Chap 1 MGT 162

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Chap 1 MGT 162

  1. 1. Topic 1 Management and Managers: Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow
  2. 2. The process of administering and coordinating resources effectively and efficiently in an effort to achieve the goals of the organization. Management Defined
  3. 3. Why management is considered as an art? • Management must posses vision • Management must use judgemental skill • Management is influenced by contingency factors • However not all management authors agree that mgt is an art.Some consider management as a science.In fact most management authors consider mgt as both an art and a science. Chap. 15 Marketing 7e Lamb Hair McDaniel ©2004 South-Western/Thomson Learning 3
  4. 4. James Stoner Definition of management • Management is a process of planning, organizing, leading and controlling the effort of the organizational members and using all other resources in order to achieve the organizational goals efficiently and effectively. 4Chap. 15 Marketing 7e Lamb Hair McDaniel ©2004 South-Western/Thomson Learning
  5. 5. Elements in Stoner’s definition Chap. 15 Marketing 7e Lamb Hair McDaniel ©2004 South-Western/Thomson Learning 5 • 1.Management is a process • 2.Management must use all organizational resources • 3.Management must establish goals • 4.management must be both efficient and effective
  6. 6. Management is a process of administering and coordinating resources efficiently and effectively to achieve the organizational goals. ( Lewis and others) An organization consists of two or more people working together towards accomplishing common goals. 6Chap. 15 Marketing 7e Lamb Hair McDaniel ©2004 South-Western/Thomson Learning
  7. 7. What Do All Organizations Have in Common? Chap. 15 Marketing 7e Lamb Hair McDaniel ©2004 South-Western/Thomson Learning 7 They are made up of people, and the efforts of these people must be coordinated if the organization is to accomplish its goals. MANAGERS! Managers are the people who plan, organize, lead, and control the activities of the organization so that its goals can be achieved.
  8. 8. Why organizations are needed • 1. Serve the society • 2. Accomplish objectives • 3. Preserve knowledge • 4. Provide careers Explain management in terms of: • A) The management process • b) Managerial responsibility Chap. 15 Marketing 7e Lamb Hair McDaniel ©2004 South-Western/Thomson Learning 8
  9. 9. Effectiveness vs. Efficiency Effectiveness is achieved when the organization pursues appropriate goals. This means “doing the right thing.” Efficiency is achieved by using fewer inputs (e.g., people, money) to generate a given output. This means “doing things right.”
  10. 10. What Is An Organization? An organization is a group of individuals who work together toward common goals. What Do All Organizations Have in Common? They are made up of people, and the efforts of these people must be coordinated if the organization is to accomplish its goals.
  11. 11. PlanningPlanningPlanningPlanning ControllingControllingControllingControlling OrganizingOrganizingOrganizingOrganizing LeadingLeadingLeadingLeading OrganizationalOrganizational goalsgoals The Four Functions of Management Slide 1 of 3
  12. 12. The Four Functions of Management Slide 2 of 3 • Planning – Setting goals and defining the actions necessary to achieve those goals. • Organizing – The process of determining the tasks to be done, who will do them, and how those tasks will be managed and coordinated.
  13. 13. The Four Functions of Management Slide 3 of 3 • Leading – Motivating and directing the members of the organization so that they contribute to the achievement of the goals of the organization. • Controlling – Monitoring the performance of the organization, identifying deviations between planned and actual results, and taking corrective action when necessary.
  14. 14. Planning • A process of establishing objectives and designing strategies to achieve the objectives. Steps in planning • 1. Establishing goals • 2. Define the present situations. • 3. Determine aids and barriers • 4. Developing action programs Chap. 15 Marketing 7e Lamb Hair McDaniel ©2004 South-Western/Thomson Learning 14
  15. 15. Organizing • A process of arranging and allocating works and authority. • A process of determining what is to be done, who is responsible and how the tasks will be managed and coordinated. Steps in organizing • 1.Detailing of work • 2.Division of work • 3.Aggregation of work • 4.Coordination of work • 5.Review of performance Chap. 15 Marketing 7e Lamb Hair McDaniel ©2004 South-Western/Thomson Learning 15
  16. 16. Leadership • A process of influencing and directing other people to perform organizational tasks. Elements in leadership • 1. Leadership involves other people • 2.Leadership involves unequal distribution of power • 3.Leaders may influence others using different sources of power Chap. 15 Marketing 7e Lamb Hair McDaniel ©2004 South-Western/Thomson Learning 16
  17. 17. Controlling • A process managers ensure that actual activities conform with planned objectives Steps in the control process • 1.Establishing standards • 2.Measure actual performance • 3.Compare actual with standards • 4.Take corrective actions Chap. 15 Marketing 7e Lamb Hair McDaniel ©2004 South-Western/Thomson Learning 17
  18. 18. Managerial Responsibilities • 1.Work with and through others • 2.Act as a communication channel • 3. Responsible and accountable • 4. Balance competing needs • 5.Think analytically and conceptually • 6.Managers as politician • 7.Managers as diplomat • 8.Managers as symbols • 9.Make difficult decisions • 10.Managers as mediators 18
  19. 19. The role of time • 1.Time provide the context for studying mgt • 2.Mgt is a process of building the future using the present and the past • 3.Mgt is practice and reflective of a particular era Chap. 15 Marketing 7e Lamb Hair McDaniel ©2004 South-Western/Thomson Learning 19
  20. 20. The role of human relationship • Mgt is a two-way process • Mgt action affects other people • Mgt must juggle multiple relationship at the same time Chap. 15 Marketing 7e Lamb Hair McDaniel ©2004 South-Western/Thomson Learning 20
  21. 21. Managerial performance • A measure of how well managers are doing their jobs. • Managerial performance can be measured using two factors : • A) Efficiency • B) Effectiveness Chap. 15 Marketing 7e Lamb Hair McDaniel ©2004 South-Western/Thomson Learning 21
  22. 22. Efficiency • Is an input-output concept • managers ability to reduce costs, materials and saves time • e.g Perodua is considered as efficient because it is able to produce lower cost auto • doing things right Chap. 15 Marketing 7e Lamb Hair McDaniel ©2004 South-Western/Thomson Learning 22
  23. 23. Effectiveness • Doing the right things • ability to achieve target or goals • e.g a salesman is considered as effective if he is able to achieve his sales quota. Chap. 15 Marketing 7e Lamb Hair McDaniel ©2004 South-Western/Thomson Learning 23
  24. 24. Factors contributing towards excellent in management • 1.Bias for action • 2.Staying close to the customer • 3.Autonomy and entrepreneurship • 4.Productivity through people • 5.Hands on value driven • 6.Stick to the knitting • 7.Simple form lean staff • 8.Simultaneous loose tight properties. 24
  25. 25. Managers Managers are the people who plan, organize, lead, and control the activities of the organization so that its goals can be achieved.
  26. 26. The Classification of managers • Managers can be classified in two ways : • I) According to the scope of activities : General manager and Functional manager • II) According to the level in the organizational hierachy : Top manager, middle manager and first line manager. Chap. 15 Marketing 7e Lamb Hair McDaniel ©2004 South-Western/Thomson Learning 26
  27. 27. Functional Managers • Responsible for only one functional area such as marketing, production or finance. General Managers • Oversees a complex unit such as a company, a subsidiary or an operating division • Responsible for all activities of that unit e.g a plant manager, a supermarket manager Chap. 15 Marketing 7e Lamb Hair McDaniel ©2004 South-Western/Thomson Learning 27
  28. 28. Functional Manager Chap. 15 Marketing 7e Lamb Hair McDaniel ©2004 South-Western/Thomson Learning 28 Chief ExecutiveChief Executive General Parts Inc.General Parts Inc. Chief ExecutiveChief Executive General Parts Inc.General Parts Inc. PlantPlant ManagerManager PlantPlant ManagerManager ServiceService ManagerManager ServiceService ManagerManager AccountAccount ManagerManager AccountAccount ManagerManager PayrollPayroll ManagerManager PayrollPayroll ManagerManager A functional manager is a manager responsible for a work group segmented by function. VP ofVP of ProductionProduction VP ofVP of ProductionProduction VP ofVP of FinanceFinance VP ofVP of FinanceFinance
  29. 29. General Manager Chap. 15 Marketing 7e Lamb Hair McDaniel ©2004 South-Western/Thomson Learning 29 General ManagerGeneral Manager Supermarket, Inc.Supermarket, Inc. General ManagerGeneral Manager Supermarket, Inc.Supermarket, Inc. ProduceProduce ManagerManager ProduceProduce ManagerManager BakeryBakery ManagerManager BakeryBakery ManagerManager GroceryGrocery ManagerManager GroceryGrocery ManagerManager A general manager is a manager responsible for several different work groups segmented by task.
  30. 30. Top Managers • Composed of a comparatively small group of people • Also called “executives” • They are “planners” • Typical titles: C.E.O , President, vice president Chap. 15 Marketing 7e Lamb Hair McDaniel ©2004 South-Western/Thomson Learning 30
  31. 31. Middle Managers • Can include more than one level • Direct the activities of lower level managers and sometimes those of operating workers as well • Principles activities are : A) Direct activities that implement the organization objectives • B) Balance the demands of their superiors with the capacities of their employees Chap. 15 Marketing 7e Lamb Hair McDaniel ©2004 South-Western/Thomson Learning 31
  32. 32. First-Line Managers • The lowest mgt level • Direct non mgt employees • Do not supervise other manager • E.g Foremen, supervisor, a school principle and the manager of a football team. Chap. 15 Marketing 7e Lamb Hair McDaniel ©2004 South-Western/Thomson Learning 32
  33. 33. Management Skills (Robert Kartz) 1.Technical Skill • The ability to use the procedure techniques and knowledge of a specialized field. • E.g surgeons and engineers have technical skills in their respective fields. Chap. 15 Marketing 7e Lamb Hair McDaniel ©2004 South-Western/Thomson Learning 33
  34. 34. 2. Human Skills • The ability to work with, understand and motivate other people. 3. Conceptual skills • The ability to coordinate and integrate all of an org.interest and activities. • Involves seeing the organization as a whole or in totality Chap. 15 Marketing 7e Lamb Hair McDaniel ©2004 South-Western/Thomson Learning 34
  35. 35. Skills Needed at Different Levels of Management Slide 1 of 3 Chap. 15 Marketing 7e Lamb Hair McDaniel ©2004 South-Western/Thomson Learning 35 First-lineFirst-line ManagementManagement MiddleMiddle ManagementManagement Top-LevelTop-Level ManagementManagement ConceptualConceptual HumanHuman TechnicalTechnical ConceptualConceptual HumanHuman TechnicalTechnical ConceptualConceptual HumanHuman TechnicalTechnical
  36. 36. Mintzberg’s Managerial Roles Slide 1 of 4 Chap. 15 Marketing 7e Lamb Hair McDaniel ©2004 South-Western/Thomson Learning 36 Decisional rolesDecisional roles • EntrepreneurEntrepreneur • DisturbanceDisturbance handlerhandler • Resource allocatorResource allocator • NegotiatorNegotiator InterpersonalInterpersonal rolesroles • FigureheadFigurehead • LeaderLeader • LiaisonLiaison InformationalInformational rolesroles • MonitorMonitor • DisseminatorDisseminator • SpokespersonSpokesperson
  37. 37. 1.Interpersonal roles • A)Figurehead-a manager performing ceremonial duties like greeting visitors and entertaining clients. • B)Leader-Responsible for hiring, training and motivating subordinates • C) Liaison -a manager establish working relationship both inside and outside the organization Chap. 15 Marketing 7e Lamb Hair McDaniel ©2004 South-Western/Thomson Learning 37
  38. 38. Informational Roles • A)Monitor-Checking about market info.and other environmental influences • B)Disseminator-Distributes info to other employees • C)Spokesperson-Communicates with people outside the org. Chap. 15 Marketing 7e Lamb Hair McDaniel ©2004 South-Western/Thomson Learning 38
  39. 39. Decisional Roles • 1.Entrepreneur • 2.Resource allocator • 3.Disturbance handler • 4.Negotiator Chap. 15 Marketing 7e Lamb Hair McDaniel ©2004 South-Western/Thomson Learning 39
  40. 40. The Challenges in Management • 1.Globalization-The need to expand operation overseas • 2.Quality and TQM -The need to improve products quality • 3.Ethics and social responsibility –The need to do what is right and contribute to the society • 4.Reengineering-The need to improve operational efficiency • 5.Empowerment-The need to delegate responsibilities • 6.Organizational restructuring and consolidation. Chap. 15 Marketing 7e Lamb Hair McDaniel ©2004 South-Western/Thomson Learning 40
  41. 41. Hyperchange Chap. 15 Marketing 7e Lamb Hair McDaniel ©2004 South-Western/Thomson Learning 41 A condition of rapid, dramatic, complex, and unpredictable changes that has a significant effect on the ways in which organizations are managed.
  42. 42. Managing in the 21st Century: Organizational Changes Chap. 15 Marketing 7e Lamb Hair McDaniel ©2004 South-Western/Thomson Learning 42 The ChangingThe Changing Chief ExecutiveChief Executive OfficerOfficer The ChangingThe Changing Chief ExecutiveChief Executive OfficerOfficer IncreasingIncreasing Diversity in theDiversity in the WorkplaceWorkplace IncreasingIncreasing Diversity in theDiversity in the WorkplaceWorkplace From HierarchyFrom Hierarchy to Self-Managedto Self-Managed TeamsTeams From HierarchyFrom Hierarchy to Self-Managedto Self-Managed TeamsTeams A NewA New OrganizationalOrganizational ModelModel A NewA New OrganizationalOrganizational ModelModel
  43. 43. The Contemporary Manager Slide 1 of 2 • The New Manager Profile – Managers will no longer think of themselves as “the boss,” but will view themselves as sponsors, team leaders, or internal consultants. Chap. 15 Marketing 7e Lamb Hair McDaniel ©2004 South-Western/Thomson Learning 43
  44. 44. The Contemporary Manager Slide 2 of 2 • Competencies of Tomorrow’s Managers – The great communicator – The team player – The technology master – The problem solver – The foreign ambassador – The change maker – The 21st-century leader Chap. 15 Marketing 7e Lamb Hair McDaniel ©2004 South-Western/Thomson Learning 44

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