Chapter 1               Introduction to            Information SystemsITEC 1010      Information and Organizations
Information Concepts (1)      Data vs. Information             Data              • Raw facts              • Distinct pie...
Data ‘Discussion’ (1)   (1) Distinct pieces of information, usually formatted in a special   way. All software is divided ...
information. In practice, however, people use data as both the   singular and plural form of the word.   (2) The term data...
Homework        Is the term “data”generally used in the        singular or plural            (a) in the textbook, and     ...
Terminology             Process              • A set of logically related tasks performed to achieve                  a d...
Terminology             Knowledge              • An awareness and understanding of a set of               information and...
Types of Data  Data                    Represented by  Alphanumeric data       Numbers, letters, and other characters  Ima...
Data  Information            Data          Transformation           InformationITEC 1010          Information and Organiz...
Characteristics of                 Valuable Information      Characteristics             Accurate, complete, economical,...
System      System             A set of elements or components that interact              to accomplish goals           ...
System ‘Discussion’(1) Refers to a combination of components working together. Forexample, a computer system includes both...
System Elements      Inputs      Processing mechanisms      OutputsITEC 1010        Information and Organizations
System Example                                Elements  System                          Processing                       G...
System Components and Concepts      System boundary         Defines the system and distinguishes it from            ever...
System Performance and Standards      Efficiency         A measure of what is produced divided by what is            con...
Figure 1.5aITEC 1010   Information and Organizations
Figure 1.5bITEC 1010   Information and Organizations
System Variables and Parameters      System variable             A quantity or item that can be controlled by the       ...
Modeling a System      Model             An abstraction or an approximation that is              used to represent reali...
ITEC 1010   Information and Organizations
Information System (IS)      Definition        A set of interrelated elements or components that                collect ...
What is an Information System?      Schematic model of an information system                              Feedback       ...
Input, Processing, Output,      Input         The activity of gathering and capturing data         Whatever goes into t...
Input ‘Discussion’     (n) Whatever goes into the computer. Input        can take a variety of forms, from        commands...
Output ‘Discussion’     (n) Anything that comes out of a computer. Output        can be meaningful information or gibberis...
Feedback      Feedback             Output that is used to make changes to input or              processing activities   ...
Manual vs. Computerized                   Systems      Manual systems still widely used        E.g., some investment ana...
Computer-based Information                    Systems      A CBIS is composed of…         Hardware         Software    ...
Technology Infrastructure      Another term for CBIS      Consists of the shared information system       (IS) resources...
Parts of a CBIS      Five parts             Hardware             Software             Database             Telecommun...
Parts of a CBIS      Five parts             Hardware             Software             Database             Telecommun...
Hardware      Hardware        Computer equipment used to perform input,         processing, and output activities       ...
Hardware ‘Discussion’         Hardware refers to objects that you can actually touch,     like disks, disk drives, display...
Parts of a CBIS      Five parts             Hardware             Software             Database             Telecommun...
Software      Software         Computer programs that          govern/determine/control the operation of the          co...
Software ‘Discussion’ (1)         Software is computer instructions or data. Anything that     can be stored electronicall...
Software ‘Discussion’ (2)         The distinction between software and hardware is     sometimes confusing because they ar...
Parts of a CBIS      Five parts             Hardware             Software             Database             Telecommun...
Database      Database        An organized collection of facts and         information        A collection of informati...
Database ‘Discussion’ (1)          A database is a collection of information organized in     such a way that a computer p...
Database ‘Discussion’ (2)         An alternative concept in database design is known as     Hypertext. In a Hypertext data...
Database ‘Discussion’ (3)ITEC 1010        Information and Organizations
Parts of a CBIS      Five parts             Hardware             Software             Database             Telecommun...
Telecommunications      Telecommunications             The electronic transmission of signals for              communica...
Parts of a CBIS      Five parts             Hardware             Software             Database             Telecommun...
Networks      Network             Used to connect computers and computer              equipment in a building, around th...
Network ‘Discussion’ (1)     There are many types of computer networks, including:     local-area networks (LANs) : The co...
Network ‘Discussion’ (2)     In addition to these types, the following characteristics are         also used to categorize...
Network ‘Discussion’ (3)     Computers on a network are sometimes called nodes.     Computers and devices that allocate re...
Network ‘Discussion’ (4)ITEC 1010        Information and Organizations
Internet and Intranet      Internet         The world’s largest telecommunications network         A network of network...
People and Procedures      People             The most important element in most computer-              based informatio...
Business Information Systems      Types             Transaction processing systems             E-commerce systems      ...
Transactions Processing Systems      Transaction        Any business-related exchange        E.g., generating a weekly ...
Payroll Example            Hours            worked                                   Payroll                              ...
Business Information Systems      Types             Transaction processing systems             E-commerce systems      ...
E-Commerce System      E-commerce         Involves any business transaction executed                electronically      ...
Purchase Order - TraditionalITEC 1010          Information and Organizations
Purchase Order – E-commerceITEC 1010      Information and Organizations
Business Information Systems      Types             Transaction processing systems             E-commerce systems      ...
Management Information Systems      An MIS is…             An organized collection of people, procedures,             so...
Schematic of MIS             Marketing                                    Manufacturing            management             ...
MIS ‘Discussion’Short for management information system or managementinformation services, and pronounced as separate lett...
Business Information Systems      Types             Transaction processing systems             E-commerce systems      ...
Decision Support Systems      A DSS is…             An organized collection of people, procedures,             software,...
Business Information Systems      Types             Transaction processing systems             E-commerce systems      ...
Expert Systems      An expert system is…        A computer application that performs a task that                would ot...
Artificial Intelligence (1) The branch of computer science concerned with making computersbehave like humans. The term was...
Artificial Intelligence (2)           neural networks : Systems that simulate intelligence by attempting            to re...
Artificial Intelligence (3)Gary Kasparov in a chess match.In the area of robotics, computers are now widely used in assemb...
Artificial Intelligence (4)computer and talk to it. Unfortunately, programming computers tounderstand natural languages ha...
Artificial Intelligence (5)In the early 1980s, expert systems were believed to represent thefuture of artificial intellige...
Artificial Intelligence (6)There are several programming languages that are known as AIlanguages because they are used alm...
Working with Systems (1)      Systems development         The activity of creating or modifying an existing            b...
Working with Systems (2)      Systems implementation             Creating and acquiring system components             de...
End of Chapter 1                    Chapter 2ITEC 1010    Information and Organizations
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1010 chapter1

  1. 1. Chapter 1 Introduction to Information SystemsITEC 1010 Information and Organizations
  2. 2. Information Concepts (1)  Data vs. Information  Data • Raw facts • Distinct pieces of information, usually formatted in a special way  Information • A collection of facts organized in such a way that they have additional value beyond the value of the facts themselvesITEC 1010 Information and Organizations
  3. 3. Data ‘Discussion’ (1) (1) Distinct pieces of information, usually formatted in a special way. All software is divided into two general categories: data and programs. Programs are collections of instructions for manipulating data. Data can exist in a variety of forms -- as numbers or text on pieces of paper, as bits and bytes stored in electronic memory, or as facts stored in a persons mind. Strictly speaking, data is the plural of datum, a single piece ofITEC 1010 Information and Organizations
  4. 4. information. In practice, however, people use data as both the singular and plural form of the word. (2) The term data is often used to distinguish binary machine-readable information from textual human-readable information. For example, some applications make a distinction between data files (files that contain binary data) and text files (files that contain ASCII data). (3) In database management systems, data files are the files that store the database information, whereas other files, such as index files and data dictionaries, store administrative information, known as metadata.ITEC 1010 Information and Organizations
  5. 5. Homework Is the term “data”generally used in the singular or plural (a) in the textbook, and (b) in the zdwebopedia web site?ITEC 1010 Information and Organizations
  6. 6. Terminology  Process • A set of logically related tasks performed to achieve a defined outcome  Process • (n) An executing program. The term is used loosely as a synonym of task. • (v) To perform some useful operations on data.ITEC 1010 Information and Organizations
  7. 7. Terminology  Knowledge • An awareness and understanding of a set of information and how that information can be made useful to support a specific task  Knowledge base • The collection of data, rules, procedures, and relationships that must be followed to achieve value or the proper outcomeITEC 1010 Information and Organizations
  8. 8. Types of Data Data Represented by Alphanumeric data Numbers, letters, and other characters Image data Graphic images or pictures Audio data Sound, noise, tones Video data Moving images or picturesITEC 1010 Information and Organizations
  9. 9. Data  Information Data Transformation InformationITEC 1010 Information and Organizations
  10. 10. Characteristics of Valuable Information  Characteristics  Accurate, complete, economical, flexible, reliable, relevant, simple, timely, verifiable, accessible, secureITEC 1010 Information and Organizations
  11. 11. System  System  A set of elements or components that interact to accomplish goals  A combination of components working togetherITEC 1010 Information and Organizations
  12. 12. System ‘Discussion’(1) Refers to a combination of components working together. Forexample, a computer system includes both hardware and software.A Windows system is a personal computer running the Windowsoperating system. A desktop publishing system is a computerrunning desktop publishing software.(2) Short for computer system.(3) Short for operating system.(4) An organization or methodology. The binary numbering system,for instance, is a way to count using only two digits.ITEC 1010 Information and Organizations
  13. 13. System Elements  Inputs  Processing mechanisms  OutputsITEC 1010 Information and Organizations
  14. 14. System Example Elements System Processing Goal Inputs Outputs elements Actors, director, Filming, Finished Entertaining staff, sets, editing, film movie, film Movie equipment special delivered to awards, effects, movie profits distribution studioITEC 1010 Information and Organizations
  15. 15. System Components and Concepts  System boundary  Defines the system and distinguishes it from everything else  System types  Simple vs. complex  Open vs. closed  Stable vs. dynamic  Adaptive vs. nonadaptive  Permanent vs. temporaryITEC 1010 Information and Organizations
  16. 16. System Performance and Standards  Efficiency  A measure of what is produced divided by what is consumed  Effectiveness  A measure of the extent to which a system achieves its goals  System performance standard  A specific objective of the system (next 2 slides)ITEC 1010 Information and Organizations
  17. 17. Figure 1.5aITEC 1010 Information and Organizations
  18. 18. Figure 1.5bITEC 1010 Information and Organizations
  19. 19. System Variables and Parameters  System variable  A quantity or item that can be controlled by the decision maker  E.g. the price a company charges for a product  System parameter  A value or quantity that cannot be controlled by the decision maker  E.g., cost of a raw materialITEC 1010 Information and Organizations
  20. 20. Modeling a System  Model  An abstraction or an approximation that is used to represent reality  Types of models  Narrative (aka descriptive)  Physical  Schematic  Mathematical Next slideITEC 1010 Information and Organizations
  21. 21. ITEC 1010 Information and Organizations
  22. 22. Information System (IS)  Definition  A set of interrelated elements or components that collect (input), manipulate (process), and disseminate (output) data and information and provide a feedback mechanism to meet an objective  (IS) Pronounced as separate letters, and short for Information Systems or Information Services. For many companies, IS is the name of the department responsible for computers, networking and data management. Other companies refer to the department as IT (Information Technology) and MIS (Management Information Services).ITEC 1010 Information and Organizations
  23. 23. What is an Information System?  Schematic model of an information system Feedback Input Processing OutputITEC 1010 Information and Organizations
  24. 24. Input, Processing, Output,  Input  The activity of gathering and capturing data  Whatever goes into the computer  Processing  Converting or transforming data into useful outputs  Output  Useful information, usually in the form of documents and/or reports  Anything that comes out of a computerITEC 1010 Information and Organizations
  25. 25. Input ‘Discussion’ (n) Whatever goes into the computer. Input can take a variety of forms, from commands you enter on a keyboard to data from another computer or device. A device that feeds data into a computer, such as a keyboard or mouse, is called an input device. (v) The act of entering data into a computerITEC 1010 Information and Organizations
  26. 26. Output ‘Discussion’ (n) Anything that comes out of a computer. Output can be meaningful information or gibberish, and it can appear in a variety of forms -- as binary numbers, as characters, as pictures, and as printed pages. Output devices include display screens, loudspeakers, and printers. (v) To give out. For example, display screens output images, printers output print, and loudspeakers output sounds.ITEC 1010 Information and Organizations
  27. 27. Feedback  Feedback  Output that is used to make changes to input or processing activities  Forecasting  A proactive approach to feedback  Use for estimating future sales or inventory needsITEC 1010 Information and Organizations
  28. 28. Manual vs. Computerized Systems  Manual systems still widely used  E.g., some investment analysts manual draw charts and trend lines to assist them in making investment decisions  Computerized systems  E.g., the above trends lines can be drawn by computer  Evolution  Many computerized system began as manual systems  E.g., directory assistance (“411”)ITEC 1010 Information and Organizations
  29. 29. Computer-based Information Systems  A CBIS is composed of…  Hardware  Software  Databases  Telecommunications  People  Procedures  Together they are…  Configured to collect, manipulate, store, and process data into informationITEC 1010 Information and Organizations
  30. 30. Technology Infrastructure  Another term for CBIS  Consists of the shared information system (IS) resources that form the foundation of the information systemITEC 1010 Information and Organizations
  31. 31. Parts of a CBIS  Five parts  Hardware  Software  Database  Telecommunications  NetworksITEC 1010 Information and Organizations
  32. 32. Parts of a CBIS  Five parts  Hardware  Software  Database  Telecommunications  NetworksITEC 1010 Information and Organizations
  33. 33. Hardware  Hardware  Computer equipment used to perform input, processing, and output activities  The objects that you can actually touch, like disks, disk drives, display screens, keyboards, printers, boards, and chips.ITEC 1010 Information and Organizations
  34. 34. Hardware ‘Discussion’ Hardware refers to objects that you can actually touch, like disks, disk drives, display screens, keyboards, printers, boards, and chips. In contrast, software is untouchable. Software exists as ideas, concepts, and symbols, but it has no substance. Books provide a useful analogy. The pages and the ink are the hardware, while the words, sentences, paragraphs, and the overall meaning are the software. A computer without software is like a book full of blank pages -- you need software to make the computer useful just as you need words to make a book meaningful.ITEC 1010 Information and Organizations
  35. 35. Parts of a CBIS  Five parts  Hardware  Software  Database  Telecommunications  NetworksITEC 1010 Information and Organizations
  36. 36. Software  Software  Computer programs that govern/determine/control the operation of the computer  Computer instructions or dataITEC 1010 Information and Organizations
  37. 37. Software ‘Discussion’ (1) Software is computer instructions or data. Anything that can be stored electronically is software. The storage devices and display devices are hardware. The terms software and hardware are used as both nouns and adjectives. For example, you can say: "The problem lies in the software," meaning that there is a problem with the program or data, not with the computer itself. You can also say: "Its a software problem.“ITEC 1010 Information and Organizations
  38. 38. Software ‘Discussion’ (2) The distinction between software and hardware is sometimes confusing because they are so integrally linked. Clearly, when you purchase a program, you are buying software. But to buy the software, you need to buy the disk (hardware) on which the software is recorded. Software is often divided into two categories. Systems software includes the operating system and all the utilities that enable the computer to function. Applications software includes programs that do real work for users. For example, word processors, spreadsheets, and database management systems fall under the category of applications software.ITEC 1010 Information and Organizations
  39. 39. Parts of a CBIS  Five parts  Hardware  Software  Database  Telecommunications  NetworksITEC 1010 Information and Organizations
  40. 40. Database  Database  An organized collection of facts and information  A collection of information organized in such a way that a computer program can quickly select desired pieces of dataITEC 1010 Information and Organizations
  41. 41. Database ‘Discussion’ (1) A database is a collection of information organized in such a way that a computer program can quickly select desired pieces of data. You can think of a database as an electronic filing system. Traditional databases are organized by fields, records, and files. A field is a single piece of information; a record is one complete set of fields; and a file is a collection of records. For example, a telephone book is analogous to a file. It contains a list of records, each of which consists of three fields: name, address, and telephone number.ITEC 1010 Information and Organizations
  42. 42. Database ‘Discussion’ (2) An alternative concept in database design is known as Hypertext. In a Hypertext database, any object, whether it be a piece of text, a picture, or a film, can be linked to any other object. Hypertext databases are particularly useful for organizing large amounts of disparate information, but they are not designed for numerical analysis. To access information from a database, you need a database management system (DBMS). This is a collection of programs that enables you to enter, organize, and select data in a database.ITEC 1010 Information and Organizations
  43. 43. Database ‘Discussion’ (3)ITEC 1010 Information and Organizations
  44. 44. Parts of a CBIS  Five parts  Hardware  Software  Database  Telecommunications  NetworksITEC 1010 Information and Organizations
  45. 45. Telecommunications  Telecommunications  The electronic transmission of signals for communications; enables organizations to link computer systems into effective networks  Refers to all types of data transmission, from voice to videoITEC 1010 Information and Organizations
  46. 46. Parts of a CBIS  Five parts  Hardware  Software  Database  Telecommunications  NetworksITEC 1010 Information and Organizations
  47. 47. Networks  Network  Used to connect computers and computer equipment in a building, around the country, across the world, to enable electronic communications  A group of two or more computer systems linked togetherITEC 1010 Information and Organizations
  48. 48. Network ‘Discussion’ (1) There are many types of computer networks, including: local-area networks (LANs) : The computers are geographically close together (that is, in the same building). wide-area networks (WANs) : The computers are farther apart and are connected by telephone lines or radio waves.ITEC 1010 Information and Organizations
  49. 49. Network ‘Discussion’ (2) In addition to these types, the following characteristics are also used to categorize different types of networks: topology : The geometric arrangement of a computer system. Common topologies include a bus, star, and ring. protocol : The protocol defines a common set of rules and signals that computers on the network use to communicate. One of the most popular protocols for LANs is called Ethernet. Another popular LAN protocol for PCs is the IBM token-ring network . architecture : Networks can be broadly classified as using either a peer-to-peer or client/server architecture.ITEC 1010 Information and Organizations
  50. 50. Network ‘Discussion’ (3) Computers on a network are sometimes called nodes. Computers and devices that allocate resources for a network are called servers.ITEC 1010 Information and Organizations
  51. 51. Network ‘Discussion’ (4)ITEC 1010 Information and Organizations
  52. 52. Internet and Intranet  Internet  The world’s largest telecommunications network  A network of networks  Free exchange of information  A global network connecting millions of computers  Intranet  A network that uses Internet technology within an organization  A network belonging to an organizationITEC 1010 Information and Organizations
  53. 53. People and Procedures  People  The most important element in most computer- based information systems  Includes people who manage, run, program, and maintain the system  E.g., IT professionals (you!)  Procedures  Includes the strategies, policies, methods, and rules for using the CBISITEC 1010 Information and Organizations
  54. 54. Business Information Systems  Types  Transaction processing systems  E-commerce systems  Management information systems  Decision support systems  Expert systemsITEC 1010 Information and Organizations
  55. 55. Transactions Processing Systems  Transaction  Any business-related exchange  E.g., generating a weekly payroll  Transaction processing system (TPS)  An organized collection of people, procedures, software, databases, and devices used to record completed for for business related exchangesITEC 1010 Information and Organizations
  56. 56. Payroll Example Hours worked Payroll Payroll transaction checks processing Pay rateITEC 1010 Information and Organizations
  57. 57. Business Information Systems  Types  Transaction processing systems  E-commerce systems  Management information systems  Decision support systems  Expert systemsITEC 1010 Information and Organizations
  58. 58. E-Commerce System  E-commerce  Involves any business transaction executed electronically  Conducting business on-line  For example, between… • Companies • Companies and consumers • Business and the public sector • Consumers and the public sector  Example for placing a purchase orderITEC 1010 Information and Organizations
  59. 59. Purchase Order - TraditionalITEC 1010 Information and Organizations
  60. 60. Purchase Order – E-commerceITEC 1010 Information and Organizations
  61. 61. Business Information Systems  Types  Transaction processing systems  E-commerce systems  Management information systems  Decision support systems  Expert systemsITEC 1010 Information and Organizations
  62. 62. Management Information Systems  An MIS is…  An organized collection of people, procedures, software, databases, and devices used to provide routine information to managers and decision makersITEC 1010 Information and Organizations
  63. 63. Schematic of MIS Marketing Manufacturing management management information Information system system Common databases Financial Order management management Information information system system TPSITEC 1010 Information and Organizations
  64. 64. MIS ‘Discussion’Short for management information system or managementinformation services, and pronounced as separate letters, MISrefers to a class of software that provides managers with tools fororganizing and evaluating their department. Typically, MIS systemsare written in COBOL and run on mainframes or minicomputers.Within companies and large organizations, the departmentresponsible for computer systems is sometimes called the MISdepartment. Other names for MIS include IS (Information Services)and IT (Information Technology).ITEC 1010 Information and Organizations
  65. 65. Business Information Systems  Types  Transaction processing systems  E-commerce systems  Management information systems  Decision support systems  Expert systemsITEC 1010 Information and Organizations
  66. 66. Decision Support Systems  A DSS is…  An organized collection of people, procedures, software, databases, and devices used to support problem-specific decision making  A DSS helps a manger “do the right thing”ITEC 1010 Information and Organizations
  67. 67. Business Information Systems  Types  Transaction processing systems  E-commerce systems  Management information systems  Decision support systems  Expert systemsITEC 1010 Information and Organizations
  68. 68. Expert Systems  An expert system is…  A computer application that performs a task that would otherwise be performed by a human expert  gives the computer the ability to make suggestions and to act like an expert in a particular field  Examples: diagnose human illnesses, make financial forecasts, schedule routes for delivery vehicles  Expert systems typically include “artificial intelligence” (next slide)ITEC 1010 Information and Organizations
  69. 69. Artificial Intelligence (1) The branch of computer science concerned with making computersbehave like humans. The term was coined in 1956 by John McCarthyat the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Artificial intelligenceincludes  games playing: programming computers to play games such as chess and checkers  expert systems : programming computers to make decisions in real-life situations (for example, some expert systems help doctors diagnose diseases based on symptoms)  natural language : programming computers to understand natural human languagesITEC 1010 Information and Organizations
  70. 70. Artificial Intelligence (2)  neural networks : Systems that simulate intelligence by attempting to reproduce the types of physical connections that occur in animal brains  robotics : programming computers to see and hear and react to other sensory stimuliCurrently, no computers exhibit full artificial intelligence (that is, areable to simulate human behavior). The greatest advances haveoccurred in the field of games playing. The best computer chessprograms are now capable of beating humans. In May, 1997, an IBMsuper-computer called Deep Blue defeated world chess championITEC 1010 Information and Organizations
  71. 71. Artificial Intelligence (3)Gary Kasparov in a chess match.In the area of robotics, computers are now widely used in assemblyplants, but they are capable only of very limited tasks. Robots havegreat difficulty identifying objects based on appearance or feel, andthey still move and handle objects clumsily.Natural-language processing offers the greatest potential rewardsbecause it would allow people to interact with computers withoutneeding any specialized knowledge. You could simply walk up to aITEC 1010 Information and Organizations
  72. 72. Artificial Intelligence (4)computer and talk to it. Unfortunately, programming computers tounderstand natural languages has proved to be more difficult thanoriginally thought. Some rudimentary translation systems thattranslate from one human language to another are in existence, butthey are not nearly as good as human translators. There are alsovoice recognition systems that can convert spoken sounds intowritten words, but they do not understand what they are writing;they simply take dictation. Even these systems are quite limited --you must speak slowly and distinctly.ITEC 1010 Information and Organizations
  73. 73. Artificial Intelligence (5)In the early 1980s, expert systems were believed to represent thefuture of artificial intelligence and of computers in general. To date,however, they have not lived up to expectations. Many expertsystems help human experts in such fields as medicine andengineering, but they are very expensive to produce and are helpfulonly in special situations.Today, the hottest area of artificial intelligence is neural networks,which are proving successful in a number of disciplines such as voicerecognition and natural-language processing.ITEC 1010 Information and Organizations
  74. 74. Artificial Intelligence (6)There are several programming languages that are known as AIlanguages because they are used almost exclusively for AIapplications. The two most common are LISP and Prolog.ITEC 1010 Information and Organizations
  75. 75. Working with Systems (1)  Systems development  The activity of creating or modifying an existing business system  Systems investigation and analysis  Defines the problems and opportunities of an existing system  Systems design  Determine how a new system will work to meet business needsITEC 1010 Information and Organizations
  76. 76. Working with Systems (2)  Systems implementation  Creating and acquiring system components defined in the design  Systems maintenance and review  Checks and modifies the system so that it continues to meet changing business needsITEC 1010 Information and Organizations
  77. 77. End of Chapter 1 Chapter 2ITEC 1010 Information and Organizations
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