What is communicationWhat is communication
• The process by which people share
meaning through the transmission
of symbolic messages.
The importance ofThe importance of
• 1.Communication is the process
by which managers accomplish
the management functions.
• 2.Communication is the activity
to which managers devote an
overwhelming proportion of their
Three essential points
1.Communication involve other
2.Communication involve shared
3.Communication is symbolic e.g
gestures, sound, letters
The communication process / theThe communication process / the
elements of communicationelements of communication
1.Sender 2. Encoding
3.Message 4. Channel
5.Decoding 6. Receiver
7.Feedback 8. Noise
Basic Elements in the
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Basic Elements in the
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SenderSender EncodingEncoding DecodingDecoding ReceiverReceiverMessageMessage
The Communication processThe Communication process
The message source.
2.Encoding-The sender selects symbols to compose
a message e.g words or pictures
3.Message-Information formulated by the sender .
4.Channel – The medium carrier through which a
message travels.e.g telephone or paper
5.Decoding-The receiver translates and interprets
6.Receiver-The target audienc
7.Feedback-The receivers response or
reaction to the message
8.Noise –Any factor which disturbs,
interferes or become a barrier to the
Two types of noise:
1.Physical noise e.g noise from
2.Psychological noise e.g lack of
attention or poor listening
One way versus two wayOne way versus two way
One way com.-The sender
communicates without expecting
feedback from the receiver e.g policy
statements from top managers
Two way com.-involve feedback e.g
Steps in achieving effective
1.Clarify your ideas before communicating
2.Identify the purpose of com.
3.Consult with others.
4.Understand your target audience and the
5.Communicate for tomorrow as well as today
6.Follow up your com.
7.Develop supportive com. behavior
Barriers to effective communicationBarriers to effective communication
1. Differing perceptions-e.g differences in
priority, experience and values
2.semantic problems-words may connote
different meaning to different people.
3.Filtering-An alteration of ainformation to
make it acceptable to the receiver.
4.Noise-factors which interferes or disturb
Barriers to effective
5.Emotionality e.g anger or hate
6.Distrust-The com. Will be blocked
7.Inconsistent verbal and non-verbal
com.-e.g double standard
Overcoming Barriers toOvercoming Barriers to
effective communicationeffective communication
2.Use simple language
4.Do not make own conclusions
6.Create openess and trust
7.Understand verbal and non-verbal com.
Formal Communication inFormal Communication in
There are two main types of formal
com. In organization :
1.Vertical com.-messages move
upward or downward
2. Lateral com.-Also known as
Vertical communicationVertical communication
1.Downward com.-managers pass the
info. To the employees e.g
co.policies & rules
2.Upward com.-Subordinates convey
info to their superior e.g suggestion
Lateral communicationLateral communication
• Com.between individuals on the
same level e.g com.between
marketing and finance manager.
• Used to share info among co-
workers and increase coordination
Factors affecting communication in ORG.Factors affecting communication in ORG.
• 1.Formal channels – As org size increases the
communication channels becomes more complex.
• 2.Authority structure –A person’s position in the org.
• 3.Job specialization – Facilitates com among
members in the same dept.
• 4.Information ownership – a person may possess
info. But unwilling to share with others.
Informal communicationInformal communication
Also known as “The Grapevine”
Communication which is not officially
sanction by managers.However it is also
1.Facilitate the flow of info.
2.Satisfy employees social needs
Types of grapevines ( informal com.)Types of grapevines ( informal com.)
1.Single strand-The least accurate
grapevine because info will be
altered at each level
2.Gossip –Used to convey interesting
but non job related info.
Types of grapevines ( informal com.)
3.Probability-also used to convey non
job related info.
4.Cluster-The most dominant form of
grapevine.Used to convey
interesting, job related an up to
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