On February 4, 2004, Zuckerberg launched "Thefacebook", originally located at thefacebook.com In March 2004, Facebook expanded to Stanford, Columbia and Yale Facebook was incorporated in mid-2004, and the entrepreneur Sean Parker, who had been informally advising Zuckerberg, became the company's president. In June 2004, Facebook moved its base of operations to Palo Alto, California. Facebook was then opened on September 26, 2006, to everyone of age 13 and older with a valid email address.
This is the visualization of distribution of Facebook users and their friends across the world. The dark areas represent the uninhabited places whereas the highlighted areas represent high population density. Sahara desert, Amazon basin, Thar desert, Siberia (ice covered place- Northern Russia), Outback in Australia.
RSS (originally RDF Site Summary, often dubbed Really Simple Syndication) is a family of web feed formats used to publish frequently updated works—such as blog entries, news headlines, audio, and video—in a standardized format. An RSS document (which is called a "feed", "web feed” or "channel") includes full or summarized text, plus metadata such as publishing dates and authorship.
Library Network 2.0 and Social Networking in Libraries
Towards Library Network 2.0:
In search of Social Networking Components in
MS in Library and Information Science
Batch :2011 - 2013
Documentation Research and Training Centre
Indian Statistical Institute, Bangalore
Overview Amit Kumar Shaw
UGC- Infonet 2.0 & N-LIST Subhashis Das
Components of Social Networks Sonali Kishore Kalani
Library Networks Anurodh Kumar Sinha
Conclusion Mayukh Biswas
A library network is broadly described as a group of libraries
coming together with some agreement of understanding to help
each other with a view to satisfying the information needs of their
clientele or user.
The UGC-Infonet is an ambitious programme of UGC to interlink
all the Universities in the country with state-of-art technology.
The Network is being switched to BSNL backbone w.e.f 1st
April 2010 and renamed as UGC Infonet 2.0.
E- journals and
E - books
the balance of
in our libraries
The term social networking refers to a process of relationship
building among a group of people who have a common
Social networking services allow users to create a profile for
themselves and can be broken down into two broad
• Internal Social Networking (ISN)
• External Social Networking (ESN)
Social Networking in Libraries
• Social software that enables libraries to interact with and build
community with their patrons. A new way to provide
information & offer services to library patrons “where they
live”. Another access point to the library & its website.
• Social networks have additional features, such as the ability to
create groups that share common interests, share photos,
upload or stream live videos and hold discussions in forums.
Why Social Networking
• Facebook has more than 845 million active users.
• Hundreds of millions of videos are viewed every day on
• Twitter has over 140 million users.
• Wikipedia has over 21 million articles written in over 284
• LIS Link and LIS forum has more then 8000 members
• There are more then 1000 million photos uploaded to site each
• Library Thing more than 69 million books had been
Use of Social Networks
• Now social networks are also being used between teachers
and students as a communication tool. Because many
students are already using the of social networking sites,
teachers have begun to familiarize themselves with this trend
and are now using it to their advantage.
• Teachers, lecturers and professors are doing everything from
creating chat room forums and groups to extend classroom,
discussion to posting assignments, tests to assisting with
homework outside of the classroom setting.
API of Social Network Sites
• Now Facebook , twitter etc. are providing API for enhancing
the services and awareness of Library.
SirsiDynix Social Library
What is UGC-Infonet?
• The UGC INFONET Digital Library Consortium is major initiative
of University Grants Commission (UGC) to bring qualitative
change in academic libraries in India.
• The UGC-Infonet Digital Library Consortium was formally
launched in December, 2003 by Honorable Dr. A P J Abdul Kalam,
the then President of India soon after providing the Internet
connectivity to the universities in the year 2003 under the UGC-
• The UGC-Infonet Network is being switched to BSNL
backbone on 1st April 2010 and renamed as UGC Infonet 2.0.
ON the new scheme 10 Mbps(1:1) Leased line is being
established in 180 plus.
Aims and objectives
to provide access to a high-quality and scholarly electronic
resources to a large
number of academic institutions including universities and
colleges at substantially lower rates of subscription and at most
favorable terms and conditions;
to promote rapid and efficient access to scholarly content to
the users and to create and promote use of ICT in teaching and
learning in universities in India;
to extend the benefit of Consortium to its associate members
including private universities and colleges;
to promote use of e-resources with gradual decrease in print
to promote interaction and inter-library cooperation amongst
the participating universities;
to evaluate the usage of the subscribed resources and to
identify new resources that are required to be subscribed under
to bring qualitative change in teaching, learning and research
with an aim to meet the ever growing challenges of
globalization of higher education; and
to increase the research productivity of the institutions both in
terms of quality and quantity of publications.
• UGC-Infonet will become a vehicle for Network learning to
facilitate spread of quality education all over the country.
• It will be a tool distribute education material and journals to
the remotest of areas.
• It will be a resource for researchers and scholars for tapping
the most up-to-date information.
• It will form a medium for collaboration among teachers and
students, not only within the country but all over the world.
• UGC-Infonet will be an Intranet for University Automation.
• It will encompass entire University System for most efficient
utilisation of precious network resources.
• It will establish a channel for Globalisation of Education and
facillitate the universities in marketing their services and
•Design & Installation
•Hosting of Mirror sites
•Decide type of connectivity
•Monitoring of Network
•Provide the content in terms of
Bibliographic database and e-
•Help Universities to setting up IT
•Over all monitoring
•Constitution of Joint Technical and Tariff committee for
smooth execution of project
•Providing finance support to the project
•Place firm order to ERNET
•Provide necessary accommodation
•Identify two persons for training
•Campus network/ access center
Main Features of the UGC-Infonet 2.0
• Scalable Architecture to grow from Universities to affiliated
• Nation-wide Terrestrial Backbone using Fiber Optic links
• Linkage with other academic and Research Networks all over
Main Features of the UGC-Infonet 2.0
• Dedicated Data Center for Web hosting, e-Journals and Mail
• Mirror sites spread all over the country for content hosting.
• Broadband Multimedia and Video Channels for Distance
Who are our users?
Total No. : 311+
Covered under UGC : 200+
INFLIBNET supported : 182+ so far
Status of 182 Universities as on 31st Dec 2011
More than 14,000
Govt.- 20%, Private – 80%
Who are likely to be covered in phased manner
• N-LIST or National Library and Information
Services Infrastructure for Scholarly Content is
an initiative of the Ministry of Human
Resource Development under its National
Mission on education through ICT programme.
Launching of N-LIST Programme
• This Project jointly executed by the UGC-INFONET Digital
Library Consortium, INFLIBNET Centre and the INDEST-
AICTE Consortium, IIT Delhi was formally launched by
Honorable Union Minister of Human Resource Development
Shri Kapil Sibal on 4th May, 2010.
• As on Aug 2, 2010, a total number of 1300 colleges have
registered themselves with the N-LIST programme including
786 Govt. / Govt.-aided colleges covered under the 12 B Act
of the UGC.
• Log-in ID and password for accessing e-resources has been
sent to the authorized users from these 786 colleges.
Remaining colleges are being advised to join the initiative as
• All e-resources subscribed for colleges under the N-LIST
Project are now accessible to these 786 colleges through the
Social Networking for Library
Professionals using Facebook
What is Facebook?
• Social networking site which allows visitors to leave
comments, message each other, share photos, videos,
• Founded by Mark Zuckerberg with his college roommates
and fellow students on 4th February, 2004
• Affects the social life and activity of people in various
• Social phenomenon that connects people
• Enables users to choose their own privacy settings and
choose who can see specific parts of their profile.
• It gives an opportunity to make social contacts and
receive fast and quick response
• Facebook is the leading social networking site based on monthly
unique visitors, having overtaken main competitor MySpace in
April 2008 (Source: comScore.com)
• As of February 2012, Facebook has more than 845 million active
• In January 2012 the countries with the most Facebook users
– United States with 152.5 million members,
– India with 43.5 million members
– Indonesia with 43.1 million members
– Brazil with 37.9 million members
– Mexico with 32.0 million members
Uses of Facebook for Library and Information
• The primary function of any library is to acquire, store and
disseminate the information. In the same way Facebook also
explores the information variously
• The best use of facebook for a librarian can be to project the
features and achievements of his library
• The information can be shared with library users on Social
Networking Sites (SNS) like Facebook
• The notification feature in Facebook can be used to notify
users of new arrivals in the library
• Facebook can act as a medium of interaction between librarian
and the users of the library, thus improving its services and
making it more accessible
How to use Facebook as a Librarian?
• Create a profile and a group for your library
• Friend all of the students and workers at your library and add
them to the library group
• Make the library profile more visible to all and keep it active
• Invite students you meet at conferences or seminars and
instructional sessions to join the group
• Use the group wall as a public discussion forum giving the
users a chance to appreciate, criticize or suggest changes to the
current library services
• These points can be used as action items for the library to meet
Understanding the News Feed
• Facebook employs RSS technology to display information that
has been updated by the Friends of a Facebook user
• Automatically generated for all Facebook users every time
• Easy to read customized digest of recently edited digital
• The profile should be dynamic so that the updates keep
appearing in the news feed of friends.
Making profile Active
• Update your Status! It takes just a few seconds to reach out to
• Post up-to-date contact information and office hours
• Share information about latest arrivals, favorite authors,
famous quotes on the group wall
• Making the library profile settings public will make it
accessible to a wider group of people
• Conducted by Noushia Parveen, Assistant Professor in CSJM
University, Kanpur, UP.
• To find out the role of social networking sites (SNS),
[Facebook] in creating awareness among LIS Professionals in
University Libraries of UP.
• The following five social networking sites were considered for
the study – Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, Orkut and Yahoo.
• Total of 100 questionnaires were randomly distributed among
100 LIS professionals.
Findings of the Study
• Majority of the respondents (42%) prefer Facebook over the
rest of SNS included in survey.
• 55% LIS Professionals used Facebook every day.
• 30% respondents were using Facebook to keep themselves
updated with current news and information.
• 60% respondents agreed that Facebook helps in creating
• 53% respondents were satisfied with Facebook and its
Source: Noushia Parveen, “Use of Social Networking Site (Facebook) In Making Awareness among the Library and Information
Science Professionals of University Libraries of UP: A Case Study,” International Journal of Digital Library Services 1 (2011): 1,
accessed April 4, 2012, doi: http://www.ijodls.in/uploads/3/6/0/3/3603729/ijodl2.pdf.
LIS Forum and LIS Link
- Anurodh Kumar Sinha
What is Forum
• The simplistic definition of a forum is a place where people have the
ability to start communication (in the form of threads) and reply to
other people's threads.
• A member of the community in the forum posts a message, which is
visible to everyone in that community. Once read, there is the
option to post a reply, which can also be visible to the community.
• Thus, a discussion can build up without all users having to be online
at the same time.
• Its provides member of common interest a platform to interact and
discuss among themselves related to the issues.
• Sometimes all the members may not available at the same time for
• LIS-Forum is an e-mail based discussion forum for Library
and Information professionals in India
• It is operated and maintained by NCSI, Indian Institute of
• It was established in the year 1995 with support from NISSAT,
DSIR, Govt. of India
• Listserver used to setup and operate the forum is
• To act as an electronic forum for library and information
• To discuss issues related to library and information practices
• To act as a medium for quick exchange of information and
experiences related to new initiatives
• To see the collection of prior postings to the list
• To search the collection of prior postings to the list
• LIS Links is the India's First and Largest Social Network for
Library and Information Science Professional
• Presently it has 8000+ members
• Designed by Badan Barman an academic consultant, Krishna
Kanta Handique State Open University, Assam on May 21,
• It is known in India as well as in abroad (more than 100
countries of the world) for its quality and coverage
Key Services by Lis Links
• It gives details regarding the upcoming events like seminars,
conferences, workshops and the like in LIS domain
• One can have the awareness of the various job opportunities in
• The Link Formats site of Lis Links is targeted to host different
formats of documents so that it can be downloaded by
professionals and customize it to meet their own needs.
• Apart from the mentioned services there is the facilities of
Free SMS (Automated and Forced), Email, RSS feed,
Facebook, Twitter, Orkut, etc.
• During the recent period quite a large number of libraries and
information centers are forming networks. The advent of
computer networking as an accepted part of the library and
information infrastructure has had a very significant impact on
the way in which library and information systems are
perceived. India is thus on the threshold to a new era of
computer communication networks both for general purposes
and for library and information purposes.
Background Information About Social
• The idea of Social Networking Sites and computer mediated
social interaction was suggested early on. There were many
early efforts to support these ideas by sites such as Usenet,
LISTSERV, and bulletin board services.
• Some early Social networking websites included
Classmates.com (1995) which focuses on reconnecting old
schoolmates, and SixDegrees.com which focuses on indirect
ties. Profiles and friends lists could be created as well as
messages sent. While some of these features existed in some
form before these websites, this would be the first time that
they were available in one whole package on the internet.
Background Information About Social
• Two different models then came out in 1999 which were trust
based and developed by Eopinions.com and friendship baded.
Innovations included not only showing who is friends with whom,
but it gave users more security and creativity.
• Between 2002-2004 three social networking sites emerged as the
most popular sites in the world. First there was Friendster, then
MySpace, and finally Bebo. 2004 saw the creation of Facebook.
When this network opened up to the non college community in
2006, it became the largest and fastest networking site in the
• Social networking began to blossom as a component of many
business strategies. Various social sites have been created catering
to different languages and different countries. Now it is estimated
that there are over 200 social networking sites.
• Encourage development of social skills: provide an easy
to use and cheap way of staying in touch, hence allowing
individuals to stay in touch with people they might not
call or email. Networking sites also expand individual
networks in a non-intrusive way.
• Make it easier to get answers: make it very easy for
individuals to find people that can answer any questions
or inquiries they have about common interests or future
plans. Many students discuss schoolwork and receive
help on tougher subjects.
Positive Aspects… [contd…]
• Help out companies: Many larger companies have access to
internet profiles, and many prospective employees know that.
Employers sometimes look at online profiles in order to gain a
better picture of their possible hires before making a decision,
which often encourages hopeful employees to keep a
professional profile and be thoughtful about the information
they make accessible to the public.
• Hanson’s “Social Spaces and Scary Places”
– online networking sites, threaten both our privacy and
– online networking sites, are making our social
relationships more simplistic.
• Rajan’s “Shaddup Your Facebook”
– social networking sites such as Facebook encourage
shallow relationships and oversimplified
– People that use internet networking groups to get their
“fifteen minutes of fame.”
Hindrances of using Social Networking Sites:
• Lack of technological know-how: Most of the aged fellows
are reluctant to sign up in the site as one has to undergo several
formalities like e-mail ID creation, log in procedures etc. Even
the recent generations do not have clear idea regarding how to
register, once registered then how to post the queries and to get
the answers. Many of LIS fellows can not afford to have a PC
and internet connectivity which create the so called ‘digital-
Hindrances of using Social Networking Sites:
• Psychological Barrier: weariness and reluctance to co-
operate with the information providers, shyness, mistrust,
unhappiness over the procedure, question of prestige,
ignorance are the few reasons for making psychological
• Language Barrier: It is a heterogeneous site so the language
has to be standardized this standardization can create barriers
to the exchange of ideas. As most of the conversations are in
English so the one who is not well accustomed with English
will not be able to communicate properly.
Hindrances of using Social Networking Sites:
• Knowledge Barrier: Still many of us do not have any
information about such site. Due to this lack of knowledge
many persons related to LIS are unable to be a part of this site.
• Social Barriers: The social psychological phenomenon of
individual of each class strata, values and behaviors of each
individual of each class strata in the society can put to social
Limitations in Network Development
• A network may fail in the early stages if there is not proper
planning or if adequate funds are not available. Moreover, a
common memorandum of agreement signed by the
participating libraries at the institutional level is essential for
the success of a network venture. On a more practical level,
catalog data must be in a standard, machine readable form for
it to be shared and exchanged. And, finally, a continuous flow
of external assistance is crucial for the network's survival.
• In conclusion, it is without any doubt that the popularity and
utilization of generic social networking sites will continue to
rise as time goes on. This is because a social networking site,
unlike any other tool we possess, enables us to stay connected
despite the hindrances of distance and time. Also, in a world
that is becoming more and more connected each day, the
invaluable opportunity to create business relationships and
perform collaborations might become more dynamically
evident in the future.
• Yet, it is important to be mindful of the problems that arise
from social networking sites and resolve them before they
become endemic. Such problems include online bullying,
stalking, and soliciting must be heavily policed so that social
networking sites remain useful, safe, and fun. Recently in the
news we have heard about a thirteen year-old girl who
committed suicide after she was publically hazed on a
networking site. This is a problem that needs to be addressed
by site executives, legislators, and people in any regular
community. Above all social networking sites should remain as
vehicles in which larger communities can be formed and
• Al-Dalhani, Sultan.2010. “Exploring the use of social software by master of
library and information science student.” Library Review 5(2): 117-131.
• Shaheen, M.A.2008 “.Use of social networks and information seeking
behavior of students during political crises in Pakistan”: A case study. The
International Information & Library Review40:142-147.
• Noushia Parveen.2011 “Use of Social Networking Site (Facebook) In
Making Awareness among the Library and Information Science
Professionals of University Libraries of UP: A Case Study,” International
Journal of Digital Library Services 1: 1, accessed April 4, 2012, doi:
• http://ncsi.iisc.ernet.in/mailman/listinfo/lis-forum (Accessed on 08/04/12;
• http://lislinks.com/ (Accessed on 08/04/12; 3:45pm)
(Accessed on 19/04/12; 4:10pm)