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    23496302 project-oxygen frm scribd 23496302 project-oxygen frm scribd Document Transcript

    • Seminar Report ’03 Project Oxygen THE APPROACHINTEGRATED TECHNOLOGIES THAT ADDRESSHUMAN NEEDS Oxygen enables pervasive, human-centered computingthrough a combination of specific user and system technologies. Oxygen’s user technologies directly address human needs.Speech and vision technologies enable us to communicate withOxygen as if we’re interacting with another person, saving muchtime and effort. Automation, individualized knowledge access,and collaboration technologies help us perform a wide variety oftasks that we want to do in the ways we like to do them. Oxygen’s system technologies dramatically extend ourrange by delivering user technologies to us at home, at work, oron the go. Computational devices, called Enviro21s (E21s),embedded in our homes, offices, and cars sense and affect ourimmediate environment. Hand-held devices, called Handy21s(H21s), empower us to communicate and compute no matterwhere we are. Dynamic networks (N21s) help our machineslocate each other as well as the people, services, and resourceswe want to reach.Oxygen’s user technologies include: The Oxygen technologies work together and pay attentionto several important themes:Dept. of CSE -1- MESCE Kuttippuram
    • Seminar Report ’03 Project Oxygen• Distribution and mobility — for people, resources, and services.• Semantic content — what we mean, not just what we say.• Adaptation and change — essential features of an increasingly dynamic world.• Information personalities — the privacy, security, and form of our individual interactions with Oxygen. Oxygen is an integrated software system that will reside inthe public domain. Its development is sponsored by DARPA andthe Oxygen Alliance industrial partners, who share its goal ofpervasive, human-centered computing. Realizing that goal willrequire a great deal of creativity and innovation, which willcome from researchers, students, and others who use Oxygentechnologies for their daily work during the course of theproject. The lessons they derive from this experience will enableOxygen to better serve human needs.USER TECHNOLOGIESDept. of CSE -2- MESCE Kuttippuram
    • Seminar Report ’03 Project OxygenDept. of CSE -3- MESCE Kuttippuram
    • Seminar Report ’03 Project Oxygen SYSTEM TECHNOLOGIESDEVICES AND NETWORKS People access Oxygen through stationary devices (E21s)embedded in the environment or via portable hand-held devices(H21s). These universally accessible devices supply power forcomputation, communication, and perception in much the sameway that wall outlets and batteries deliver power to electricalappliances. Although not customized to any particular user, theycan adapt automatically or be modified explicitly to addressspecific user preferences. Like power outlets and batteries,these devices differ mainly in how much energy they cansupply.E21 STATIONARY DEVICES Embedded in offices, buildings, homes, and vehicles, E21senable us to create situated entities, often linked to localsensors and actuators, that perform various functions on ourbehalf, even in our absence. For example, we can create entitiesand situate them to monitor and change the temperature of aroom, close a garage door, or redirect email to colleagues, evenwhen we are thousands of miles away. E21s provide largeamounts of embedded computation, as well as interfaces tocamera and microphone arrays, thereby enabling us tocommunicate naturally, using speech and gesture, in the spacesthey define.Dept. of CSE -4- MESCE Kuttippuram
    • Seminar Report ’03 Project Oxygen E21s provide sufficient computational power throughoutthe environment• To communicate with people using natural perceptual resources, such as speech and vision,• To support Oxygens user technologies wherever people may be, and• To monitor and control their environment. E21s, as well as H21s, are universal communication andcomputation appliances. E21s leverage the same hardwarecomponents as the H21s so that the same software can run onboth devices. E21s differ from H21s mainly in• Their connections to the physical world,• The computational power they provide, and• The policies adopted by the software that runs on thedevices.CONNECTIONS TO THE PHYSICAL WORLD E21s connect directly to a greater number and widervariety of sensors, actuators, and appliances than do H21s.These connections enable applications built with Oxygensperceptual and user technologies to monitor and control theenvironment.Dept. of CSE -5- MESCE Kuttippuram
    • Seminar Report ’03 Project Oxygen An E21 might control an array of microphones, whichOxygens perceptual resources use to improve communicationwith speakers by filtering out background noise. Similarly, itmight control an array of antennas to permit improvedcommunication with nearby H21s that, as a result of a bettersignal-to-noise ratio, use less power. Multiple antennas mountedon the roof of a building, as well as incoming terrestrial lines,connect through E21s to high-bandwidth, local-area N21networks. Through the N21 network, an E21 can connectunobtrusively to H21s in the hands or pockets of people in anintelligent space. It can display information on an H21 display ina persons hand or on a nearby wall-mounted display; it mayeven suggest that the person step a few feet down the hall.H21 HAND-HELD DEVICES Users can select hand-held devices, called H21s,appropriate to the tasks they wish to perform. These devicesDept. of CSE -6- MESCE Kuttippuram
    • Seminar Report ’03 Project Oxygenaccept speech and visual input, can reconfigure themselves toperform a variety of useful functions, and support a range ofcommunication protocols. Among other things, H21s can serveas cellular phones, beepers, radios, televisions, geographicalpositioning systems, cameras, or personal digital assistants,thereby reducing the number of special-purpose gadgets wemust carry. To conserve power, they may offloadcommunication and computation onto nearby E21s. Handheld devices, called H21s, provide flexibility in alightweight design. They are anonymous devices that do notcarry a large amount of permanent local state. Instead, theyconfigure themselves through software to be used in a widerange of environments for a wide variety of purposes. Forexample, when a user picks up an anonymous H21, the H21 willcustomize itself to the users preferred configuration. The H21scontain board-level antennas that enable them to couple with awireless N21 network, embedded E21 devices, or nearby H21sto form collaborative regions.Dept. of CSE -7- MESCE Kuttippuram
    • Seminar Report ’03 Project Oxygen H21s, like E21s, are universal communication andcomputation appliances. They leverage the same hardwarecomponents as the E21s so that the same software can run onboth devices. H21s differ from E21s mainly in• Their connections to the physical world,• The computational power they provide, and• The policies adopted by the software that runs on thedevices.CONNECTIONS TO THE PHYSICAL WORLD Because handheld devices must be small, lightweight, andpower efficient, H21s come equipped with only a few perceptualand communication transducers, plus a low-power network toextend the I/O devices to which it can connect. In particular,H21s are not equipped with keyboards and large displays,Dept. of CSE -8- MESCE Kuttippuram
    • Seminar Report ’03 Project Oxygenalthough they may be connected to such devices. Through theN21 network, an H21 can connect unobtrusively to nearby,more powerful E21s, which provide additional connections tothe physical world. The H21 contains multiple antennas formultiple communications protocols that depend on thetransmission range, for example, building-wide, campus wide, orpoint-to-point.NETWORK AND SOFTWARE INFRASTRUCTURE People use Oxygen to accomplish tasks that are part oftheir daily lives. Universally available network connectivity andcomputational power enable decentralized Oxygen componentsto perform these tasks by communicating and cooperatingmuch as humans do in organizations. Components can bedelegated to find resources, to link them together in usefulways, to monitor their progress, and to respond to change.N21 NETWORKS N21s support dynamically changing configurations of self-identifying mobile and stationary devices. They allow us toidentify devices and services by how we intend to use them, notjust by where they are located. They enable us to access theinformation and services we need, securely and privately, sothat we are comfortable integrating Oxygen into our personallives. N21s support multiple communication protocols for low-power local, building-wide, and campus-wide communication,Dept. of CSE -9- MESCE Kuttippuram
    • Seminar Report ’03 Project Oxygen enabling us to form collaborative regions that arise, adapt, and collapse as needed. Flexible, decentralized networks, called N21s, connect dynamically changing configurations of self-identifying mobile and stationary devices. N21s integrate different wireless, terrestrial, and satellite networks into one seamless internet. Through algorithms, protocols, and middleware, they• Configure collaborative regions automatically, creating topologies and adapting them to mobility and change.• Provide automatic resource and location discovery, without manual configuration and administration.• Provide secure, authenticated, and private access to networked resources.• Adapt to changing network conditions, including congestion, wireless errors, latency variations, and Dept. of CSE -10- MESCE Kuttippuram
    • Seminar Report ’03 Project Oxygenheterogeneous traffic (e.g., audio, video, and data), bybalancing bandwidth, latency, energy consumption, andapplication requirements.COLLABORATIVE REGIONS Collaborative regions are self-organizing collections ofcomputers and/or devices that share some degree of trust.Computers and devices may belong to several regions at thesame time. Membership is dynamic: mobile devices may enterand leave different regions as they move around. Collaborativeregions employ different protocols for intra-space and inter-space communication because of the need to maintain trust.RESOURCE AND LOCATION DISCOVERY N21 networks enable applications to use intentionalnames, not just location-based names, to describe theinformation and functionality they are looking for. Intentionalnames support resource discovery by providing access toentities that cannot be named statically, such as a full sodamachine or to the surveillance cameras that have recentlydetected suspicious activity. N21 networks integrate name resolution and routing. Intra-space routing protocols perform resolution and forwardingbased on queries that express the characteristics of the desiredDept. of CSE -11- MESCE Kuttippuram
    • Seminar Report ’03 Project Oxygendata or resources in a collaborative region. Late bindingbetween names and addresses (i.e., at delivery time) supportsmobility and multicast. Early binding supports high bandwidthstreams and anycast. Wide-area routing uses a scalable resolverarchitecture; techniques for soft state and caching providescalability and fault tolerance. N21 networks support location discovery throughproximity to named physical objects (for example, low-power RFbeacons embedded in the walls of buildings). Location discoveryenables mobile devices to access and present location-specificinformation. For example, an H21 might help visitors navigate totheir destination with spoken right-left instructions; held up nextto a paper or an electronic poster of an old talk, it could provideaccess to stored audio and video fragments of the talk; pointedto a door, it could provide information about what is happeningbehind the door.SECURITY A collaborative region is a set of devices that have beeninstructed by their owners to trust each other to a specifieddegree. A collaborative region that defines a meeting, forexample, has a set of trust and authorization rules that specifywhat happens during a meeting (how working materials andpresentation illustrations are shared, who can print on the localprinter). Typically, trust rules for a meeting do not allowparticipants to write arbitrary information anywhere in theregion. However, once users know what the trust rules are, theyDept. of CSE -12- MESCE Kuttippuram
    • Seminar Report ’03 Project Oxygencan introduce their devices into the meetings collaborativeregion, with confidence that only the expected range of actionswill happen, even if the details of the interactions are left toautomatic configuration. Resource and location discovery systems address privacyissues by giving resources and users control over how much toreveal. Rather than tracking the identity, location, andcharacteristics of all resources and users at all times, thesesystems accept and propagate only the information thatresources and users choose to advertise. Self-certifying namesenable clients of discovery systems to trust the advertisedinformation.ADAPTATION N21 networks allow devices to use multiplecommunication protocols. Vertical handoffs among theseprotocols allow H21 devices to provide seamless and powerefficient connectivity across a wide range of domains, forexample, building-wide, campus wide, and point-to-point. Theyalso enable applications to adapt to changes in channelconditions (e.g., congestion and packet loss) and in their ownrequirements (e.g., for bandwidth, latency, or reliability). Theyprovide interfaces to monitoring mechanisms, which allow end-host transport agents to learn about congestion or about packetlosses caused by wireless channel errors. This enables end-to-end resource management based on a unified congestionmanager, which provides different flows with "shared stateDept. of CSE -13- MESCE Kuttippuram
    • Seminar Report ’03 Project Oxygenlearning" and allows applications to adapt to congestion in waysthat accommodate the heterogeneous nature of streams. Unlikethe standard TCP protocol, which is tuned for bulk datatransfers, the congestion manager efficiently handlescongestion due to audio, video, and other real-time streamingapplications, as well as to multiple short connections. N21networks provide interfaces to control mechanisms, whichenable applications to influence the way their packets arerouted.SOFTWARE ARCHITECTURE Oxygen’s software architecture supports change above thedevice and network levels. The software architecture matchescurrent user goals with currently available software services,configuring those services to achieve the desired goals. Whennecessary, it adapts the resulting configurations to changes ingoals, available services, or operating conditions. Thereby, itrelieves users of the burden of directing and monitoring theoperation of the system as it accomplishes their goals. USER TECHNOLOGIES Several important technologies harness Oxygen’spervasive computational, communication, and perceptualresources to advance the human-centered goal of enablingpeople to accomplish more with less effort.Dept. of CSE -14- MESCE Kuttippuram
    • Seminar Report ’03 Project OxygenSPOKEN LANGUAGE, SKETCHING AND VISUAL CUES Spoken language and visual cues, rather than keyboardsand mice, define the main modes of interaction with Oxygen. Byintegrating these two technologies, Oxygen can better discernour intentions, for example, by using vision to augment speechunderstanding through the recognition of facial expressions,gestures, lip movements, and gaze. These perceptualtechnologies are part of the core of Oxygen, not justafterthoughts or interfaces to separate applications. They can be customized quickly in Oxygen applications tomake selected human-machine interactions easy and natural.Graceful switching between different domains (e.g., from aconversation about the weather in Rome to one about airlinereservations) supports seamless integration of applications.Dept. of CSE -15- MESCE Kuttippuram
    • Seminar Report ’03 Project OxygenKNOWLEDGE ACCESS Individualized knowledge access technologies offer greatlyimproved access to information — customized to the needs ofpeople, applications, and software systems. Universal access toinformation is facilitated through annotations that allow content-based comparisons and manipulations of data represented indifferent formats and using different terminologies. Users mayaccess their own knowledge bases, those of friends andassociates, and other information publicly available on the Web. The individualized knowledge access subsystem supportsthe natural ways people use to access information. In particular,it supports personalized, collaborative, and communalknowledge, "triangulating" among these three sources ofinformation to find the information people need. It observes andadapts to its users, so as to better meet their needs. Thesubsystem integrates the following components to gather andstore data, to monitor user access patterns, and to answerqueries and interpret data.DATA REPRESENTATION The subsystem stores information encountered by itsusers using an extensible data model that links arbitrary objectsvia arbitrarily named arcs. There are no restrictions on objecttypes or names. Users and the system alike can aggregateuseful information regardless of its form (text, speech, images,Dept. of CSE -16- MESCE Kuttippuram
    • Seminar Report ’03 Project Oxygenvideo). The arcs, which are also objects, represent relational(database-type) information as well as associative (hypertext-like) linkage. For example, objects and arcs in As data modelcan represent Bs knowledge of interest to A—and vice versa.DATA ACQUISITIONThe subsystem gathers as much information as possible aboutthe information of interest to a user. It does so through rawacquisition of data objects, by analyzing the acquiredinformation, by observing peoples use of it, by encouragingdirect human input, and by tuning access to the user.AUTOMATIC ACCESS METHODS The arrival of new data triggers automated services,which, in turn, obtain further data or trigger other services.Automatic services fetch web pages, extract text frompostscript documents, identify authors and titles in a document,recognize pairs of similar documents, and create documentsummaries that can be displayed as a result of a query. Thesystem allows users to script and add more services, as they areneeded.HUMAN ACCESS METHODS Since automated services can go only so far in carryingout these tasks, the system allows users to provide higherDept. of CSE -17- MESCE Kuttippuram
    • Seminar Report ’03 Project Oxygenquality annotations on the information they are using, via text,speech, and other human interaction modalities.AUTOMATED OBSERVERS Subsystems watch the queries that users make, the resultsthey dwell upon, the files they edit, the mail they send andreceive, the documents they read, and the information theysave. The system exploits observations of query behavior byconverting query results into objects that can be annotatedfurther. New observers can be added to exploit additionalopportunities. In all cases, the observations are used to tune thedata representation according to usage patterns.AUTOMATION The automation subsystem provides technologies forencapsulating objects, both physical and virtual, so that theiractions can be automated. It also provides scriptingtechnologies that automate new processes in response to directcommands, or by observing, imitating, and fine-tuningestablished processes.BASIC AUTOMATION OBJECTS Basic automation objects are "black boxes" of low-levelactions that can be managed by higher-level automationprocesses. The objects can be either physical or virtual. A basicphysical object senses or actuates a physical entity—it mayDept. of CSE -18- MESCE Kuttippuram
    • Seminar Report ’03 Project Oxygensense the temperature or whether an office door is open, and itmay crank up the heat or send an image to a display. A basicvirtual object collects, generates, or transforms information—itmay extract designated items from incoming electronic forms,operate on them in a designated manner, and send the resultsto a particular device.A common intelligent interface connects basic physical objectsto the network. The interface consists of a chip containing amicroprocessor, a network adapter, main memory, and non-volatile storage. It makes different sensors, actuators, andappliances more powerful, provides device status information,reduces the bandwidth they require, and downloads commandsand new low-level software.Any software object can be a basic virtual object. Electronicforms are particularly common basic virtual objects, becausethey serve as convenient "interfaces" for exchanginginformation among people and organizations.CONTROL OVER COMBINED OBJECTS The automation architecture provides mechanisms forcomposing modular components, such speech, vision, andappliances, and for controlling their behavior based on userscripts. The architecture allows distributed objects (or agents) torefer to one another by function and capability, without respectto their location. Objects communicate using a universalstreaming data "bus" standard. They can move around, be re-connected dynamically, and seamlessly resume previouslyestablished connections with one another. The scriptingDept. of CSE -19- MESCE Kuttippuram
    • Seminar Report ’03 Project Oxygenlanguage enables users to specify easily and rapidly the tasksthey wish to automate. The automation subsystem uses a top-level watch-reason-automate "loop" to monitor and filter information of interest tothe automation process, to select appropriate automationregimes for given tasks, and to implement those regimes. Thescripting language enables users to customize automationregimes in response to context changes and other factors toocomplicated to handle automatically, either in the original scriptor in the watch-reason-automate loop.COLLABORATION The collaboration subsystem uses the knowledge accesssubsystem and the automation subsystem to supportcollaboration. The collaboration subsystem adds to the"semantic web" of the knowledge access subsystem byrecording the context of human-to-human interactions. Itinforms the automation and knowledge access subsystemswhen we are engaged in a collaborative task so that theresponses of these subsystems can be tailored appropriately toall those participating in the task.MAINTAINING COLLABORATION CONTEXT The collaboration subsystem uses the individualizedknowledge access subsystem to represent and acquireinformation about human interactions, for example, by using theDept. of CSE -20- MESCE Kuttippuram
    • Seminar Report ’03 Project Oxygenvision subsystem to determine who is present at a discussionand to observe physical gestures, by using the spoken languagesubsystem to track what people say to each other, and byobserving human interactions with software applications. Thecollaboration subsystem remembers how a group arranges itsworkspace, and it creates virtual work places for distributedgroups. It maintains the context of each collaborative group inan individualized knowledge database, so that it can be recalledto continue the discussion at a future time or in another place.Automated observers track features of interest to thecollaboration and add to the knowledge database. Semanticlinks in the database maintain the history of the discussion andidentify issues, alternative courses of action, arguments for andagainst each alternative, and resolutions to pursue particularalternatives. Human input helps guide the indexing process, byidentifying critical decisions and linking them to the rationalebehind them.AUTOMATING COLLABORATIVE TASKS The collaboration subsystem uses the automationsubsystem, together with Bayesian techniques for analysis andknowledge-based techniques for process management, to act asa coordinator and mediate interactions among members of acollaborative team. It knows the interests, organizational roles,and skills of all team members, and it understands theapplication domain within which the team functions. Forexample, it tracks action items within the group anddependencies with other groups, retrieving relevant informationDept. of CSE -21- MESCE Kuttippuram
    • Seminar Report ’03 Project Oxygenand bringing it to the attention of the most appropriateindividuals. The collaboration system plays the role of an activeparticipant, noticing tasks that need to be undertaken, noticingwhen information required for those tasks has been developed,and making conclusions when appropriate. SOFTWARE TECHNOLOGIESProject Oxygens software architecture provides mechanisms for• Building applications using composable, distributedcomponents,• Customizing, adapting, and altering component behavior,• Replacing components, at different degrees of granularity,in a consistent fashion,• Person-centric, rather than device-centric, security, and• Disconnected operation and nomadic code. Oxygens software architecture relies heavily onabstraction to support change through adaptation andcustomization, on specification to support components that usethese abstractions, and on persistent object stores withtransactional semantics to provide operational support forchange.Dept. of CSE -22- MESCE Kuttippuram
    • Seminar Report ’03 Project Oxygen ABSTRACTION Computations are modular, as is storage. Abstractions characterize components that carry out computations and objects used in computations. In Oxygen, abstractions support the use of adaptable components and objects by providing• Application access to components traditionally hidden beneath intervening layers of software, so as to observe and influence their behavior.• Intent-based interfaces, not just syntax or address-based interfaces, so as to facilitate component and object use, adjustment, replacement, and upgrade.• Stream-oriented interfaces that treat speech, vision, and sensor data as first-class objects, so as to enable compilers to manage low-level pipelining concurrency and multithreaded programs to adjust their behavior correctly at runtime in response to changes in the number of streams or the interactions among them.• Constraint and event abstractions, which separate computation from control, trigger what is processed when, and provide flexibility for modifying behavior at runtime without compromising system integrity.• Cutpoints, so as to provide safe fallbacks and to enable "eternal computation". SPECIFICATIONS Specifications make abstractions explicit, exposing features to other system components. In Oxygen, specifications support adaptation and change by providing information about Dept. of CSE -23- MESCE Kuttippuram
    • Seminar Report ’03 Project Oxygen• system configurations, to determine what modules and capabilities are available locally,• module repositories, to provide code over the network for installation on handheld and other devices,• module dependencies, to support complete and consistent installations or upgrades,• module capabilities, to support other components and applications in scripting their use, and• module behavior, to support their safe use through a combination of static and runtime checks. Dept. of CSE -24- MESCE Kuttippuram
    • Seminar Report ’03 Project OxygenPERSISTENT OBJECT STORE WITH TRANSACTIONALSEMANTICS Code, data objects, and specifications reside in a commonobject-oriented store, which supports all Oxygen technologies(i.e., user, perceptual, system, and device technologies). Object-orientation helps maintain the integrity of the store byrestricting updates to those performed by methods in the store.The store has transactional semantics, which enablesconcurrent access, rollback and recovery, and consistentupdates to modules and data. It also operates efficiently, usingtechniques such as optimistic concurrency, pre-fetching, andlazy updates and garbage collection, which defer the costs ofmodifying the store as long as possible or until there is time tospare.Dept. of CSE -25- MESCE Kuttippuram
    • Seminar Report ’03 Project Oxygen HOW DOES OXYGEN WORKDept. of CSE -26- MESCE Kuttippuram
    • Seminar Report ’03 Project OxygenThe figure showing h21-n21-e21 communications.Dept. of CSE -27- MESCE Kuttippuram
    • Seminar Report ’03 Project Oxygen PERCEPTUAL TECHNOLOGIESSPEECH The spoken language subsystem provides a number oflimited-domain interfaces, as well as mechanisms for users tonavigate effortlessly from one domain to another. Thus, forexample, a user can inquire about flights and hotel informationwhen planning a trip, then switch seamlessly to obtainingweather and tourist information. The spoken languagesubsystem stitches together a set of useful domains, therebyproviding a virtual, broad-domain quilt that satisfies the needsof many users most of the time. Although the system caninteract with users in real-time, users can also delegate tasksfor the system to perform offline. The spoken language subsystem is an integral part ofOxygens infrastructure, not just a set of applications or externalinterfaces. Four components, with well-defined interfaces,interact with each other and with Oxygens device, network, andknowledge access technologies to provide real-timeconversational capabilities.Dept. of CSE -28- MESCE Kuttippuram
    • Seminar Report ’03 Project OxygenSPEECH RECOGNITION The speech recognition component converts the usersspeech into a sentence of distinct words, by matching acousticsignals against a library of phonemes—irreducible units of soundthat make up a word. The component delivers a ranked list ofcandidate sentences, either to the language-understandingcomponent or directly to an application. This component usesacoustic processing (e.g., embedded microphone arrays), visualclues, and application-supplied vocabularies to improve itsperformance.LANGUAGE UNDERSTANDING The language understanding-component breaks downrecognized sequences of words grammatically, and itsystematically represents their meaning. The component is easyto customize, thereby easing integration into applications. Itgenerates limited-domain vocabularies and grammars fromapplication-supplied examples, and it uses these vocabulariesand grammars to transform spoken input into a stream ofcommands for delivery to the application. It also improveslanguage understanding by listening throughout a conversation—not just to explicit commands—and remembering what hasbeen said. Lite speech systems, with user-defined vocabularies andactions, can be tailored quickly to specific applications andDept. of CSE -29- MESCE Kuttippuram
    • Seminar Report ’03 Project Oxygenintegrated with other parts of the Oxygen system in a modularfashion.LANGUAGE GENERATIONThe language generation component builds sentences thatpresent application-generated data in the users preferredlanguage.SPEECH SYNTHESIS A commercial speech synthesizer converts sentences,obtained either from the language generation component ordirectly from the application, into speech.VISION The visual processing system contains visual perceptionand visual rendering subsystems. The visual perceptionsubsystem recognizes and classifies objects and actions in stilland video images. It augments the spoken language subsystem,for example, by tracking direction of gaze of participants todetermine what or whom they are looking at during aconversation, thereby improving the overall quality of userinteraction. The visual rendering subsystem enables scenes andactions to be reconstructed in three dimensions from a smallnumber of sample images without an intermediate 3D model. Itcan be used to provide macroscopic views of application-supplied data.Dept. of CSE -30- MESCE Kuttippuram
    • Seminar Report ’03 Project Oxygen Like the spoken language subsystem, the visualsubsystem is an integral part of Oxygens infrastructure. Itscomponents have well-defined interfaces, which enable them tointeract with each other and with Oxygens device, network, andknowledge access technologies. Like lite speech systems, litevision systems provide user-defined visual recognition, forexample, of faces and handwritings.OBJECT RECOGNITION A trainable object recognition component automaticallylearns to detect limited-domain objects (e.g., people or differentkinds of vehicles) in unconstrained scenes using a supervisedlearning technology. This learning technology generates domainmodels from as little information as one or two sample images,either supplied by applications or acquired without calibrationduring operation. The component recognizes objects even ifthey are new to the system or move freely in an arbitrarysetting against an arbitrary background. As people do, it adaptsto objects, their physical characteristics, and their actions,thereby learning to improve object-specific performance overtime. For high-security transactions, where face recognition isnot a reliable solution, a vision-based biometrics approach (e.g.,fingerprint recognition) integrates sensors in handheld devicestransparently with the Oxygen privacy and security environmentto obtain cryptographic keys directly from biometricsmeasurements.ACTIVITY MONITORING AND CLASSIFICATIONDept. of CSE -31- MESCE Kuttippuram
    • Seminar Report ’03 Project Oxygen An unobtrusive, embedded vision component observesand tracks moving objects in its field of view. It calibrates itselfautomatically, using tracking data obtained from an array ofcameras, to learn relationships among nearby sensors, createrough site models, categorize activities in a variety of ways, andrecognize unusual events.Dept. of CSE -32- MESCE Kuttippuram
    • Seminar Report ’03 Project Oxygen CHALLENGES To support highly dynamic and varied human activities, the Oxygen system must master many technical challenges. It must be pervasive—it must be everywhere, with every portal reaching into the same information base; embedded—it must live in our world, sensing and affecting it; nomadic—it must allow users and computations to move around freely, according to their needs; adaptable—it must provide flexibility and spontaneity, in response to changes in user requirements and operating conditions; powerful, yet efficient—it must free itself from constraints imposed by bounded hardware resources, addressing instead system constraints imposed by user demands and available power or communication bandwidth; intentional—it must enable people to name services and software objects by intent, for example, "the nearest printer," as opposed to by address; eternal—it must never shut down or reboot; components may come and go in response to demand, errors, and upgrades, but Oxygen as a whole must be available all the time. Dept. of CSE -33- MESCE Kuttippuram
    • Seminar Report ’03 Project Oxygen CONCLUSION Widespread use of Oxygen and its advanced technologieswill yield a profound leap in human productivity — one evenmore revolutionary than the move from mainframes todesktops. By enabling people to use spoken and visual cues toautomate routine tasks, access knowledge, and collaborate withothers anywhere, anytime, Oxygen stands to significantlyamplify human capabilities throughout the world.Dept. of CSE -34- MESCE Kuttippuram
    • Seminar Report ’03 Project Oxygen REFERENCES 1. WWW.LCS.MIT.EDU 2. WWW.AI.MIT.EDU 3. WWW.GLOBAL.ACER.COM 4. WWW.DELTACA.COM 5. WWW.HP.COM 6. WWW.NTT.CO.JP 7. WWW.NOKIA.COM 8. WWW.RESEARCH.PHILIPS.COM 9. IEEE Spectrum March 2002Dept. of CSE -35- MESCE Kuttippuram
    • Seminar Report ’03 Project Oxygen ABSTRACT In the future, computation will be human-centered. It willbe freely available everywhere, like batteries and powersockets, or oxygen in the air we breathe. It will enter the humanworld, handling our goals and needs and helping us to do morewhile doing less. We will not need to carry our own devicesaround with us. Instead, configurable generic devices, eitherhandheld or embedded in the environment, will bringcomputation to us, whenever we need it and wherever we mightbe. As we interact with these "anonymous" devices, they willadopt our information personalities. They will respect ourdesires for privacy and security. New systems will boost our productivity. They will help usautomate repetitive human tasks, control a wealth of physicaldevices in the environment, find the information we need (whenwe need it, without forcing our eyes to examine thousands ofsearch-engine hits), and enable us to work together with otherpeople through space and time. It must be accessible anywhere. It must adapt to change,both in user requirements and in operating conditions. It mustnever shut down or reboot —components may come and go inresponse to demand, errors, and upgrades, but Oxygen as awhole must be available all the time.Dept. of CSE -36- MESCE Kuttippuram
    • Seminar Report ’03 Project Oxygen CONTENTS1. THE APPROACH 12. SYSTEM TECHNOLOGIES 33. USER TECHNOLOGIES 134. SOFTWARE TECHNOLOGIES 205. HOW DOES OXYGEN WORK? 236. PERCEPTUAL TECHNOLOGIES 257. CHALLENGES 298. CONCLUSION 309. REFERENCES 31Dept. of CSE -37- MESCE Kuttippuram
    • Seminar Report ’03 Project Oxygen ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I express my sincere thanks to Prof. M.N AgnisarmanNamboothiri (Head of the Department, Computer Science andEngineering, MESCE), Mr. Zainul Abid (Staff incharge) for theirkind co-operation for presenting the seminar. I also extend my sincere thanks to all other members ofthe faculty of Computer Science and Engineering Departmentand my friends for their co-operation and encouragement. P.M. NibilDept. of CSE -38- MESCE Kuttippuram