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Chap009 MIS
 

Chap009 MIS

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    Chap009 MIS Chap009 MIS Presentation Transcript

    • 1Chapter 9 Developing Business/Information Technology StrategiesMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 2 Learning ObjectivesDiscuss the role of planning in the business use of information technology, using the scenario approach and planning for competitive advantage.Discuss the role of planning and business models in the development of e-business strategies, architectures, and applications.McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 3 Learning Objectives (continued)Identify several change management solutions for end user resistance to the implementation of new e-business strategies and applications.McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 4 Section I Planning FundamentalsMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 5 Organizational PlanningThe Planning Process Team building, modeling, & consensus Evaluating organizational accomplishments and the resources they have acquired Analyzing the business, economic, political, and societal environment Anticipating and evaluating the impact of future developmentsMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 6 Organizational Planning (continued)The planning process (continued) Building a shared vision and deciding on goals Deciding what actions to take to achieve goalsMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 7 Organizational Planning (continued)Strategic PlanningStrategic VisioningTactical PlanningOperational PlanningMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 8 The Scenario Approach to PlanningTeams participate in a “microworld”A variety of business scenarios are createdAlternative scenarios are created by teams or by business simulation software based on.. A variety of developments, trends, and environmental factorsMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 9 The Scenario Approach to Planning (continued)McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 10 Planning for Competitive AdvantageEspecially important in today’s competitive, complex environmentInvolves an evaluation of potential benefits and risksMay include the competitive forces and competitive strategies models, as well as a value chain model of basic business activitiesUse a strategic opportunities matrix to evaluate strategic potentialMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 11 Planning for Competitive Advantage (continued)McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 12 Planning for Competitive Advantage (continued)SWOT analysis Strengths (internal) Weaknesses (internal) Opportunities (external) Threats (external)McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 13 Business Models and PlanningA conceptual framework that expresses the underlying economic logic and system that prove how a business can deliver value to customers at an appropriate cost and make money.McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 14 Business Models and Planning (continued)Specifies what value to offer customers, and which customers to provide this value to using which products and services at what prices.McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 15 Business Models and Planning (continued)Specifies how the business will organize and operateFocuses attention on how all the essential components fit into a complete systemMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 16 e-Business PlanningThe e-Business planning process has three major components Strategy development Resource management Technology architectureMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 17 e-Business Planning (continued)IT architecture major components Technology platform Data resources Applications architecture IT organizationMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 18 Identifying e-Business StrategiesThe Strategic Positioning Matrix Cost and efficiency improvements Low level of connectivity and use of IT Strategy: use the Internet and Web to communicate and interactMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 19 Identifying e-Business Strategies (continued)Strategic Positioning Matrix (continued) Performance improvements in business effectiveness High level of internal connectivity and pressures to substantially improve business processes, external connectivity is low Strategy: making major improvements in business effectiveness. Use intranets and extranets to connect the organization with stakeholdersMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 20 Identifying e-Business Strategies (continued)Strategic Positioning Matrix (continued) Global Market Penetration Must capitalize on a high degree of customer and competitor connectivity and use of IT. Strategy: develop e-business and e- commerce applications to optimize interaction with customers and build market share.McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 21 Identifying e-Business Strategies (continued)Strategic Positioning Matrix (continued) Product and Service Transformation All stakeholders are extensively networked Strategy: implement Internet-based technologies including e-commerce websites and e-business intranets and extranets.McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 22 Identifying e-Business Strategies (continued)McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 23 e-Business Application PlanningBegins after the strategic phase has occurredIncludes.. Evaluation of proposals for using IT to accomplish the strategic priorities Evaluation of the business case for investing in e-business development projects Developing and implementing e-business applications and managing the development projectsMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 24 e-Business Application Planning (continued)Another alternative for planning – e-business architecture planning Combines contemporary methods and alternative planning scenarios with methodologies such as component-based developmentMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 25 Section II Implementation ChallengesMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 26 ImplementationA process of carrying out the plans for change in e-business strategies and applications that were developed during the planning process.McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 27 Implementing ITRequires managing the effects of major changes in key organizational dimensions such as business processes organizational structure Managerial roles Employee work assignments Stakeholder relationshipsMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 28 Implementing IT (continued)McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 29 End User Resistance and InvolvementChange can generate fear and resistance to changeKeys to countering end user resistance Proper education and training End user involvement in organizational changesMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 30 End User Resistance and Involvement (continued) End user involvement in the development of new information systems Involvement and commitment of top management and all business stakeholdersMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 31 Change ManagementPeople are a major focus of organizational change management Developing innovative ways to measure, motivate, and reward performance Designing programs to recruit and train employees in the core competenciesAlso involves analyzing and defining all changes facing the organizationMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 32 Change Management (continued)Key tactics for change Involve as many people as possible Make constant change an expected part of the organizational culture Tell everyone as much as possible about everything as often as possible, preferably in personMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 33 Change Management (continued)Key tactics for change (continued) Make liberal use of financial incentives and recognition Work within the company cultureMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 34 Change Management (continued)McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 35 Change Management (continued)A change management process Create a change vision Define a change strategy Develop leadership Build commitmentMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 36 Change Management (continued)Change management process (continued) Manage people performance Deliver business benefits Develop culture Design organizationMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 37 Discussion QuestionsPlanning is a useless endeavor, because developments in e-business and e-commerce, and in the political, economic, and social environments are moving too quickly nowadays. Do you agree with this statement?“Planning and budgeting processes are notorious for their rigidity and irrelevance to management action.” How can planning be made relevant to the challenges facing an e- business enterprise?McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 38 Discussion Questions (continued)What planning methods would you use to develop e-business and e-commerce strategies and applications for your own business?What are several e-business and e-commerce strategies and applications that should be developed and implemented by many companies today?McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 39 Discussion Questions (continued)How can a company use change management to minimize the resistance and maximize the acceptance of changes in business and technology?“Many companies plan really well, yet few translate strategy into action.” Do you think this is true?McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 40 Discussion Questions (continued)What major business changes beyond e-business and e-commerce do you think most companies should be planning for the next ten years?McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 41 Real World Case 1 – The Rowe Cos. & Merrill LynchWhat are the benefits and possible limitations of the Rowe Companies ROI methodologies for IT project planning?What is the business value of the ROI evaluation methodology required for project planning by Merrill Lynch?McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 42 Real World Case 1 (continued)Do you agree with the IT investment decisions being made by the Rowe Companies in response to changing economic conditions?McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 43 Real World Case 1 (continued)How can a company identify, measure, and compare the business/IT innovation as well as the profitability of IT projects in their planning process?McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 44 Real World Case 2 – Verizon, F.X. Coughlin, & A-decImplementation challengesWhat business benefits resulted from the integration projects of Verizon Wireless, F.X. Coughlin, and A-dec?McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 45 Real World Case 2 (continued)What change management challenges surfaced in each project?Where those challenges handled properly by the companies involved?McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 46 Real World Case 2 (continued)What are several change management actions these companies could have taken to increase the acceptance of their IT integration challenges?What other change management methods could be used to improve the acceptance of business/IT changes like those implemented at each company?McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 47 Real World Case 3 – PeopleFirst, Cessna, Allstate, & SprintChallenges of Implementing CRM SystemsWhat are several reasons for the high failure rate in implementing CRM systems?McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 48 Real World Case 3 (continued)What could PeopleFirst and Cessna have done to avoid the failures in their first tries at implementing CRM systems?McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 49 Real World Case 3 (continued)How have Allstate and Sprint Corp. helped to ensure their successful CRM implementations?What are other things companies could do to help implement CRM systems?McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 50 Real World Case 4 – Corning Inc.Business/IT Planning Strategies in Challenging TimesDo you agree with how CIO Richard Fishburn has defended Corning’s IT department from an economic downturn?McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 51 Real World Case 4 (continued)Why is aligning IT projects with business objectives a good business/IT strategy in challenging economic times?And in good times?McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 52 Real World Case 4 (continued)Does Corning’s business/IT planning process for its new production and supply chain system prove the value of aligning IT with business goals?McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 53 Real World Case 5 – Cincinnati BellChange Management Challenges of Business ConvergenceWas the reorganization of Cincinnati Bell as revealed in this case a good business strategy?McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 54 Real World Case 5 (continued)Were the change management methods revealed in this case adequate for the changes being made?McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    • 55 Real World Case 5 (continued)What further changes should be made in IT systems to better support Cincinnati Bell’s business convergence?McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.