Cloud Computing:An Economic Solution for LibrariesSeries Of Student Seminar - 2012Amit Kumar ShawMS in Library & Information Science,StudentDocumentation Research and Training CentreIndian Statistical Institute, Bangalore
AgendaCloud Computing Introduction of Cloud Computing Characteristics of Cloud Computing Models and Types of services of Cloud Computing Architecture of Cloud Computing Why Cloud Computing ? Pros and Cons of Cloud Computing Real World Examples
PollDo you use the cloud? Yes, all the time Yes, but I still don’t trust it formy sensitive info No, I don’t trust it No, I don’t have a goodenough connection to rely on it Not Sure
Six Computing Paradigmssource: smart-cloud-computing.blogspot.com
Definition - NIST Cloud computing is a model for enabling everywhere,convenient, on-demand network. Configurable computing resources (e.g., networks, servers,storage, services, and applications) Rapidly provisioned and released with minimal managementeffort.
Characteristics On-demand self-service: The ability for an end user to sign upand receive services without the long delays that havecharacterized traditional IT. Broad network access: Ability to access the service viastandard platforms (desktop, laptop, mobile etc). Resource : Resources are access across multiple customers. Rapid elasticity: Capability can scale to cope with demandpeaks Measured service: Billing is metered and delivered as a utilityservice.
On the basis of UsagePublic Cloud: Service providers offer their resources as services to generalpublic. No initial capital investment on infrastructure and shifting risk Lacks in control over data, network and security settings.
Private Cloud: Deployed inside the firewall and managed by the userorganization User organization owns the software and hardware running inthe cloud Resources typically not shared outside the organizationand full control is retained by the organization
Hybrid Cloud: It consists of both internal and externalproviders which means both privateand public clouds. It may be organizations or universities,but they share common concerns suchas their mission, policies, onlineresources, security, regulatorycompliance needs, and so on.
Types of Service Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) Platform as a Service (PaaS) Software as a Service (SaaS)
Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) The IaaS layer gives the user an brief view on thehardware, which is computers, mass storagesystems, server, networks, etc. This is achieved by providing a user interface for the managementof a number of resources in the resource set sub-layer (RS). Physical resources using virtualization technologies such asXen, KVM, VMare.
Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS)OrganizationCloud Service DescriptionAmazonAmazon ElasticCompute Cloud (EC2)Provides users a special virtualmachine (AMI) that can bedeployed and run on the EC2infrastructureAmazonAmazon SimpleStorage Solution (S3)Provides users access todynamically scalable storageresourcesDropbox Dropbox Cloud storage Mass storage
Platform as a Service (PaaS) Its not targeted to the end users, but rather to developers. These are the programming environments (PE) and executiveenvironments (EE) where the programmer written in a specificprogramming language can be executed. Typical examples of programming environment are JavaFramework, Python, .NET, Ruby on Rails etc.
Platform as a Service (PaaS)Organization Cloud Service DescriptionGoogle Google App EnginePlatform to develop and run applicationson Google’s infrastructureMicrosoft Microsoft AzureOnline Operating System applicationFacebook Facebook PlatformEnvironment for the applications in theFacebook social network
Software as a Service (SaaS) It is directly address the end user. This model frees the customers from the need to install thesoftware locally as up – date done automatically. The SaaS offering can be developed and operated by theprovider on the basis of PaaS or IaaS offering
Software as a Service (SaaS)Organization Cloud Service DescriptionGoogle Google AppsWeb-based office tools such as e-mail,calendar and doc, spreadsheet, excelmanagement toolsSalesforce Salesforce.comFull customer relationship management(CRM) applicationMicrosoft Microsoft LiveMicrosoft office application
Cloud Computing ArchitectureSources: Cloud computing: state-of-the-art and research challenges by Qi Zhang · Lu Cheng · Raouf Boutaba J Internet Serv Appl (2010)1: 7–18, DOI 10.1007/s13174-010-0007-6
Why Cloud Computing Reduced Cost - Pay for What You Use Increase the Storage More Mobility Highly Automated Fast, Easy Implementation Accessible Support Staff Allows IT to Shift Focus
Pros and Conssource:http://www.mariaspinola.com/cloud-computing/
• AWS Summit 2012 | IndiaAWS Summit 2012 | IndiaMumbai - September 25 | Chennai - September 28 | Bangalore - October 4
ExamplesAWS in Action - President Obamas successful re-election campaign• The 2012 US Presidential Election used AWS (Amazon S3 &Amazon RDS) to avoid an IT investment .They built and ran morethan 200 applications on AWS, scaled to support millions of users.One of these apps, the campaign call tool, supported 7,000concurrent users and placed over two million calls on the last fourdays of the campaign.Source: http://aws.typepad.com/aws/2012/11/aws-in-action-behind-the-scenes-of-a-presidential-campaign.html
Uses of Cloud ComputingSource: International Journal of Information and Communication Technology Research , Volume 2 No. 2, February 2012
Agenda Library Services in Cloud Architecture Academic Cloud Computing SaaS Vs Hosting for Libraries Multi-tenancy Benefit of Cloud Computing for Libraries Real world examples of current library cloud solution Conclusion and Future Work
PollDo you think librariesneeds the cloud to provideeffective information tothe users? Yes No Not sure
Library services in CloudSource: http://www.oclc.org
More efficient and flexible workflowsSource: http://www.oclc.org
Architecture of Cloud for LibrarySource: 8th Convention PLANNER-2012,Cloud Computing for Libraries: A SWOT Analysis by Miteshkumar Pandya,Sikkim University, Gangtok, March 01-03, 2012
Academic Cloud ComputingSource: International Journal of Information and Communication Technology Research , Volume 2 No. 2, February 2012Cloud Computing for Academic Environment , Ajith Singh. N1, M. Hemalatha2
Services for the librariesPlatform Systems ExamplesSoftware as aService (SaaS)OpenURL resolver, Researchguides, Online reference, ServerVirtualization, Load BalanceSummon, OCLC – WorldCat, OSS lab, LiblimePlatform as aService (PaaS)Integrated library system,Interlibrary loan, Copyright,Compliance systemsPolaris, Exlibris,Facebook PlatformInfrastructure as aService (IaaS)Discovery systems, Digitalrepository, Archives management,Websites, Digital storage,Institutional repositoryAmazon, Rackspace
SaaS vs. Hosting for Libraries: What’sthe Difference?SaaS: The software vendor or other provider owns the application(whether a discovery service, link resolver, ERM, or other) anddelivers it via the Internet.Libraries have the ability to customize the application for their ownuse via Web-based tools and an API.Hosting Model: The provider runs the application on the library’sbehalf, on the provider’s hardware, but doesn’t take on the task ofmaintaining the software. Upgrades and maintenance are up to thelibrary.
Multi-tenancy vs. Single-tenancy• One of the key differences between SaaS and hostingis the principle of tenancy .• With multi -tenancy, there is only one copy of thesoftware running, which accesses only one copy of thedatabase (information). Since multiple libraries shareand access this one instance of the software.• With Single- tenancy, each library maintains its owncopy of the software. Since each copy only serves onelibrary.
Multi - tenancyLibrary A Library B Library Csource: http://www.serialssolutions.com/Lib VS cc
Locally Hosted Cloud1 AC Room, 1server 1 AC Room, 30serverFixed Cost (Hardware) Pay as per useInitially Investment Initially No InvestmentManpower Manpower (Expert)Server Problem, Connection Failed Connected to different ServerNew Events (Online seasonal courses,Conference) – purchaseNew Events - subscribeCustom programing, API and other tools Web base tools and APIUpdate- Monthly, Quarterly Update – Frequently , often dailySingle Tenancy Multi TenancyEg: Gulab jamun
Libraries and Web-ScaleSource: http://www.oclc.org
Nucsoft OSS Labs Provide world class training and IT support solutions for OpenSource Software (OSS). Operate under institutionalized and continually improvedprocesses as validated by our annual ISO 9001 certification. At this time, they are offer services and solutions for:Koha Library SystemDspace Institutional Repository SystemMoodle e-Learning Platform
OSS Labs OSS Labs works in Amazons Elastic Cloud Computing (EC2)Platform and Amazon Simple Storage Service (AS3). Links of OSS labs: http://www.osslabs.biz/ Mysore University adopts Koha and upload there OPAC in theCloud the link is :http://libcat.mysore-univ.org/
Major Academic Libraries in India North East Hill University, Shillong University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore Goa University, Panajim Indian Institute of Technology, Mandi Chennai Mathematical Institute, Chennai Bhavans Library, Mumbai Azim Premji University, Bangalore Acharya NG Ranga Agricultural University, Hyderabad Pearl Academy of Fashion, Delhi, Chennai and Jaipur
WorldCat Local It delivers one search box access to more than 969 million itemsfrom your library and the world’s library collections. Resources from 40+ national catalogs and partners like Googlebooks, HathiTrust, JSTOR and OAIster®. One search provides instant access to your library’s materials -digital objects, electronic materials, databases, e-journals, music,videos, audio, e-books, maps, journals, theses and books.Eg: INFLIBNET
ContentsWorldCat Local is the best way to get more than 969 million itemsfrom the world’s libraries in front of your users as per June 2012: Digital content: 29 million items E-books: 13 million Databases: 1764 Articles: 674 million Serials: 10 million IR content: 20 million items Evaluative content: 44 million items Books: 221 millionsource: http://www.oclc.org/worldcatlocal/overview/content/default.htm
WorldCat Local A Powerful Library Application of Cloud Computing. It offers local searching, consortia searching, global searching,federated searching and meta searching, all bundled in ONESEARCH, NOT separate search. There is no hardware for your library to purchase, no softwarefor your library to install, nor any computer system for yourlibrary to operate.
What is JAIRO Cloud? The National Institute of Informatics (NII) has launchedJAIRO Cloud service to promote educational outcomes andopen access in Japanese universities and research institutions. The system is implemented based on WEKO, a repositorysoftware developed by NII. The name “WEKO” comes from Swahili and means“repository” in that language. Academic information search engine named CiNii
“ Rs 1,000 crore plan to link 9,000 libraries in India Director of DELNET and NML member H K Kaul and PrimeMinister told. He was speaking on the eve of the three-day 15thnational convention on Knowledge, Library and InformationNetworking. Source: http://www.thehindu.com/news/national/rs-1000-crore-plan-to-link-9000-libraries-in-india/article4112216.ece In INDIAN Libraries, implementation of cloud computing isstarted. But it can be proven beneficial due to its cost effectivenessand effective service and thus can help to give new outlook toIndian Libraries
Cloud Computing In India NASSCOM research report entitled “Deconstructing the Cloud:The New Growth Frontier for Indian IT-BPO Sector”. Claimed by Big Commercial Companies (Amazon Web Services,Microsoft Azure Platform and Google Cloud Services). The study reveals that, cloud computing is expected to have asignificant impact on the services industry, in terms of servicesoffered, delivery mechanisms and business models. The Indianmarket for cloud computing is expected to grow in 2020.
Top 8 things to take away about cloudcomputing in the library context1. Understand what you are moving to the cloud2. Understand local legal requirements (national/state,institutional, etc.)3. Understand the costs of moving to the cloud4. Find a cloud provider you trust5. Articulate your requirements clearly6. Understand your SLA7. Get a lawyer involved8. Have an exit strategy
Resources in Cloud Computing• Library Management Applications• <http://www.librarything.com> – simple cataloging and socialdiscovery• <http://www.liblime.com> – consulting and hosting for Koha opensourceILS• <http://www.oclc.org/webscale/> – full-featured cloud-based ILSBibliographic Management Applications• <http://www.refworks.com/> – online citation management• <http://www.endnote.com/enwebinfo.asp> – online citationsmanagement• <http://www.zotero.org/> – online citation management and socialdiscovery
• Office and Calendar Applications• <http://docs.google.com/> – word-processing, spreadsheets, presentations, and more• <http://www.zoho.com/> – documents, projectmanagement, accounting, and many moreMultimedia Editing Applications• <http://www.wevideo.com> – simple online video editor• <http://www.aviary.com> – vector and raster imageeditors, audio editor in web and mobile• <http://www.screenr.com> – cloud-based screencasting
Conclusion• With the introduction of Cloud Computing touniversity library, services of libraries will have a newleap in the near future.• Services provided by libraries will become more user-centric, more professional and more effective, etc. Wecan believe that libraries will create more knowledgebenefits and cost minimization strategies for ourcountry with the help of Cloud Computing.
Cloud Quotes The correct answer is “both”. I do not think by 2020 people willwant to give up the autonomy and control they get by havingsoftware and data on their own device, but many of the servicethat we will expect...will require the power of a cloudsupercomputer.- by David D. Clark, American, Computer scientist The cloud will consist of a white part(trusted and checkedinformation), a grey part (question mark) and a black part(crapinformation: untrusted, unchecked, violent, fraudulent).by Marce Bullinga
Future Work Open stack software for clouds.Website Links : http://www.openstack.org/ AWS architecture- how it can implement in Libraries.Dissertation Guides:• Dr. A. R. D. Prasad• Dr. Saiful Amin Download Links:https://dl.dropbox.com/u/96974844/DRTC_seminar.pptx
References1. Baun Christian, Kunze Marcel, Nimis Jens and Tai Stefari (2011) . CloudComputing:Web- Based Dynamic IT Services (2nd ed.). London : Springer.2. Sosinsky Barrie (2012) . Cloud Computing Bible . (1st ed.) . Delhi : Wiley IndiaPrivate Limited.3. Goldner Matt (2010) . Winds of Change: Libraries and Cloud Computing. USA :OCLC Online Computer Library Center 14(7)http://www.oclc.org/multimedia/2011/files/IFLA-winds-of-change-paper.pdf4. Velte Anthony T(2009). Cloud Computing: A Practical Approach.(1st ed.) . Delhi: Tata Mcgraw Hill Education Pvt Ltd.5. Saurabh Kumar (2011). Cloud Computing: Insights into New-Era Infrastructure.Delhi : Wiley India Pvt Ltd.6. Matthew B. Hoy (2012). Cloud Computing Basics for Librarians. MedicalReference Services Quarterly, 31(1), 84-91.http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02763869.2012.641853.7. University of Mysore (2012), University Library (Retrieved on 11.10.2012http://libcat.mysore-univ.org/)
References1) http://www.climatecentral.org/blogs/data-storm-what-to-do-with-all-this-climate-information/ (Accessed on 17/05/2012)2) http://www.niallkennedy.com/blog/2008/01/google-mapreduce-stats.html(Accessed on 17/05/2012)3) http://public.web.cern.ch/public/en/lhc/Computing-en.html (Accessed on18/05/2012)4) http://www.jamesshuggins.com/h/tek1/how_big.htm (Accessed on18/05/2012)5) Ian Foster, Yong Zhao, Ioan Raicu, Shiyong Lu.Cloud Computing and GridComputing 360-Degree Compared6) Sun Introduction to Cloud Computing Architecture (White paper)7) http://www.eucalyptus.com/ (Accessed on 18/05/2012)8) http://www.dsp-ip.com/ (Accessed on 18/05/2012)9) Dura Cloud. Available at http://duracloud.org/ (Accessed on 17/05/2012)10) Fox, R. Library in the clouds. OCLC Systems & Services, 2009, 25(3), 156-161.
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