60% of human body is water. By an average 90-120 liters/day of water is consumed by an Indian. Developed contries average daily use is around 265-635 liters/day.
Drainage to the bed rock(D) and changes in soil moisture content are rarly known. It can only be used in large scale, long term. Evapotranspiration is the most difficult parameter to evaluate.
Amit Chauhan - MSc. Environmental Science Part- IBirla College, University of Mumbai. Lecture 1:
About my self!• Amit Gopal Chauhan• BSc. Botany & Environmental Science, Birla College, 1997• Master’s in Environmental Management, Shivaji University, 2000• MSc. Environmental Assessment and Evaluation, LSE, 2004
My resent work•The Green Rating Project in India – A Perfect Note but an, Incomplete Symphony!
I want to know you people well before proceeding further!( is it possible?)If I could know your Name,previous study, any publication?,why did you chose this subject?,what are you going to do after yourMSc.? One crisp statement aboutyour goal in life!
What you will be learning?• Hydrological Cycle• Remote Sensing• Inventories of Natural Resources• Lithosphere and its characteristics• Natural Disasters
What I want you to do ?• Before the lecture – • After the lecture –• Go through the • If not then after the readings before the lecture. lecture. • Reflect upon the topic and try to• Think an form a relate it with view point before current/ recent / coming for the practical examples lecture within the country and international.
Things I would expect form both of us• Collect and share readings• Speak up and put forward your arguments openly without any hesitation.• Discuss and clear doubts about the learning right away. Alternatively during the time allotted as office hours.• Communicate via email.• Correct references
What I would not Expect from you?• Communicating within your self during the lecture• Arrive late for lecture. (first 10 minutes is occasionally acceptable)• Not give your seminar.• Not writing enough essays• Not attending the mock test
Seminar• Each student will give one • Alternatively, you can seminar of 20 minutes combine two topics and each. give a seminar• Each seminar will collectively (a team of followed by 10 minutes of two) within 35 minutes. question and answer • Topics in focus of session. seminars will not be dealt• Good presentation skills, in lectures so please give with balanced, full full references with coverage of relevant sub- exhaustive coverage. topics is expected.
Essays• Each student is to give an written essay of not more then 2500 words by December 7, 2004. There will be four choices. The questions will be given within two weeks .i.e. by 29th September.• Broader coverage of topics, good appreciation of literature, quantitative & qualitative data compilation, with full references and original insights.
Mock test• Depends on you, “to have it or not to have it?”• When? You say it we shall have it.• Time, Sixty minutes, one question out of a possible combination of four.• I would suggest at least one month prior to exams. Rest is up to you.
Importance of water(cycle)!• Life support ability.• Most versatile as well as necessary of man’s materials.• Nutrient transport; weathering; patterns of concentration always changing.• 95% bounded chemically into rocks; 97.3% of the remaining 5% in ocean; 2.1% as polar caps/ glaciers; remaining is fresh including liquid and vapor state.• Ground water cycle the longest.
Hydrological Cycle• The water that is not locked up as permanent ice is continually moving through various pathways on the atmosphere, biosphere, and lithosphere, and this set of natural flows is called the hydrological cycle.• Two Natural Cycles: Long & short• Short: Sea water/Fresh water Evoporation Condensation Presipitation.• Long: Surface runoff; percolation/infiltration; evapo-transpiration;ground water;
A Summary of Global Hydrological Cycle ( assuming 100 water units)• 77 84 7 16 23 Sea Horizontal advection of water vapor and clouds Land Precipitation Evaporation Evapo transpitration over ocean from ocean Precipitation over land surface runoff and through flow• 77 84 7 16 23Source: Environmental Remote Sensing, by Barrett & Curtis, 1999.
The major components of the hydrologic cycle are:• Evapo-transpiration• Condensation• Precipitation• Infiltration• Percolation• Runoff
The Water Balance Equation. Q = (P – E) + (∆S + ∆T) Where: Q = Stream flow, P = precipitation, E = evapotranspiration, ∆S= net change instorage and ∆T= net underground (influent – effluent) transfers.
Water Distribution on Earth• Total Volume of Water: 1,357,506,000 km³• Of which we find 1,320,000,000 km³(97.2%) in the ocean; 29,000,000 km³ ( 2.15%) Frozen; 8,506,000 km³(0.65%) Fresh(Atmosphere, Land)• The fresh water is found as 4,150,000 km³ (48.77%) Ground water( >0.8 km deep); 4,150,000 km³;Ground water (<0.8km deep); 13,000 km³ (0.16%) Vapour in atmosphere; 67,000 km³ (0.8%) Soil and moisture seepage; 126,259 km³ (1.5) lakes, rivers, streams (I.e. runoff = 0.009% of total world water).• Source: van der Leeden 1975.
Hutchinson, (1957) in Rana S.V.S.(2003) estimates water in various parts of the world as• Primary lithosphere: 250,000 X 1020• Ocean: 13,800 X 1020• Sedimentary rocks: 2,100 X 1020• Polar caps & other ice: 167 X 1020• Circulating ground water 2.5 X 1020• Inland waters 0.25 X 1020• Atmospheric water vapor 0.13 X 1020Total: 266,069.88 X 1020
Moisture balance equation P + I = E + R + D + ∆S Where: P is precipitation, I is irrigationwater added, E is evapotranspiration, R isrun-off, D is drainage to bedrock and ∆S is the change is soil moisture content.
Annual Water Resources IndiaTotal Precipitation 400 million hectare metersImmediate 70 million hectare metersevaporationRun off to Surface 115 million hectare meterswater bodiesPercolation into soil 215 million hectare metersWater utilization 90 million hectare metersGround water 25 million hectare meters contributionSurface flows 50 million hectare metersSource: Indian Economy 2003.
Water budget India• 14 Major rivers, 44 medium, 55 minor river systems. Comparatively poorly developed catchments areas. Ground water ample only in northern and costal areas.• Average annual rainfall: 1100 m.m
Dr. Chidambaram’s Provisions 2004• Panchayats to be given powers to manage drinking water schemes• 2,610 crores given for rural drinking water• Pilot projects to link water bodies in 5 districts• Rs 30,000 cr per year to be spent on water related projects• Delhi in India is predicted to run out of groundwater by 2015 at current usage rates.
On Socio-Political Issues on water in India / World• http://www.infochangeindia.org/ItanddIstory.jsp?recordno=194§ion_idv=9• http://www.waterobservatory.org/• http://www.worldwatercouncil.org/• http://www.iwmi.cgiar.org/index.htm• http://www.worldwaterforum.org/• http://www.gwpforum.org/servlet/PSP• http://www.unep.org/themes/freshwater/• http://www.unesco.org/water/• http://18.104.22.168/html/menu2/6/water/index.htm• http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0012/001295/129556e.pdf• http://www.rainwaterharvesting.org/• http://www.iwsd.co.zw/• http://22.214.171.124/article.asp?id=669• http://www.networkideas.org/focus/sep2002/Water.pdf• http://www.choike.org/nuevo_eng/informes/1035.html
Human Interference• Soil pollution due to irrigation• Sewage; surface water runoff; eutriphication.• Industrial discharges• Ground water pollution; Marine water pollution; effecting estuarine and coral population• Aggravates soil erosion/landslides (Sheet/Rill/ Gully erosion)• Disease spread ( cholera, typhoid, dysentery)
How we influence the water cycle?• Global warming – climate change, reducing the ice caps/glaciers there by using up the potential source of fresh water.• Urban influence – reducing the water holding capacity of soil, increasing vulnerability for floods/ inviting drought’s after floods. Eutrophication of lakes.• Rural influence – raising the potential for irreparable damage to the ground water table, worsening the situation during the drought, soil alkalinity, desertification.
Influence continued..• Industrial influence – polluting fresh water sources, potentially to affect biodiversity, any other?• Population influence – less and less for more and more, day by day. Ground water pollution, every other influence you can think of.• Life style - spend thrift Jacuzzi. Rahul…Paani Chala Jayega.
Do we really need to worry about it?• Water wars?• Connecting rivers?• Large dams vs. Small check dams/ KT wears?• Any examples of lost civilizations cause of too much or too little of water?• Which country imports drinking water?• Will technology come to rescue?• Or will policy and social change will help?• Is big beautiful or small?