Chap003 MIS

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Chap003 MIS

  1. 1. 1Chapter 3 Data Resource ManagementMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  2. 2. 2 Learning ObjectivesExplain the importance of implementing data resource management processes and technologies in an organization.Understand the advantages of a database management approach to managing the data resources of a business.McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  3. 3. 3 Learning Objectives (continued) Explain how database management software helps business professionals and supports the operations and management of a business. Illustrate each of the following concepts:  Major types of databases  Data warehouses and data mining  Logical data elements  Fundamental database structures  Database access methods  Database developmentMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  4. 4. 4 Section I Managing Data ResourcesMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  5. 5. 5 Data Resource ManagementA managerial activityApplies information systems technology to managing data resources to meet needs of business stakeholders.McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  6. 6. 6 Foundation Data ConceptsLevels of data Character Single alphabetical, numeric, or other symbol Field Groupings of characters Represents an attribute of some entityMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  7. 7. 7 Foundation Data Concepts (continued) Records Related fields of data Collection of attributes that describe an entity Fixed-length or variable-lengthMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  8. 8. 8 Foundation Data Concepts (continued) Files (table) A group of related records Classified by Primary use Type of data permanenceMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  9. 9. 9 Foundation Data Concepts (continued) Database Integrated collection of logically related data elements Consolidates records into a common pool of data elements Data is independent of the application program using them and type of storage deviceMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  10. 10. 10 Foundation Data Concepts (continued)  Logical Data ElementsMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  11. 11. 11 Types of DatabasesOperational Supports business processes and operations Also called subject-area databases, transaction databases, and production databasesMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  12. 12. 12 Types of Databases (continued)Distributed Replicated and distributed copies or parts of databases on network servers at a variety of sites. Done to improve database performance and securityMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  13. 13. 13 Types of Databases (continued)External Available for a fee from commercial sources or with or without charge on the Internet or World Wide WebHypermedia Hyperlinked pages of multimediaMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  14. 14. 14 Data Warehouses and Data MiningData warehouse Stores data extracted from operational, external, or other databases of an organization Central source of “structured” data May be subdivided into data martsMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  15. 15. 15 Data Warehouses and Data Mining (continued)Data mining A major use of data warehouse databases Data is analyzed to reveal hidden correlations, patterns, and trendsMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  16. 16. 16 Database Management ApproachConsolidates data records and objects into databases that can be accessed by many different application programsMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  17. 17. 17 Database Management Approach (continued)Database Management System Software interface between users and databases Controls creation, maintenance, and use of the databaseMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  18. 18. 18 Database Management Approach (continued)McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  19. 19. 19 Database Management Approach (continued)Database Interrogation Query Supports ad hoc requests Tells the software how you want to organize the data SQL queries Graphical (GUI) & natural queriesMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  20. 20. 20 Database Management Approach (continued) Report Generator Turns results of query into a useable reportDatabase Maintenance Updating and correcting dataMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  21. 21. 21 Database Management Approach (continued)Application Development Data manipulation language Data entry screens, forms, reports, or web pagesMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  22. 22. 22 Implementing Data Resource ManagementDatabase Administration Develop and maintain the data dictionary Design and monitor performance of databases Enforce database use and security standardsMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  23. 23. 23 Implementing Data Resource Management (continued)Data Planning Corporate planning and analysis function Developing the overall data architectureMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  24. 24. 24 Implementing Data Resource Management (continued)Data Administration Standardize collection, storage, and dissemination of data to end users Focused on supporting business processes and strategic business objectives May include developing policy and setting standardsMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  25. 25. 25 Implementing Data Resource Management (continued)Challenges Technologically complex Vast amounts of data Vulnerability to fraud, errors, and failuresMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  26. 26. 26 Section II Technical Foundations of Database ManagementMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  27. 27. 27 Database StructuresHierarchical Treelike One-to-many relationship Used for structured, routine types of transaction processingMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  28. 28. 28 Database Structures (continued)Network More complex Many-to-many relationship More flexible but doesn’t support ad hoc requests wellMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  29. 29. 29 Database Structures (continued)Relational Data elements stored in simple tables Can link data elements from various tables Very supportive of ad hoc requests but slower at processing large amounts of data than hierarchical or network modelsMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  30. 30. 30 Database Structures (continued)Multi-Dimensional A variation of the relational model Cubes of data and cubes within cubes Popular for online analytical processing (OLAP) applicationsMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  31. 31. 31 Database Structures (continued)McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  32. 32. 32 Database Structures (continued)Object-oriented Key technology of multimedia web-based applications Good for complex, high-volume applicationsMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  33. 33. 33 Database Structures (continued)McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  34. 34. 34 Accessing DatabasesKey fields (primary key) A field unique to each record so it can be distinguished from all other records in a tableMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  35. 35. 35 Accessing Databases (continued)Sequential access Data is stored and accessed in a sequence according to a key field Good for periodic processing of a large volume of data, but updating with new transactions can be troublesomeMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  36. 36. 36 Accessing Databases (continued)Direct access Methods Key transformation Index Indexed sequential accessMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  37. 37. 37 Database DevelopmentData dictionary Directory containing metadata (data about data) Structure Data elements Interrelationships Information regarding access and use Maintenance & security issuesMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  38. 38. 38 Database Development (continued)Data Planning & Database Design Planning & Design Process Enterprise model Entity relationship diagrams (ERDs) Data modeling Develop logical framework for the physical designMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  39. 39. 39 Discussion QuestionsHow should an e-business enterprise store, access, and distribute data & information about their internal operations & external environment?What roles do database management, data administration, and data planning play in managing data as a business resource?McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  40. 40. 40 Discussion Questions (continued)What are the advantages of a database management approach to organizing, accessing, and managing an organization’s data resources?What is the role of a database management system in an e-business information system?McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  41. 41. 41 Discussion Questions (continued)Databases of information about a firm’s internal operations were formerly the only databases that were considered to be important to a business. What other kinds of databases are important for a business today?What are the benefits and limitations of the relational database model for business applications?McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  42. 42. 42 Discussion Questions (continued)Why is the object-oriented database model gaining acceptance for developing applications and managing the hypermedia databases at business websites?How have the Internet, intranets, extranets, and the World Wide Web affected the types and uses of data resources available to business end users?McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  43. 43. 43 Real World Case 1 – IBM versus OracleWhat key business strategies did Janet Perna implement to help IBM catch up to Oracle in the database management software market?What is the business case for both IBM’s and Oracle’s product strategy for their database software?McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  44. 44. 44 Real World Case 1 (continued)Which approach would you recommend to a company seeking a database system today?What do you see as the key factor to IBM’s success?McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  45. 45. 45 Real World Case 1 (continued)The case states that “database software has become more of a commodity.” Do you agree?McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  46. 46. 46 Real World Case 2 – Experian AutomotiveHow do the database software tools discussed in this case help companies exploit their data resources?What is the business value of the automotive database created by Experian?McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  47. 47. 47 Real World Case 2 (continued)What other business opportunities could you recommend to Experian that would capitalize on their automotive database?The case states that Experian’s automotive database “has raised the hackles of privacy advocates.” What legitimate privacy concerns and safeguard suggestions might be raised about this database and its use?McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  48. 48. 48 Real World Case 3 – Shell ExplorationWhy do companies still have problems with the quality of the data resources stored in their business information systems?What is a “data silo?”McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  49. 49. 49 Real World Case 3 (continued)How do data warehouse approaches help companies like Shell and OshKosh meet their data resource management challenges?What business benefits can companies derive from a data warehouse approach?McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  50. 50. 50 Real World Case 4 – BlueCross BlueShield & Warner Bros.What is a storage area network? Why are so many companies installing SANs?What are the reasons for the quick payback on SAN investments?McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  51. 51. 51 Real World Case 4 (continued)What are the challenges and alternatives to SANs as a data storage technology?What are some advantages of SANs?McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  52. 52. 52 Real World Case 5 – Sherwin-Williams & Krispy KremeTips for Managing External Data Purchase external data from a reliable source that will do most of the refining for you and will work with you on contingency plans. Run a test load first. A load of test data can pave the way for accurate production loads.McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  53. 53. 53 Real World Case 5 (continued)Managing external data (continued) Don’t collect data until business and IT staff have agreed on the amount, frequency, format, and content of the data you need. Don’t acquire more data or use more data sources than you really need.McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  54. 54. 54 Real World Case 5 (continued)Managing external data (continued) Don’t mingle external and homegrown data without adding unique identifiers to each record, in case you need to pull it out. Don’t overestimate the data’s integrity. Nothing beats direct customer contact and tactical details behind the data.McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  55. 55. 55 Real World Case 5 (continued)What challenges in acquiring and using data from external sources are identified in this case?Do you prefer the Sherwin-Williams or Krispy Kreme approach to acquiring external data?McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
  56. 56. 56 Real World Case 5 (continued)What other sources of external data might a business use to gain valuable marketing and competitive intelligence?McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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