case 4 (continued)What are several other website design suggestions that either website could make to improve their shopability?McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 75. 75 Real World Case 5 – GM Locomotive GroupFailure in ERP System ImplementationGM Locomotive says the problem wasn’t with the ERP software. Then what DID cause the major failure of their ERP system?McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 76. 76 Real World Case 5 (continued)What major shortcomings in systems implementation, conversion, or project management practices do you recognize in this case?McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 77. 77 Real World Case 5 (continued)What would you advise GM Locomotive to do differently to avoid similar problems in their upcoming ERP implementations?McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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