2. WHAT IS FIRE ?It is rapid oxidation of combustible substance by generation of Heat & lightThe fire is the mixture of 3elementsFuels: Clothing, Furniture, Wood, Paper,Plastics, Combustible Gases, FlammableLiquidsOxygen: Oxygen is present everywhereHeat Sources: Heating or CookingEquipment, Matches, Lighters, ElectricalCircuits
3. How can we stop fire?1. Starvation - Removal of Fuel. This is a method in which the surrounding materials are removed from the sear of fire and making the fire to starve, without supply of fuel the fire will be starved and extinguished.2.Blanketing / Smothering – Removal ofOxygen In this method the oxygen supply to the fire is stopped3.Cooling – Removing of Heat This is a method in which heat is removed from the fire4.Interference The method of breaking the chain reactionbetween oxygen. Combustible material and source of heat,which will stop the chemical reaction to put out the fire.
4. What are the different types of fire?The fire are basically divided in to 5 different types on the bases of the fuels. Class of fire A B C D E Type of Fuel which are Flammable Fuels which Metals which Electrical fuel solid in state on materials are in gaseous can Burn appliance / burning they which are in state Machineries leave carbon as liquid state. residue Example Wood, paper Petrol, Diesel, LPG, Sodium, Transformer cotton charcoal Paint, Sprit Acetylene, Potassium, Generator, Methane, Phosphorus, Panel Boards Butane etc. Magnesium
5. Fire Extinguishers There are different types of fire extinguisher to be used for tackling different types of fire.Type of Extinguishing Extinguishing Suitable for Class ofextinguisher Agent Principle fireWater Water Cooling Wood, Paper, Cloth AFoam Mechanical Foam Blanketing Wood, Paper, Cloth and AB Flammable liquidPowder Dry Powder Blanketing Flammable liquid, BCDE Gases,Combustible Metals, Electrical fireGas Carbon dioxide Blanketing Flammable liquid, Gases, BCE Electrical fire
6. Fire causesCauses Of Fire Electricity Spark, Friction & Heat Hot Work e.g. welding. Smoking & Negligence Failure of Process/ Heating Controls Spontaneous CombustionCauses Of Fire By Electricity Carelessness or Ignorance Use of Sub-Standard Material Over Size Fuse/over loading Poor workmanship
7. How To Use A Portable Fire Extinguisher Remember the acronym, P.A.S.S.PULL the PinAIM the extinguisher nozzle at the base of the flamesSQUEEZE the handle or trigger while holding the extinguisher uprightSWEEP the extinguisher from side to side, covering the base of the fire with the extinguisher agentRemember: •Should your path of escape be threatened •Should the extinguisher run out of agent •Should the extinguisher prove to be ineffective •Should you no longer be able to safely fight the fire Leave The Area Immediately!
8. Dealing With Smoke•Smoke is a combination of lethal gases, vapours and particles ofpartially burnt materials. Most fires release smoke and ALL smokeis dangerous - more than half of fire related deaths are as a result ofsmoke inhalation.•If you see smoke coming from behind a closed door, NEVERopen it - there is the possibility of a violent explosion as a result ofa sudden in rush of air.•Remember that without a supply of air (Oxygen) the fire willsuffocate.If you become trapped by smoke, you should: •Lie on the floor; •Cover your nose with wet cloth; •Breathe through your nose; •Crawl to safety;
9. Types of fire detection / prevention equipment1.Fire detection system .2.Fire hydrant systems.3.Sprinkler systems.4.Portable extinguisher.
10. Fire Detection System.The detectors/indicators basically are.1. Smoke Detectors :- Smoke detectors are installed in rooms,corridors,offices etc which are used for detection of smoke generated due to fire2. Heat Detectors:-Heat detectors are used in kitchen, boiler room,laundry etc which are capable for detection of heat due to rise in temperature3 Fire panel:-The fire panels are located at engineering room as well at the time office which are connected to all the smoke detectors ,heat detector, fire response fitted for each room to indicate the position as well as the location of fire4 Manual call points:- The manual call points are located at the every floor which is a means of alarming all the guest in terms of fire which is connected to a hooter as well as the fire panel.
11. Fire Hydrant system Fire hydrant system consist of the following equipment;_1. Jockey pump:- The jockey pump is a basic pump used to maintain the pressure in the total pipe line network which is capable of sufficing the sprinkler as well as the hose reel nozzle drum located at each floor which even can be used in case of minor fire2. Hydrant pump:- The hydrant pump is used for the hydrant system if in case of huge fire and has to be used by authorized trained personals3. Fire engine pump:- The fire engine pumps is an diesel engine coupled to a pump so as to provide water to the whole network incase of power failure
12. How do Fire Sprinklers work?Fire Sprinklers are designed to activate atdifferent temperatures. When a fire breaksout in a area, the temperature in the roomincreases. When the temperature in theroom reaches set temperature of sprinklerbulb closest to the fire will activate. Onlysprinkler heads activated by heat willdischarge water. The Fire Sprinklers willthen control the fire in its early stages.
13. DO’S Stack the material properly and away from power lines/ flammable materials. The dustbin should be cleared regularly. Always keep flammable materials outdoors at a safe place. Always keep emergency pathways clear. Always obey signs & instructions.
14. DONT’SDo not smoke in beds / kitchen / fire risk areas.Do not wear loose/ flowing/ nylon clothes while cooking.Do not keep LPG cylinders near the fire placeDo not over pump the Stove for faster cooking.Do not overheat the oil or fat while cooking.Do not put wet food into hot oil or fat.Do not leave any equipment unattended when they are ON or left on over a heatsource.Do not keep linen near electric panels.Do not over dry the kitchen dusters.Do not use any electrical equipment without proper plug top.Do not store anything in front of fire fighting appliances, electric panels, andemergency exits/ stairways.Do not discard lighted cigarettes, use ashtrays for disposalDo not allow any temporary electrical connections.Do not overload electrical circuits by using multi plugsDo not ignore fire alarms – act promptly.
15. On discovering fire Break the glass of the nearest manual call point (pill box). Inform eng. Department and telephone operator Give your name, department, exact location (seat) and size of fire. Do not panic. Switch off all fresh air/ exhausts units, fuel supply. Do not open doors, windows of rooms, passages or corridors to allow fresh air. Try to extinguish the fire (using the right type of extinguisher) as explained in the fire drill. Help the guests in evacuation, if required. At the first instance the operator has to inform the General Manager & the Chief Engineer
16. LPG leakageShut off main valve.Open all windows and ventilators.Do not switch on or off any electricalgadget.Do not allow anybody to smoke / lightnaked flame nearby.
17. Chief Fire Marshall The Chief Engineer is the chief Marshall of the hotel In absence of the Chief Engineer the security supervisor is the acting fire Marshall Chief Marshall imparts training to the core fire fighting team. The core fire fighting team led by the chief Marshall is compatible enough for combat against fire The core fire fighting team is a team of trained fire Marshalls from all dept especially the engineering& security
18. Fire wardens FIRE WARDENS ROLE To provide vital support service for guests , staff and to the visitors during an emergency Responsibility Overall responsibility of fire warden is to help others evacuate the building safety in an emergency and escort/facilitate the guest / staff and other visitors to the designated : “Safe assembly areas”
19. Duties of Fire warden Familiarization with the respective floor areas location of manual call points and fire fighting equipments /appliances To keep a check on FIRE EXIT ROUTES & SAFE ASSEMBLY AREAS Carry out regular inspections of their areas and remove hazards or report the same to chief fire Marshall of the premises. NOTE: 1.IT IS EMPHASIZED THAT THE PRIMARY ROLE OF THE WARDENS IS NOT TO COMBAT FIRE AND EMERGENCIES BUT TO ENSURE AS FAR AS IS PRACTICABLE THE SAFETY OF OCCUPANTS AND THEIR ORDERLY EVACUATION TO THE SAFE ASSEMBLY AREAS DURING THE COURSE OF EMERGENCIES.2. PLEASE REMEMBER THAT FIRE FIGHTING MUST ALWAYS BE SECONDARY TO LIFE SAFETY AND THIS RESPONSIBILITY SHOULD BETTER BE LEFT TO THE EXPERTS WHO HAVE A WEALTH OF EXPERIENCE OF COMBATING THE SAME3. FOR WARDENS “SAFE EVACUATION” MUST BE THE PRIMARY CONCERNS
20. Evacuation Procedure When alarms sounds the floor wardens on duty should immediately move to pre-arranged areas/locations of the building and take instructions from their respective area evacuation controllers) [HODs] The warden now quickly determines weather there is a need to arrange for help for people with injuries and then begins the evacuation gently but firmly, encourages people to leave the building via the pre determined exit route During any emergency evacuation, no one should attempt to use an elevator, except under the direction of Chief Fire Marshall (I/C) Probation on using elevators during any emergency evacuation, of course, creates serious difficulties for people who face physically disabilities; however only under guidance /supervision of chief fire Marshall, the elevator can be used for a safe and quick evacuation
21. BOMB THREAT In terms of a telephone call about a bomb threat1. Alert some one else while still on the telephone with the caller to notify a supervisor2. Keep the caller on line and record every word spoken by the person.3. Ask the caller for location,dentonation of the bomb.4. Even inform the caller that the building is occupied and could result in death and serious injury5. Pay attention to back ground sound which may give a clue about where the call is made from.6. Listen closely to the voice (male/female), voice quality (calm/excited) accent and speech.7. Inform the same to your high authorities for further action
22. EXPLOSION/MEDIAPROCEDURE In event of explosion in the building1. Sound fire alarm to evacuate the building2. Inform the General Manager/HOD’s present3. Provide medical assistance to the injured and stay away from the building.4. Do not reenter the building unless final clearance is given Media procedure1. It is mandatory that all the news media relating emergency to be directed to the General manager2. In absence of the General manager the Duty Manager/MOD could address the news media persons
23. Fire Drills Fire Drills Familiarize yourself on the fire alarm system. Fire alarm procedures or systems shall be established to promptly warn every person who could be endangered by a fire. Fire alarm systems shall be maintained in operable condition. The Unit shall establish emergency firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures.
24. Escapeway drills- what isrequired? Unit shall establish emergency firefighting, evacuation, and rescue procedures. These procedures shall be coordinated in advance with available firefighting organizations. The Unit shall atleast once every two months conduct evacuation drills to assess the ability of all persons in the unit to reach the designated points of safety within the time limits of the self-rescue devices that would be used during an actual emergency