Chap004 MIS

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Chap004 MIS

  1. 1. 1Chapter 4 Telecommunications and NetworksMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  2. 2. 2 Learning ObjectivesIdentify major developments and trends in the industries, technologies, and business applications of telecommunications and Internet technologies.Provide examples of the business value of Internet, intranet, and extranet applications.McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  3. 3. 3 Learning Objectives (continued)Identify the basic components, functions, and types of telecommunications networks used in business.Explain the functions of major types of telecommunications network hardware, software, media, and services.McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  4. 4. 4 Section I The Networked EnterpriseMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  5. 5. 5 Networking the EnterpriseNetworking business and employeesConnecting them to customers, suppliers, and other stakeholders.McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  6. 6. 6 Trends in TelecommunicationsMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  7. 7. 7 Trends in Telecommunications (continued) Industry More competitive More options for the firm Technology Unrestricted connectivity Easy access for end users Open systems Use common standards for hardware, software, applications, & networking.McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  8. 8. 8 Trends in Telecommunications (continued) Technology (continued) High degree of interoperability Digital networks Higher transmission speeds Moves larger amounts of information Greater economy Lower error rates Multiple types of communications on the same circuitsMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  9. 9. 9 Trends in Telecommunications (continued) Technology (continued) Fiber-optic lines & cellular, PCS, satellite & other wireless technologies Faster transmission speedsMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  10. 10. 10 Trends in Telecommunications (continued) Business applications Dramatic increase in the number of feasible telecommunication applications. Cut costs, reduce lead times, shorten response times, support e-commerce, improve collaboration, share resources, lock in customers & suppliers, & develop new products & servicesMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  11. 11. 11 Business Value of Telecommunications NetworksMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  12. 12. 12 The InternetA network of networksPopular uses E-mail Instant messaging Browsing the World Wide Web Newsgroups and chat roomsMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  13. 13. 13 The Internet (continued) The business value of the InternetMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  14. 14. 14 IntranetsWithin an organizationUses Internet technologiesBusiness value of Intranets Used for information sharing, communication, collaboration, & support of business processes. Web publishing Comparatively easy, attractive, & lower cost alternative for publishing & accessing multimedia business informationMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  15. 15. 15 Intranets (continued) Business Operations & Management Used for developing & deploying critical business applications Supports operations and managerial decision makingMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  16. 16. 16 ExtranetsNetwork links that use Internet technologies to interconnect the firm’s intranet with the intranets of customers, suppliers, or other business partners Consultants, subcontractors, business prospects, & othersMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  17. 17. 17 Extranets (continued)Business value Improve communication with customers and business partners Gain competitive advantage in Product development Cost savings Marketing Distribution Leveraging their partnershipsMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  18. 18. 18 Section II Telecommunications Network AlternativesMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  19. 19. 19 Telecommunications Network AlternativesMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  20. 20. 20 A Telecommunications Network ModelMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  21. 21. 21 A Telecommunications Network Model (continued)Consists of five basic components Terminals Any input/output device that uses telecommunication networks to transmit or receive data Telecommunication processors Support data transmission and reception between terminals and computersMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  22. 22. 22 A Telecommunications Network Model (continued)Telecommunications channels The medium over which data are transmitted and receivedComputers Interconnected by telecommunications networksTelecommunications control software Control telecommunications activities & manage the functions of telecommunications networksMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  23. 23. 23 Types of Telecommunications NetworksWide Area Networks (WAN) Cover a large geographic area.Local Area Networks (LAN) Connect computers & other information processing devices within a limited physical area. Connected via ordinary telephone wiring, coaxial cable, or wireless radio & infrared systemsMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  24. 24. 24 Types of Telecommunications Networks (continued)Virtual Private Networks A secure network that uses the Internet as its main backbone network, but relies on fire walls and other security featuresMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  25. 25. 25 Types of Telecommunications Networks (continued)McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  26. 26. 26 Types of Telecommunications Networks (continued)Client/Server Networks Clients – end user PCs or NCs Server – helps with application processing and also manages the networkMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  27. 27. 27 Types of Telecommunications Networks (continued)McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  28. 28. 28 Types of Telecommunications Networks (continued)Network computing “the network is the computer” Thin clients process small application programs called “applets.”McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  29. 29. 29 A Telecommunications Network Model (continued)Peer-to-Peer (P2P) Two major models Central server architecture Pure peer-to-peerMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  30. 30. 30 Telecommunications MediaTwisted-pair wireCoaxial cable Minimizes interference and distortion Allows high-speed data transmissionFiber optics Glass fiber that conducts pulses of light generated by lasers Size and weight reduction Increased speed and carrying capacityMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  31. 31. 31 Telecommunications Media (continued)McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  32. 32. 32 Wireless TechnologiesTerrestrial Microwave Line-of-sight path between relay stations spaced approximately 30 miles apart.Communications Satellites Geosynchronous orbits Serve as relay stations for communications signals transmitted from earth stationsMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  33. 33. 33 Wireless Technologies (continued)Cellular & PCS Systems Each cell is typically from one to several square miles in area. Each cell has its own low-power transmitter or radio relay antenna. Computers & other communications processors coordinate & control the transmissions to/from mobile users as they move from one cell to anotherMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  34. 34. 34 Wireless Technologies (continued)Wireless LANs Spread spectrum Wi-Fi (wireless fidelity)Wireless Web Uses Web-enabled information appliances Very thin clientsMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  35. 35. 35 Telecommunications ProcessorsModems (modulation/demodulation) Changes signals from analog to digital and back to analogMultiplexers Allows a single communication channel to carry simultaneous data transmissions from many terminalsMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  36. 36. 36 Telecommunications Processors (continued)Internetwork Processors Switches Makesconnections between telecomm circuits so a message can reach its intended destination Router Interconnects networks based on different rules or protocolsMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  37. 37. 37 Telecommunications Processors (continued) Hub Port switching communications processor Gateway A processor that interconnects networks that use different communications architectureMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  38. 38. 38 Telecommunications SoftwareProvides a variety of communications support services including connecting & disconnecting communications links & establishing communications parameters such as transmission speed, mode, and direction.McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  39. 39. 39 Telecommunications Software (continued)Network Management Traffic management Security Network monitoring Capacity planningMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  40. 40. 40 Network TopologiesStar Tiesend user computers to a central computer Considered the least reliableRing (sometimes called Token Ring) Ties local computer processors together in a ring on a more equal basis. Considered more reliable & less costlyMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  41. 41. 41 Network Topologies (continued)Bus Local processors share the same bus, or communications channel Tree is a variation which ties several bus networks togetherMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  42. 42. 42 Network Topologies (continued)McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  43. 43. 43 Network Architectures & ProtocolsProtocols Astandard set of rules & procedures for the control of communications in a network Standards for the physical characteristics of cables and connectorsNetwork Architecture Goal is to promote an open, simple, flexible, efficient telecommunications environmentMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  44. 44. 44 Network Architectures and Protocols (continued)OSI ModelTCP/IP Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol Used by the Internet and all intranets and extranetsMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  45. 45. 45 Bandwidth AlternativesBandwidth is the frequency range of a telecommunications networkDetermines the channel’s maximum transmission rateMeasured in bits per second (bps) or baudNarrow-band Low-speed transmissionBroadband High-speed transmissionMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  46. 46. 46 Switching AlternativesCircuit switchingPacket switchingCell switchingMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  47. 47. 47 Discussion QuestionsThe Internet is the driving force behind developments in telecommunications, networks, and other information technologies. Do you agree or disagree?How is the trend toward open systems, connectivity, and interoperability related to business use of the Internet, intranets, and extranets?McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  48. 48. 48 Discussion Questions (continued)How will wireless information appliances and services affect the business use of the Internet and the Web?What are some of the business benefits and management challenges of client/server networks? Network computing? Peer-to-peer networks?McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  49. 49. 49 Discussion Questions (continued)What is the business value driving so many companies to rapidly install and extend intranets throughout their organizations?What strategic competitive benefits do you see in a company’s use of extranets?McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  50. 50. 50 Discussion Questions (continued)Do you think that business use of the Internet, intranets, and extranets has changed what businesspeople expect from information technology in their jobs?Do you believe that the insatiable demand for everything wireless, video, and Web-enabled will be the driving force behind developments in telecommunications, networking, and computing technologies for the foreseeable future?McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  51. 51. 51 Real World Case 1 – FedEx versus UPSWhy does telecommunications play such a key role in the competition between FedEx and UPS?Why does “information about the package” have such a strategic business value in the express delivery business?McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  52. 52. 52 Real World Case 1 (continued)What telecommunications products or services would you recommend that FedEx or UPS use to improve their competitive position in the overnight delivery and shipping business?Consider the different management styles of FedEx and UPS. What makes them work?McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  53. 53. 53 Real World Case 1 (continued)What other IT or web-based services could FedEx and UPS offer their business or consumer customers?McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  54. 54. 54 Real World Case 2 – Nielsen Media ResearchManaging bandwidth use Monitoring and enforcing Centralizing operations Testing & tuning applicationsMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  55. 55. 55 Real World Case 2 (continued)How do the network bandwidth problems experienced by the companies in this case affect their business performance?What network management tactics are used to help solve these problems?McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  56. 56. 56 Real World Case 2 (continued)What other network management tactics would you recommend to help solve the business problems identified in this case?What are some network usage problems not mentioned in the case that could be solved by better network management?McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  57. 57. 57 Real World Case 3 – Link Staffing, FMC, AutoWeb, & APL LogisticsWhy do companies implement virtual private networks?What is the business case for outsourcing VPN services?McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  58. 58. 58 Real World Case 3 (continued)What role does network management software play in implementing and managing VPNs?What challenges did each company face and how did they use VPNs to help answer those challenges?McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  59. 59. 59 Real World Case 4 – Dow ChemicalWhy have companies been reluctant to rely on Internet telephony instead of traditional telephone systems for business use?Do the potential business benefits support Dow Chemical’s decision to implement a new global VOIP network?McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  60. 60. 60 Real World Case 4 (continued)Would you recommend that more companies implement IP telephony services? Why?McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  61. 61. 61 Real World Case 5 – General Motors Corp.What is the business value of wireless LANs to GM?What are the security vulnerabilities of wireless LANs? Is GM taking appropriate security measures?McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  62. 62. 62 Real World Case 5 (continued)What are some other possible business applications of wireless LANs?What are some of the benefits and challenges of LANs in a small business environment?McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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