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# Network topologies

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### Transcript of "Network topologies"

1. 1. MANOJ KUMAR CLASS-XII SECTION-A ROLL NO.23
2. 2.  TOPOLOGY-The pattern of interconnection of nodes in a network is called the TOPOLOGY POINT-TO-POINT LINK Main characteristic of P-P network. A P-P link basically relies upon two functions-transmit and receive. Each station receives exactly from one transmitter, and each transmitter transmit to exactly one receiver. The transmit and receive operations can occur over separate wires.
3. 3.  Many topologies have been developed but major ones are: The Star Topology The Bus Topology The Ring Topology The Tree Topology Graph Topology Mesh Topology Fully Connected
4. 4. The Star Topology This topology consist of a central node to which all other nodes are connected by a single path. Use-used in most existing information networks involving data processing . Example-IBM 370 installisations. In this case a multiple 3270 terminals are connected to either a host system or a terminal controller.
5. 5.  Advantage of Star Topology. Ease of service. One device per connections Centralized control/problem diagnosis. Simple access protocols.
6. 6. The Bus or Linear Topology The Bus topology consists of a single length of the transmission medium onto which the various nodes are attached . The Bus has terminals at either end which absorbs the signal, removing it from the bus. Data is transmitted in small blocks, known as packets. USE-used in traditional data communication network where the host at one end of the bus communication with several terminals attached along its length.
7. 7.  Advantages of the Bus Topology Short cable length and simple wiring layout. Resilient Architecture. Easy to extend. Disadvantages of Bus Topology. Fault diagnosis is difficult. Fault isolation is difficult. Repeater configuration. Nodes must be intelligent.
8. 8. The Ring or CircularTopology Characteristics Each node is connected to two and only two neighbouring nodes. Data is accepted one of the neighbouring nodes and is transmitted onwards to another. Data travels in one direction only.
9. 9.  Advantages of the Ring Topology Short cable length. No wiring closet space required. Suitable for optical fibers. Disadvantages of the Ring Topology Node failure causes network failure. Difficult to diagnose faults. Network reconfiguration is difficult.
10. 10. The Tree Topology Characteristics Transmission in this topology takes place in the same way as in the bus topology. There is no need to remove packets from the medium because when a signal reaches the end of the medium, it is absorbed by the terminators. Tree topology is best suited for application which have a hierarchical flow of data and control.
11. 11. Graph Topology Characteristics Nodes are connected together in a arbitrary fashion. A link may or may not connect two or more nodes. It is necessary that all the nodes are connected.
12. 12. Mesh Topology Characteristics Each node is connected to more than one node to provide an alternative route in the case the host is either down or too. Best for long distance network. Used in large internetworking environments with stars,rings,and buses attached to each node.
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