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export garments

  1. 1. 1.1 INTRODUCTION International business involves commercial activities that cross national frontiers. It concerns the international movement of goods, capital, services, technology, etc., importing and exporting, cross border transactions in intellectual property ( patents , trade mark , copy right etc ., ) via licensing and franchising ; investment in fiscal and financial assets in foreign countries. Industrial infrastructure and financial position are weaker in some countries, making the firm within uncompetitive in international trade. Therefore the government gives extensive assistance for exporters. In most of the countries majority of assistance are directed towards specific industry sectors. In order to boost exports, the government besides giving certain facilities and assistance has made an attempt to develop the institutional infrastructure this would be helpful in promoting the exports through its expert guidance and assistance. For this purpose the government has set up several institutions whose main function is to help an exporter in his work. It would be advisable for an exporter to acquaint him self with the working of these institutions and the nature of help (assistance) they can render to the exporter so that the exporter can contact them for the right help and guidance at the right time. 1
  2. 2. The quota system, whose ending was devised nearly a decade ago by the World Trade Organization's predecessor, has protected the textile and garment industry in the United States and Europe by limiting imports from low-cost manufacturing countries like India. The Indian government had long been a stumbling block to the expansion of India's textile and garment industry. Until four years ago, it provided incentives like tax exemptions and special interest rates to small apparel units, thus discouraging investment in large machinery and the creation of more capacity. Export incentives are widely employed strategy of export promotion. The main aim of these incentives is to increase the profitability of export business. Public subsidies, tax rebates, and other kinds of financial and no financial measures designed to promote a greater level of economic activity in export industries. In this study the researcher has made an attempt to study the various institution assistance provider to exporter of garment industry in coimbatore district. 2
  3. 3. 1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS Exporter are aware of the various assistance and are successful in getting the assistance from various institution, it takes aback to notice that few exporters are not aware of any of the assistance provided by many institution. Upgrade education and training institutions, Enhanced managerial skills are urgently needed in all sectors of the industry to meet customers' quality and delivery conditions as well as to boost productivity. Moreover, the development of the domestic market requires effective marketing skills. Educational institutions must provide basic training in these skill areas. In training and educational institutions are promoting curriculum expansion, their financial resources is severely limited. Moreover, budget allocation must allow development and upgrading of courses production management, product development and marketing. The establishment and operation of new training institutes must be pursured according to needs and potentiality Training programs and seminars have their limits because the problems each firm faces are diverse and concrete. In order to address these problems, individual consultations as well as technical support in the testing and analyses of input materials and machineries will prove effective. In this regards the garment industry facing many problems, which may be solved by education institutions. So the present study concentrated for answer the following questions.  What are the assistance provided by the education institutions?  How the exporter exporter of garments utilizes such assistance? 3
  4. 4. 1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY The objectives of the study are as follows:  To study the importance of institutional assistance to the exporter of garment industry  To study the exporters perception on the institutional assistance provided to them.  To suggest measure the exporters availing the assistance for problems in export 4 solving their
  5. 5. 1.4 SCOPE OF THE STUDY The study helps to know the institutions which provide educational assistance to the garment industries. It helps to the objectives, mission, vision, facilities and other services provided by institutions to the garment industries. This is also helpful for the industries to know about various organizations which assist them. It also acts as guide for leading their business 5
  6. 6. 1.5 METHODOLOGY OF STUDY Research methodology is a way to systematically solve the research problem. It may be understood as a science of studying how research is done scientifically. Researcher not only needs to know how to develop certain indices or tests, but they also need to know which of the methods or techniques, are relevant and which are not suit to research. 1.5.1 GEOGRAPHICAL AREA OF RESEARCH The research study was conducted in Coimbatore district. 1.5.2 RESEARCH DESIGN This research is descriptive in nature. The researcher here made an attempt to describe the role of educational institutional assistance provided to exporter and its impact of Export performance. 1.5.3 NATURE AND SOURCE OF DATA The nature of data collected for this study was mainly primary data. Primary data were collected from the respondents through a structured questionnaires scheduled form. The respondents were personally interviewed and through mail by the researcher. 6
  7. 7. 1.5.4 STATISTICAL TOOLS Percentage analysis and Chi –Square are the statistical tools applied to analyze the data. 1.5.5 PERIOD OF STUDY The period of study is for 6 month. 1.5.6 SAMPLING DESIGN The sampling design adopted in the project was random sampling. This method was convenient and suitable for the study. A sample of 100 organizations were taken into account for finding the education institution assistance provided to exporters in the garment industry 7
  8. 8. 1.6 LIMITATION OF STUDY Following are the some of the limitations which main constraints, while conducting the study.  The study is restricted to Coimbatore district.  Due to lack of time the sample size was restricted to 100 respondents.  The study covered few industries exporting the garments. 8
  9. 9. 1.7 CHAPTER SCHEME The present study consists of four chapters they are as follows First chapter deals with the institutions design and execution of the study. Second chapter handles with retrospective of the various institutions which are assisting exporters in India. Third chapter handles with the data analysis and interpretations Last chapter consists of summary of findings, suggestions and conclusion. 9
  10. 10. 2.1 INTRODUCTION Institutions are structures and mechanisms of social order and cooperation governing the behavior of a set of individuals. Institutions are identified with a social purpose and permanence, transcending individual human lives and intentions, and with the making and enforcing of rules governing cooperative human behavior. The term, institution, is commonly applied to customs and behavior patterns important to a society, as well as to particular formal organizations of government and public service. As structures and mechanisms of social order among humans, institutions are one of the principal objects of study in the social sciences, including sociology, political science and economics. Institutions are a central concern for law, the formal regime for political rule-making and enforcement. The creation and evolution of institutions is a primary topic for history Although unindividual, formal organizations, commonly identified as "institutions," may be deliberately and intentionally created by people, the development and functioning of institutions in society in general may be regarded as an instance of emergence; that is, institutions arise, develop and function in a pattern of social self-organization, which goes beyond the conscious intentions of the individual humans involved. The relationship of institutions to human nature is a foundational question for the social sciences. Institutions can be seen as "naturally" arising from, and conforming to, human nature -- a fundamentally conservative view -- or institutions can be seen as artificial, 10
  11. 11. almost accidental, and in need of architectural redesign, informed by expert social analysis, to better serve human needs -- a fundamentally progressive view. Adam Smith anchored his economics in the supposed human "propensity to truck, barter and exchange". Modern feminists have criticized traditional marriage and other institutions as elements of an oppressive and obsolete patriarchy Function of institution  Institution is giving training and research for the exporters.  Processing and Analysis of data  Collecting data for the foreign countries to help the exporters.  Functioning as information system for the state level agencies  Checking, verification and coding of data LIST OF INSTITUTIONS Institutions availing in India are: ♦ Chamber of Commerce ♦ The Indian Institute of Foreign Trade ♦ Indian Trade Promotion Organization ♦ Export Credit Guarantee Corporation of India ♦ Indian Institute of Export Management ♦ Federation of Indian Export Organizations ♦ Commercial Banks 11
  12. 12. ♦ Trade Fair Authority of India 12
  13. 13. 2.2 INSTITUTIONS Following are the different institutions support the exporters. 2.2.1 CHAMBER OF COMMERCE Chamber of Commerce is a local association of business people organized to promote the welfare of their community, especially its commercial interest. Each Chamber of Commerce usually has an elected Board of Directors and its work is done through community. Among these activities frequently carried on by these communizes are industrial surveys and efforts to attract new industries to the city, the provision of information and advice to government on topics ranging from lab our disputes to taxes, and the promotion of tourism in cities. The Chamber of Commerce of Marseilles (1599) was the first organization to use the name; the idea spread through France in the 17 th century .the first to be formed in great Britain was on the island of Jersey (1768). In America the first was the Chamber of Commerce of the state of network , organized in 1768 .By 1870 there was 40 throughout the United States. The local chamber are federated in the United States Chamber of Commerce (founded 1912), which maintains at its Washington, D.C, headquarters a technical staff and lobbies in the interests of its member organizations. Its membership includes 3 million companies, and 3000 state and local chapters, and 830 foreign countries, 13
  14. 14. and those of other countries have offices in the United States. The International Chamber of Commerce (founded 1920) promotes open international Trade and investment. Its headquarters in Paris. Chamber of Commerce is business advocacy groups which are usually not associated with government. They are separate from Better Business Bureau insofar as there is no national organization that binds them under a formal operations doctrine . Chamber of Commerce can also include economic development groups, as well as tourism and visitors bureaus. There are basically two models world wide, ‘compulsory ‘or ‘Continental’, those which companies of a certain area are obliged to belong to. Under the compulsory or public law companies in certain area obliged to become members of the chamber.this model is common in most countries of EU (France, Germany, Italy, and Spain). Their main tasks are Foreign Trade Promotion, Training and General Services to companies, they also have a conclusive function. In continental model, this means that Administration must consult chambers whenever a new law related industry or commerce is proposed Non-compulsory models exist in Anglo-Saxon countries like USA, Canada or the UK. Chambers of commerce serve the following purposes: ♦ Promotion of trade in their own towns or cities. ♦ Obtaining and supporting municipal regulations in interest of business their regions. 14
  15. 15. ♦ Settlement of disputes between members by means of arbitration . ♦ Collection of information and statistics which may be of use to their members. ♦ Recording of a blacklist for members' reference ♦ Prevention of unnecessary competition by establishing uniform hours, wages and prices. ♦ Advocating for business friendly policies at the state, local, federal, and international levels The Chamber of Commerce established to fulfill the followings: ♦ Participate in the promotion of the activities of International Chamber of Commerce. ♦ Facilitate commercial interaction among member countries. ♦ Evolve business view on all international matters relating to finance, industry, commerce and environment, among others. ♦ Encourage progress, promote peace and cordial relations among countries and their citizens by the cooperation of businessmen and organizations, ♦ Nominate members on the bodies of ICC to represent Indian Business interests. ♦ Do all such things as may be incidental or conducive to the proper representation of the commercial, industrial, financial, shipping and trading interests of India in the organization and work at the international Chamber. 15
  16. 16. 2.2.2 THE INDIAN INSTITUTION OF FOREGIN TRADE It was set up in 1963 by the government of India as an autonomous organization to help professionalized the country’s foreign trade management and increase exports by developing human resources: generating ,analyzing and disseminating data: and conducting research. The Institute visualizes its future role as:  A catalyst for new ideas, concepts and skills for the internationalization of the Indian economy  The primary provider of training and research based consultancy in the area of international business, both for the corporate sector, government and the student’s community. An institution with proven capability to continuously upgrade its knowledge base with a view to servicing the requirement of the government, trade and industry through both sponsored and non-sponsored research and consultancy assignments. 16
  17. 17. MISSION: To globally strengthen, sustain and professionalize business knowledge through creative research and teaching and learning and by integrating with organization, institution and universities both with in and beyond national boundary. VISION: An internationally acknowledged and networked institution in delivering globally competitive business education and research for individuals, corporate, government and society. The Indian institute of foreign trade, registered under the societies registration act, is engaged in the following activities: Training of personnel in modern techniques of international trade; Organization of research in problems of foreign trade; Organization of marketing research, area surveys, commodity surveys market surveys and Dissemination of information arising from its activities relating to research and market studies. During the last two decades, the world has witnessed dramatic changes in the business environment. Emerging from a historically economic role, the business organization has evolved in response to the social and political mandates of national public policy, explosive technology growth, and continuing innovations in global communication. 17
  18. 18. The complexities of today’s fast-changing world and the unpredictability of consumer demands have significantly increased the risk associated with business decision, especially in the international area. These changes have created new knowledge needs for the manager to consider when evaluating any decision. IIFT has been a pacesetter in addressing the needs of business executives by continuously aligning the focus of its Management Development Programmers with the Changing realities… The training programmers of the Institute are continuously improved through a system of regular feedback from the participants. The constant dialogue with eminent academicians, leading management experts and senior representatives of Government and industry has enabled the Institute to keep the academic contents of its Programmers relevant with the changing market dynamics. The Institute's National and International Linkages: The Institute is a member of: • International Association of Trade Training Organizations (IATIO), UK • Academy of International Business (AIB), USA • Association of Training Institutions for Foreign Trade in Asia and the Pacific (ATIFTAP), Manila, Philippines. 18
  19. 19. The Institute has also entered into a MOU with Korean Institute for Industrial Economics and Trade for collaborative research. ESCAP has recognized the Institute as a Centre of Maritime Education and Training. The Centre offers a specialized part-time programme for the benefit of shippers and others involved in this area. The Institute has so far offered its training services to about 700 professionals from 30 developing countries. As a part of Technical Cooperation among Developing Countries, the Institute has conducted training programmers in Mongolia and Vietnam. It has also organized inter-regional Seminars/ Workshops in association with International Trade Centre, UNCTAD/WTO. Within the country, IIFT has institutional linkages with major trade and industry associations, such as Confederation of Indian Industries (CII), Federation of Indian Export Organizations (FIEO) etc. Joint Seminars on important national issues are the primary outcomes of these linkages. The Indian Institute of Foreign Trade (IIFT) aims to serve as catalyst for new ideas, concepts and skills for the internationalizations of the Indian economy. It works with a range of regional, national and international partners to undertake research sstudies. The Institute also offers academic programmes aimed at international business executives and mid-career professionals alike. 19
  20. 20. The IIFT's research is focused on the following areas: • WTO issues • EU studies • Free and Preferential trading arrangements • Agriculture • markets • South Asia and Southeast Asia 20
  21. 21. 2.2.3 INDIAN TRADE PROMOTION ORGANISATION Indian trade promotion organization (ITPO) is the nodal agency of the government of India for promoting the country’s external trade.ITPO, during its existence of nearly three decades, in the form of Trade Fair Authority of I NDIA and Trade Development Autority,has played a proactive role in catalyzing trade, investment and technology transfer processes. Its promotional tools include organizing of fairs and exhibitions in India and abroad, Buyer-Seller Meets, Contact Promotion Programmers Product Promotion Programmes, Promotion through Overseas Department Stores, Market Surveys and Information Dissemination. ITPO, the premier trade promotion agency of the Ministry of Commerce& Industry, Govt. of India is committed to showcase excellence achieved by the country in diverse fields especially trade and commerce. ITPO provides a wide spectrum of services to trade and industry and acts as a catalyst for growth of India’s trade .ITPO approves holding of international trade fairs in India and regulates holding of various expositions in India primarily to avoid any duplication of efforts while ensuring proper timing .It manages India’s world class exhibition complex which is constantly upgraded to keep it in a high standard of readiness. Spread over 149 acres of prime land in the heart of India’s capital, New Delhi, 21
  22. 22. Pragati Maidan offers about 61,290 sq. meters. Of open display area. The state-of –the – art exhibition halls have enhanced the appeal of Pragati Maidan as the ideal center for an increasing number of fair organizers and business visitors from different parts of the world. ITPO has an extensive infrastructure as well as marketing and information facilities that are availed by both exporters and importers .ITPO overseas offices assist buyers seeking information relating to sourcing products from India. IT PO’s overseas offices at New York, Frankfurt, Tokyo, Moscow and Sao Paulo are pursuing opportunities for enhancement of India’s trade and investment. Similarly, IT Po’s regional offices at Bangalore, Chennai, Kolkata and Mumbai, through their respective profile of activities, ensure a concerted and well coordinated trade promotion drive throughout the country. With the commissioning of the state-of –the-art Chennai Trade Centre in January 2001 and the Trade Centre, Bangalore in September 2004, ITPO has successfully completed the first phase of the setting up of modern exhibition facilities outside Delhi. A modern convention center has also been set up in Chennai Trade Center. 22
  23. 23. As an apex agency of the Government, ITPO accords approvals for holding of international trade fairs in India in order to ensure and facilitate, inter alias, customs clearance of imported exhibits. ITPO has been conferred the status of Mini Ratan by the Government of India. This honour is bestowed on select Public Sector Enterprises which register profits for three years in a row MISSION: To strive to be the pre-eminent trade promotion organization of India and such to promote, facilitate, encourage and coordinate various activities and programmers which would enhance India's share in international trade and contribute in maximizing the country's foreign exchange earnings through the instrument of trade in goods and services. 23
  24. 24. OBJECTIVES: The main corporate objectives of the ITPO are enumerated below: • To organizes and participate in international trade fairs in India and abroad • To organize trade development and promotion through specialized programmes such as buyer-seller meets: contact promotion programmes: India promotion through department stores, market surveys; exchange and coordinate business delegations etc; and conduct need based research on trade and export promotion. • To develop quality exhibition space, premises, services and management so as to enable holding of trade promotion events of international standards. • To enlist the involvement and support of the State Governments in the promotion of India's foreign trade and promote establishment of exhibition centers in selected regions of the country. • To disseminate trade information Main Activities and Services of ITPO: • Organizing various trade fairs and exhibitions at its exhibition complex, Pragati Maidan and other centers in India. • Participating in overseas trade fairs and exhibitions • Cultivating overseas buyers through timely and efficient services • Extending the use of Pragati Maidan for holding trade fairs and exhibitions by other fair organizers both from India and abroad • Assisting Indian companies in product development and adaptation to meet 24
  25. 25. buyers requirements • Encouraging and involving small and medium scale units in export promotion efforts. • Promoting establishment of facilities and infrastructure for holding trade fairs in State Capitals or other suitable locations in India, in consultation with State Governments concerned. • Organizing Buyer-Seller Meets and other exclusive India Shows in order to bring buyers and sellers together • Assisting Indian companies in product development and adaptation to meet buyers requirements. 25
  26. 26. 2.2.4 EXPORT CREDIT GUARANTEE CORPORATION OF INDIA The Government of India set up the Export Risks Insurance Corporation (ERIC) .In the July 1957 in order to provide export credit insurance support to Indian exporters. It was transformed into Export Credit &Guarantee Corporation Limited (ECGC) in 1964. To bring the Indian identity into sharper focus, the Corporation’s name was once again changed to the present Export Credit Guarantee Corporation of India Limited in 1983. ECGC is a company wholly owned by the Government of India .It function under the administrative control of the Ministry of Commerce and managed by a Board of Directors representing Government, Banking, Insurance, Trade, Industry, etc. SALIENT FEATURES: Various guarantees offered by ECGC to banks are:  Packing Credit Guarantee  Export Production Finance Guarantee  Post –shipment Credit guarantee  Export Finance Guarantee  Export Performance Guarantee  Export Finance (Overseas Lending) Guarantee 26
  27. 27. RISK COVERED: Commercial risks covered are insolvency of the buyer /LC opening bank (as applicable); default by the buyer/LC opening bank to make payment within four months from the due date; and the buyer’s failure to accept the goods, subject to certain conditions/bank’s failure to accept the bill drawn on it under the letter of credit opened by it. Political risks covered are the imposition of restriction by the Government action which may block or delay the transfer of payment made by the buyer; war, civil war ,revolution or civil disturbances in the buyer’s country; new import restrictions or cancellations of a valid resulting in payment of additional freight or insurance charge which cannot be recovered from the buyer; and any other cause of loss occurring outside India , not normally insured by general insures and beyond the control of both the exporter and the buyer. Premium is payable on the projected turnover for each quarter in advance. Important obligation of the exporter is the declaration of shipments made during the quarter within 15 days after the end of the quarter and that of payment overdue for a period pf 30 days or more from the due date at the end of the month. The Exporter should, in consultation with ECGC, take effective steps for recovery of the debt. All amounts recovered, net of recovery expenses, shall be shared with ECGC in the same ratio in which the loss was shared. 27
  28. 28. RISK COVER BY ECGC:  Guarantees to banks- ECGC  Construction works policy-ECGC  Insurance cover for buyer’s credit and line of credit-ECGC  Shipment (comprehensive risks) policy-ECGC  Small exporter’s policy-ECGC  Special scheme-ECGC  Specific policy for supply contracts-ECGC  Specific policy for services contracts-ECGC 28
  29. 29. 2.2.5 INDIAN INSTITUTE OF EXPORT MANAGEMENT Indian Institution of Export Management (IIEM) was set up in 1990, with its corporate office at Bangalore. The institute has been established with a mission to impart training to entrepreneurs wishing to start export ventures and executives intending to make a career in export management. Head quartered at Bangalore, IIEM acts primarily as a promotional and operational institution to help students, new entrants in exports, existing businessmen and managers in export organizations. In the 12 years since inception, more than 40,000 students have enrolled for various Export Management courses at IIEM. The course material is designed to widen the knowledge base of young managers and to equip them with necessary skills to meet the challenges of globally competitive environment. It is meant for professionals and students working in the field of management who have no formal education in the field of business. 29
  30. 30. OBJECTIVES: • To create a new cadre of professionals in export management disciplines. • To fully equip young graduates, aspiring to make career in various departments of trade management. • To impart training to the professionals in export and import management disciplines and to upgrade their management skills. • To help practicing managers to become more effective decision makers in their fields through up gradation of knowledge and managerial skills. • To help managers blend their experience with a structured learning which can be applied to decision making in planned way. • To broaden the overall perspective of the managers so that they become catalysts for relevant changes. • To develop conceptual, interpersonal management awareness for implementation of new structures and strategies. • To improve managerial effectiveness and prepare managers for senior positions. 30
  31. 31. 2.2.6 FEDERATION OF INDIAN EXPORT ORGANIZATIONS The Federation of Indian Export Organizations is an apex body of various export promotion organizations and institutions. The Federation of Indian Export Organizations represents the Indian entrepreneur’s spirit of enterprise global market set up in October, 1965, the Federation, known popularly as “FIEO”, has kept pace with countries evolving Economic and trade policies and provided the content, direction and thrust to India’s expanding international trade. Its membership, largely comprising professional exporting films or long experience called government recognized Export Houses, Trading Houses, Star Trading Houses and Super Star Trading Houses and consultancy exporting firms. The Federation keeps its members posted with the latest development field of Export/Import by organizing seminars and workshops, inviting delegations, rganizing buyers-sellers meets in India and abroad. Trade Fairs, providing advisory and consultative services brings constant interaction between member exporters and various government departments. The Federation continued its program of creating awareness of EDI and E-commerce among Indian exporters and importers through publication of FIEO News. FIEO has forged strong links with counterpart organizations in several countries as well as international agencies to enable direct communication and 31
  32. 32. interaction between India and world businessmen. It is registered with UNCTAD as a national non-Government organisation, and has direct access to information/data originating from UN bodies and world agencies like the IMF, ADB, ESCAP, WORLD of information as well as for liasioning with several overseas chambers of commerce, and trade and industry associations. 32
  33. 33. 2.2.7 COMMERCIAL BANKS The Commercial Bank was organized in 1934 as a financial service institution for the purposes of providing the quality of service that can be offered only by a community bank. Our professional staffs are constantly looking for ways in which to expand the level of services and products that you expect and deserve, whether it is through a traditional checking account, club account, auto loan, business account, or a mortgage loan for the home of your dreams. There are many possibilities from which to choose and you can be assured that we will work hard to provide them for you. We are pleased that you are presently using or considering The Commercial Bank as your provider of financial services. Please don’t hesitate to call on the People You know at any time. MISSION STATEMENT: The Mission of The Commercial Bank is to continue the tradition of providing quality financial services for customers; a pleasant work environment with career opportunities for personal growth for employees; and an outstanding return for shareholders; all under the structure of a successful independent bank. 33
  34. 34. IMPORTANT OF COMMERICAL BANKS: Commercial banks (other than EXIM bank & other Export oriented financial institutions) play an important and crucial role in the development of exports. They provide a package of services to exporters covering not only pre-shipment (Short Term) and post-shipment (Medium & Long Term) credit including financing of export incentive receivable but also giving guarantees for tender bids and performance guarantees. These are the principal agencies through which RBI’s and EXIM bank’s schemes of credit and finance for export are implemented. Commercial banks are mostly scheduled banks i.e. those include in an appropriate schedule of the RBI , which are in the field of export credit. However, these banks may or may not be authorized dealers (AD s) in foreign exchange, although, by a and large, all the scheduled banks are Ads as well. Export credit is a major part of the operational volume of many commercial banks and constitutes almost the entire business of specialized export banks like the EXIM bank. It involves essentially automatic advances against specified documents conforming an export order, and subsequent progressive liquidation of these advances as payments are made, from a letter of credit or otherwise, to accordance with the sale contract, against other documents certifying shipment, delivery, inspection, etc. of the goods. 34
  35. 35. BENIFITS: • Option to give easier credit terms to customers – better protection than an ILC, without the need to insist on establishing one • More friendly delivery terms offered, like direct delivery to the customer (as against DP/DA) without any risk • Reduced foreign bank handling charges on documents • Substantial cost savings and complete freedom in monitoring and follow up (telephones, faxes, follow-up visits) of receivables, overdue bank interest on delayed collections and recovery expenses relating to bad debts. 35
  36. 36. 2.2.8 TRADE FAIR AUTHORITY OF INDIA Established since 1970, Textile Asia caters for a specialized readership which in embraces the economic decision-making elite in the industry. This monthly magazine is indispensable for everyone concerned with Textile trade, manufacturing, fashion trends, engineering needs, management changes and development of new plant and equipment in the industry. It offers news and comment on the current state of cotton, wool, silk and manmade fiber textile trade and industry - including finishing and garments - throughout Asia. Up to now, the fair trade movement was mainly working with agricultural products such as coffee, rice, dried fruits as well as artisan handicrafts. In the fair trade shops there is so far a very limited range of garments. The production chain for garments seemed to be too complicated for fair trade: it goes from the crop growing and spinning company to the dyeing factory and the actual making of the clothes. How can all this be controlled? It is a huge challenge for Max Havelaar to make sure, that all producers and fair trade - partners are following minimal social standards. But the monitoring of the whole production chain could be an opportunity to enforce social minimal standards and to promote multi-stakeholder verification. If the fair-trade labeling organizations develop a close cooperation with trade unions and other initiatives in the garments sector, the new label initiative can have a positive impact on the aim of Clean Clothes Campaign to improve working conditions in the garment factories. 36
  37. 37. 3.1 PERCENTAGE ANALYSIS 3.1.1Number of years of experience Table3.1.1 shows the number of years of experience the respondents have in the field of exports. Table No. 3.1.1 Table showing the number of years of experience Number of years of experience No. of respondents Percentage Less than 3 Years 13 13 3 - 5 Years 32 32 5 - 8 Years 38 38 More than 8 Years 17 17 100 100 Total It is known from the above table that out of the total respondents taken for study, 38% of the respondents have 5 – 8 Years of experience, 32% of the respondents have an experience of 3 – 5 Years, 17% of the respondents have an experience of more than 8 Years and 13% of the respondents have an experience of less than 3 Years in the field of exports. It is concluded that majority (38%) of the respondents have an experience of 5 – 8 Years in the field of exports. 37
  38. 38. Chart No. 3.1.1 Exhibit showing the number of years of experience 120 Percentage 100 No. of respondents Percentage 80 60 40 20 0 Less 3-5 than 3 Years Years 5 - 8 More Years than 8 Years No of respondents 38 Total
  39. 39. 3.1.2Branches Table3.1.2 shows whether the organization has a branch. Table No. 3.1.2 Table showing the branches Branches No. of respondents Percentage Yes 28 28 No 72 72 100 100 Total It is known from the above table out of the total respondents taken for study, 72% of the organizations do not have any branches and only 28% of the organization has branches. It is concluded that majority (72%) of the organization does not have any branches. 39
  40. 40. Chart No. 3.1.2 Exhibit showing the Branches 120 Percentage 100 80 No. of respondents Percentage 60 40 20 0 Yes No Total No of respondents 40
  41. 41. 3.1.3Number of branches Table 3.1.3 shows the number of branches the organization has. Table No. 3.1.3 Table showing the number of branches No. of branches No. of respondents Percentage One 3 10.71 Two 17 60.71 Three 4 14.29 More than three 4 14.29 28 100 Total It is known from the above table that out of the organizations that have branches, 60.71% of the respondents have two branches, 14.29% of the respondents have three branches, 14.29% of the respondents have more than 3 branches and only 10.71% of the respondents have one branch. It is concluded that majority (60.71%) of the respondents have two branches. 41
  42. 42. Chart No. 3.1.3 Exhibit showing the Number of branches 120 Percentage 100 80 No. of respondents Percentage 60 40 20 0 One Two Three More than three No of respondents 42 Total
  43. 43. 3.1.4Export destinations Table 3.1.4 shows the destinations where the organizations export their products. Table No. 3.1.4 Table showing the Export destinations Export destinations No. of respondents Percentage European Countries 56 56 Western Countries 38 38 Gulf Countries 3 3 Others 3 3 100 100 Total It is known from the above table that out of the total respondents taken for study, 56% of the respondents export their goods to European countries, 38% of the respondents export their goods to Western Countries, 3% of the respondents export to gulf countries and 3% of the respondents export their products to Gulf countries. It is concluded that majority (56%) of the respondents export their goods to European countries. 43
  44. 44. Chart No. 3.1.4 Exhibit showing the Export destinations 44
  45. 45. 3.1.5Number of countries operated with Table 3.1.5 shows the number of countries the exporters operated with. Table No. 3.1.5 Table showing the number of countries operated with No. of countries No. of respondents Percentage Up to 2 Countries 24 24 3 - 5 Countries 51 51 More than 5 Countries 25 25 Total 100 100 It is known from the above table that out of the total respondents taken for study, 51% of the respondents export their products to 3 – 5 Countries, 25% of the respondents operate with more than 5 Countries and 24% of the respondents operate with up to 2 countries. It is concluded that majority (51%) of the respondents export their products to 3 – 5 Countries. 45
  46. 46. Chart No. 3.1.5 Exhibit showing the number of countries operated with 120 Percentage 100 80 No. of respondents Percentage 60 40 20 0 Up to 2 3-5 More than Countries Countries 5 Countries No of respondents 46 Total
  47. 47. 3.1.6Membership Table 3.1.6 shows the councils and committees in which the respondents have their Membership. Table No. 3.1.6 Table showing the Membership Councils / Committee No. of respondents Percentage Export Promotion Council 72 48.65 Textile Committee 54 36.49 Tex Procil 22 14.86 Others 0 0.00 148 100 Total It is known from the above table that out of the total respondents taken for study, 48.65% of the respondents are members in Export promotion Council, 36.49% of the respondents are members in Textile Committee and 14.86% of the respondents are members in Tex Procil. It is concluded that majority (48.65%) of the respondents are members in Export Promotion Council. 47
  48. 48. Chart No. 3.1.6 Exhibit showing the Membership 48
  49. 49. 3.1.7Opinion towards importance of Education Institutions Table 3.1.7 shows the opinion of the respondents towards the importance of Education Institutions to exporters. Table No. 3.1.7 Table showing the Opinion towards importance of Education Institutions Opinion towards importance of Education Institutions No. of respondents Percentage Yes 90 90 No 10 10 100 100 Total It is known from the above table that out of the total respondents taken for study, 90% of the respondents feel that the Education Institutions are important and 10% of the respondents feel that the Education Institutions are not very essential. It is concluded that majority (90%) of the respondents feel that the education institutions are important. 49
  50. 50. Chart No. 3.1.7 Exhibit showing the Opinion towards importance of Education Institutions 50
  51. 51. 3.1.8 Institution that offers required assistance and provides knowledge Table 3.1.8 shows the institution that offers required assistance and provide knowledge. Table No. 3.1.8 Table showing the Institution that offers required assistance and provides knowledge Institutions No. of respondents Percentage Chamber of Commerce 67 22.41 Commercial banks 37 12.37 Indian Trade Promotion Organization 23 7.69 Indian Institute of Foreign trade 36 12.04 Export Credit Guarantee Corporation 58 19.40 Indian Institute of Export Organization 21 7.02 Trade Fair Authority of India 30 10.03 Federation of Indian Export Management 27 9.03 Others 0 0.00 299 100 Total It is known from the above table that out of the total respondents taken for study, 22.41% of the respondents have preferred Chamber of Commerce to be the institution that provides required assistance and the organization that inculcates required knowledge. 19.4% of the respondents have marked Export promotion Guarantee Corporation, 12.37% have marked Commercial banks, 12.04% of the respondents Indian Institute of Foreign trade, 10.03% of the respondents have 51
  52. 52. marked Trade Fair authority of India, 9.03% of the respondents have marked Federation of Indian Export management, 7.69% of the respondents have said that Indian Trade Promotion Organization provides the knowledge and 7.02% of the respondents have opted Indian Institute of Export Organization. It is concluded that majority (22.41%) of the respondents have marked Chamber of Commerce to be the organization that offers assistance and that inculcates knowledge about export procedures. 52
  53. 53. Chart No. 3.1.8 Exhibit showing the Institution that offers required assistance and provides knowledge 53
  54. 54. 3.1.9 Institution offering Export and import incentives Table 3.1.9 shows the institution that offers export and import incentives to the organizations. Table No. 3.1.9 Table showing the Institution offering Export and import incentives Institutions No. of respondents Percentage Chamber of Commerce 81 28.42 Commercial banks Indian Trade Promotion Organization Indian Institute of Foreign trade 37 23 43 12.98 8.07 15.09 Export Credit Guarantee Corporation Indian Institute of Export Organization Trade Fair Authority of India 61 18 11 21.40 6.32 3.86 Federation of Indian Export Management Others Total 11 0 285 3.86 0.00 100 It is known that 28.42% of the respondents say that they receive export and import incentives from Chamber of Commerce, 21.4% of them say that Export Credit Guarantee Corporation offers them the incentives, 15.09% of the respondents have opted Indian Institute of Foreign trade, 12.98% of the respondents have opted commercial banks, 8.07% of the respondents have opted Indian Trade Promotion Organization, 6.32% of the respondents have prefer Indian Institute of export organization, 3.86% of the respondents prefer Trade Fair Authority of India and an another 3.86% say that Federation of Indian Export Management offers import and export incentives.It is concluded that majority (28.42%) of the respondents say that Chamber of Commerce offers export and import incentives. 54
  55. 55. Chart No. 3.1.9 Exhibit showing the Institution offering Export and import incentives 55
  56. 56. 3.1.10Assistance from Chamber of Commerce Table 3.1.10 shows the type of assistance the respondents receive from Chamber of commerce. Table No.3.1.10 Table showing the Assistance from Chamber of Commerce Assistance from Chamber of Commerce No. of respondents Percentage Duty drawback 44 56.41 Government Policies 7 8.97 Customs Clearance 15 19.23 Certificate of origin 4 5.13 Export market trends 4 5.13 General useful information 4 5.13 78 100 Total It is known from the above table that out of the total respondents taken for study, 56.41% of the respondents receive assistance to receive Duty drawback from Chamber of Commerce, 19.23% of the respondents are assisted in Customs Clearance, 8.97% of the respondents are received assistance by way of government Policies, 5.13% of the respondents receive help to avail the certificate of origin, 5.13% are informed about the market trends and 5.13% of the respondents receive other useful information from Chamber of Commerce. It is concluded that majority (56.41%) of the respondents receive assistance for the purpose of Duty drawback from chamber of commerce. 56
  57. 57. Chart No. 3.1.10 Exhibit showing the Type of assistance availed from Chamber of Commerce 57
  58. 58. 3.1.11Nature of assistance from Indian Institute of Foreign Trade and Indian Institute of Export management Table 3.1.11 shows the nature of the assistance the organization receives from Indian Institute of Foreign Trade and Indian Institute of Export management. Table No. 3.1.11 Table showing the Nature of assistance from Indian Institute of Foreign Trade and Indian Institute of Export management Nature of assistance No. of respondents Percentage Research Project 35 28.69 Collection of Data 45 36.89 Training 42 34.43 Others 0 0.00 122 100 Total It is known from the above table that out of the total respondents taken for study, 36.89% of the respondents are provided with help for Collection of data, 34.43% of the respondents are provided with training and 28.69% of the respondents receive help by way of research projects from Indian institute of Foreign Trade and Indian Institute of Export management. It is concluded that majority (36.89%) of the respondents avail assistance in Collection of Data from Indian Institute of Foreign Trade and Indian Institute of Export management. 58
  59. 59. Chart No. 3.1.11 Exhibit showing the Nature of assistance from Indian Institute of Foreign Trade and Indian Institute of Export Management 59
  60. 60. 3.1.12Nature of assistance from Indian Promotion organization and Trade Fair Authority of India Table 3.1.12 shows the nature of assistance the Indian Promotion organization and Trade Fair Authority of India provides to the respondents. Table No. 3.1.12 Table showing the Nature of assistance from Indian Promotion organization and Trade Fair Authority of India Nature of assistance No. of respondents Percentage Upgrade technology 49 43.36 Organize visits of foreign trade 32 28.32 Undertake publicity to print and electronic media 32 28.32 Total 113 100 It is known from the above table that out of the total respondents taken for study, 43.36% of the respondents receive upgraded technology, 28.32% of the respondents get organized visits of foreign trade and 28.32% of the respondents are availed publicity to print and electronic media from Indian Promotion organization and Trade Fair Authority of India. It is concluded that majority (43.36%) of the respondents receive upgraded technology assistance from Indian Promotion organization and Trade Fair Authority of India. 60
  61. 61. Chart No. 3.1.12 Exhibit showing the Nature of assistance from Indian Trade promotion Organization and Trade Fair Authority of India 61
  62. 62. 3.1.13Nature of assistance availed through Federation of Indian Export Table 3.1.13 shows the nature of assistance availed through Federation of Indian Export. Table No. 3.1.13 Table showing the Nature of assistance availed through Federation of Indian Export No. of respondents Percentage Consultancy services 58 50.00 Organizing seminars 48 41.38 Conducting exhibition abroad & creating 10 8.62 Total 116 100 Nature of assistance It is known from the above table that out of the total respondents taken for study, 50% of the respondents have received Consultancy services, 41.38% of the respondents are assisted by means of organized seminars and 8.62% of the respondents are helped for the purpose of conducting exhibition abroad. It is concluded that majority (50%) of the respondents are provided with consultancy services from Federation of Indian Export. 62
  63. 63. Chart No. 3.1.13 Exhibit showing the Nature of assistance from Federation of Indian Export 63
  64. 64. 3.1.14Nature of assistance through Export Credit Guarantee Corporation Table 3.1.14 shows the nature of assistance the respondents receive from Export Credit Guarantee Corporation. Table No. 3.1.14 Table showing the Nature of assistance through Export Credit Guarantee Corporation No. of respondents Percentage Resale of unexpected goods 17 10.69 Claim due to loss or damage 48 30.19 Guarantees to banks 63 39.62 Export Performance Guarantee 31 19.50 Total 159 100 Nature of assistance It is known from the above table that out of the total respondents taken for study, 39.62% of the respondents receive help to avail guarantee to banks, 30.19% of the respondents receive help in order to claim due to loss or damage, 19.5% of the respondents receive Export Performance Guarantee and 10.69% of the respondents are provided assistance to resell unexpected goods. It is concluded that majority (39.62%) of the respondents are provided with guarantees to the banks from Export Credit Guarantee Corporation. 64
  65. 65. Chart No. 3.1.14 Exhibit showing the Nature of assistance through Export Credit Guarantee Corporation 65
  66. 66. 3.1.15Level of satisfaction towards assistance from Education Institutions Table 3.1.15 shows the level of satisfaction of the respondents towards the assistance provided by the Education Institutions. Table No. 3.1.15 Table showing the Level of satisfaction towards assistance from Education Highly satisfied Satisfied Neutral Dissatisfied dissatisfiedHighly Total Institutions Chamber of Commerce 19 78 3 0 0 100 Commercial banks 42 49 9 0 0 100 Indian Trade Promotion Organization 12 76 12 0 0 100 Indian Institute of Foreign trade 9 88 3 0 0 100 Export Credit Guarantee Corporation 19 74 7 0 0 100 Indian Institute of Export Organization 15 79 6 0 0 100 Trade Fair Authority India 6 75 19 0 0 100 Federation of Indian Export Management 9 85 3 3 0 100 Level of satisfaction Institutions It is known from the above table that out of the total respondents taken for study, majority of the respondents are satisfied towards the assistance provided by Chamber of Commerce, Commercial banks, Indian Trade Promotion Organization, Indian Institute of Foreign trade, Export Credit Guarantee 66
  67. 67. Corporation, Indian Institute of Export Organization, Trade Fair Authority India and Federation of Indian Export Management. It is concluded that majority of the respondents are satisfied towards the assistance provided by various education institutions. 67
  68. 68. 3.1.16 Credit limit Table3.1.16 shows the credit limit facility availed by the respondents from the banks. Table No. 3.1.16 Table showing the Credit limit Credit limit facility No. of respondents Percentage Below 50 lakhs 18 18 50 lakhs to 75 lakhs 22 22 75 lakhs to 1 Crore 23 23 Above 1 Crore 37 37 100 100 Total It is known from the above table that out of the total respondents taken for study, 37% of the respondents have a credit limit of more than 1 Crore, 23% of the respondents possess a credit limit of 75 lakhs to 1 Crore, 22% of the respondents possess a credit limit of 50 lakhs to 75 lakhs and 18% of the respondents are provided with a credit limit of less than 50 lakhs by the bank. It is concluded that majority (37%) of the respondents possess a credit limit of more than 1 Crore. 68
  69. 69. Chart No. 3.1.16 Exhibit showing the Credit limit facility 69
  70. 70. 3.1.17Securities preferred by the Institutions Table 3.1.17 shows the securities that are preferred by the Institutions to provide credit. Table No. 3.1.17 Table showing the Securities preferred by the Institutions Securities No. of respondents Percentage Letter of credit 75 75 Purchase order 18 18 Others 7 7 100 100 Total It is known from the above table that out of the total respondents taken for study, 75% of the respondents prefer Letter of Credit as the security, 18% of the respondents prefer Purchase order and 7% of the respondents prefer collateral securities to provide credit. It is concluded that majority (75%) of the institutions prefer Letter of Credit as the security to provide credit to the respondents. 70
  71. 71. Chart No. 3.1.17 Exhibit showing the Securities preferred by the Institutions 71
  72. 72. 3.1.18 Level of agreeability towards Problems faced Table 3.1.18 shows the level of agreeability of the respondents towards the problem faced in various areas of exports. Table No. 3.1.18 Problems Strongly agree Agree Neutral Disagree DisagreeStrongly Table showing the Level of agreeability towards Problems faced Problems in availing credit 11 37 17 22 13 Problem in receiving Duty draw back 17 23 16 35 9 Problem in the rate of Incentives 15 18 19 34 14 Export procedures 11 40 16 17 16 Training Advancement 9 45 15 22 9 Level of agreeability It is known from the above table that out of the total respondents taken for study, majority of the respondents agree that they have problems in availing credit, the exporters feel that the export procedures to be lengthy and tough and training provided by the educational institutions are more advanced thus the training content must be simplified as to meet the needs of the exporters. The respondents disagree that they have problem is receiving Duty draw back and rate of incentives. 72
  73. 73. It is concluded that majority of the respondents agree that they have problems in availing credit, export procedures and training advancement. 73
  74. 74. Average score for number of years of experience and level of satisfaction towards assistance provided by Education institution Table3.1.19 shows the average score for number of years of experience and level of satisfaction of the respondents towards the assistance provided by Education Institution. Table No.3.1.19 Table showing the Average score for number of years of experience and level of satisfaction towards assistance provided by Education institution Number of years of Less 3-5 experience than 3 Years Education institutions Years More 5-8 than 8 Years Years Chamber of Commerce 3.92 4.13 4.32 4.06 Commercial banks 4.54 4.28 4.32 4.29 Indian Trade Promotion Organization 4.00 4.13 3.92 3.94 Indian Institute of Foreign trade 4.08 4.00 4.08 4.12 Export Credit Guarantee Corporation 4.15 4.09 4.08 4.24 Indian Institute of Export Organization 4.00 4.06 4.11 4.18 Trade Fair Authority India 3.85 3.94 3.87 3.76 Federation of Indian Export Management 4.00 3.94 4.03 4.06 It is known from the above tables that out of the respondents having different years of experience in the field of exports, respondents with less than 3 years of experience are highly satisfied towards the assistance provided by the commercial banks and are satisfied towards the performance of other education 74
  75. 75. institutions. Respondents with 3 – 5 Years, 5 – 8 Years and more than 8 Years are highly satisfied towards the assistance provided by the education institutions. It is concluded that respondents with different years of experience in the field of exports are satisfied towards the Education Institutions. 75
  76. 76. Average score for export destination and level of satisfaction towards assistance provided by Education institutions Table3.1.20 shows the average score values for the export destination and level of satisfaction of the respondents towards the assistance provided by the education institutions. Table No. 3.1.20 Table showing the Average score for export destination and level of Education Institutions CountriesEuropean Western Countries Gulf Countries Others satisfaction towards assistance provided by Education institutions Chamber of Commerce 4.05 4.26 4.00 5.00 Commercial banks 4.45 4.21 5.00 3.00 Indian Trade Promotion Organization 4.11 3.84 4.00 4.00 Indian Institute of Foreign trade 4.00 4.16 4.00 4.00 Export Credit Guarantee Corporation 4.13 4.05 5.00 4.00 Indian Institute of Export Organization 4.00 4.24 4.00 4.00 Trade Fair Authority India 4.00 3.66 4.00 4.00 Federation of Indian Export Management 4.05 4.08 4.00 2.00 Export destinations It is known from the above table that out of the respondents exporting their goods to different export destinations, respondents exporting to European 76
  77. 77. countries and Western countries are satisfied towards the assistance of all education institutions, respondents exporting to Gulf countries are highly satisfied towards the Commercial banks and export credit Guarantee Corporations assistance and respondents exporting to other countries are highly satisfied towards the assistance provided by chamber of commerce, they have opined neutrally towards the assistance provided by commercial banks and are dissatisfied towards the assistance provided by Federation of Indian Export Management. It is concluded that Respondents exporting to different export destinations are satisfied towards the assistance provided by different educational institutions. 77
  78. 78. Average score for Number of countries operated with and level of satisfaction towards the assistance provided by the education institutions Table 3.1.21 shows the average score values for number of countries with which the exporters operate with and their level of satisfaction towards the assistance provided by the education institutions. Table No. 3.1.21 Table showing the Average score for Number of countries operated with and level of satisfaction towards the assistance provided by the Education Institutions Number of countries Up to 2 3-5 More than Education Institutions Countries Countries 5 Countries Chamber of Commerce 4.29 4.08 4.20 Commercial banks 4.38 4.29 4.36 Indian Trade Promotion Organization 4.04 4.04 3.88 Indian Institute of Foreign trade 4.13 4.04 4.04 Export Credit Guarantee Corporation 4.04 4.12 4.20 Indian Institute of Export Organization 4.08 4.06 4.16 Trade Fair Authority India 4.04 3.82 3.80 Federation of Indian Export Management 3.96 4.06 3.92 It is known from the above table that out of the respondents dealing with different number of countries, respondents working with up to 2 Countries, 3 – 5 Countries and more than 5 countries are satisfied towards the assistance provided by all the education institutions. It is concluded that respondents operating with different countries are satisfied towards the assistance provided by the education institution. 78
  79. 79. Average score for membership and level of satisfaction towards the assistance provided by the education institutions Table 3.1.22 shows the average score values for membership and level of satisfaction towards the assistance provided by the education institutions. Table No. 3.1.22 Education Institutions CouncilExport Promotion Textile Committee Tex procil Others Table showing the Average score for membership and level of satisfaction towards the assistance provided by the education institutions Chamber of Commerce 4.05 4.29 4.30 - Commercial banks 4.47 4.11 4.30 - Indian Trade Promotion Organization 4.05 4.00 3.70 - Indian Institute of Foreign trade 4.00 4.09 4.30 - Export Credit Guarantee Corporation 4.24 3.89 4.30 - Indian Institute of Export Organization 4.00 4.09 4.60 - Trade Fair Authority India 3.93 3.83 3.70 - Federation of Indian Export Management 4.05 4.00 3.70 - Councils / Committee It is known from the above table that out of the respondents having membership in different councils and committees, respondents having membership in Export promotion council and Textile Committee are satisfied towards the assistance provided by the Education Institutions and respondents having membership in Tex Procil are highly satisfied towards the assistance provided by Indian Institute of Export Organization. 79
  80. 80. It is concluded that respondents with membership in different organizations are satisfied towards the assistance provided by different education institutions. Average score for number of years of experience and level of agreeability towards problems faced Table 3.1.23 shows the average score values for number of years of experience and level of agreeability towards problems faced. Table No. 3.1.23 Table showing the Average score for number of years of experience and level of agreeability towards problems faced No. of years of Experience Less than 3 Years 3-5 Years 5-8 Years More than 8 Years Problems in availing credit 3.31 3.06 2.89 3.53 Problem in receiving Duty draw back 3.62 2.69 2.95 3.47 Problem in the rate of Incentives 2.92 2.88 2.87 2.76 Export procedures 3.38 3.19 2.97 3.18 Training Advancement 3.15 3.09 3.47 3.00 Problems It is known from the above table that out of the respondents having different years of experience, respondents with less than 3 years of experience agree that they face problems in receiving the duty drawback, respondents with 3 – 5 Years and 5 – 8 Years of experience have opined neutrally towards all the problems and respondents with more than 8 years of experience in this field agree that they have problem in availing credit. 80
  81. 81. It is concluded that respondents with different years of experience have opined neutrally towards majority of the factors. 81
  82. 82. Average score for Export destination and level of agreeability towards problems faced Table 3.1.24 shows the average score values for Export destination and level of agreeability towards problems faced. Table No. 3.1.24 Table showing the Average score for Export destination and level of agreeability towards problems faced Problems Export European Western Gulf destinations Others Countries Countries Countries Problems in availing credit 3.29 2.92 2.33 3.00 3.09 2.97 3.33 2.67 2.86 2.76 2.67 4.33 Export procedures 3.23 3.00 3.33 2.67 Training Advancement 3.16 3.42 2.67 2.67 Problem in receiving Duty draw back Problem in the rate of Incentives It is known from the above table that out of the organization that export their goods to different destinations, respondents exporting for European countries and Western countries have opined neutrally, respondents exporting for Gulf countries disagree that they have problems in availing credit and respondents exporting to other countries agree that they have problems in the rate of incentives. It is concluded that respondents exporting to different destinations have opined neutrally towards the problems faced. 82
  83. 83. Average score for No. of countries operated and level of agreeability towards problems faced Table 3.1.25 shows the average score values for No. of countries operated and level of agreeability towards problems faced. Table No. 3.1.25 Table showing the Average score for No. of countries operated and level of agreeability towards problems faced No. of countries operated Up to 2 Countries 3-5 Countries More than 5 Countries Problems in availing credit 3.25 3.24 2.72 Problem in receiving Duty draw back 3.04 2.92 3.28 Problem in the rate of Incentives 2.75 2.75 3.20 Export procedures 3.13 3.22 2.96 Training Advancement 3.46 3.18 3.12 Problems It is known from the above table that out of the respondents operating with different number of countries, respondents working with up to 2 countries, 3 – 5 countries and more than 5 countries have opined neutrally towards the problems faced. It is concluded that respondents operating in different countries opine neutrally towards the problems faced. 83
  84. 84. Average score for membership and level of agreeability towards problems faced Table 3.1.26 shows the average score values for membership and level of agreeability towards problems faced. Table No. 3.1.26 Table showing the Average score for membership and level of agreeability CouncilExport Promotion Textile Committee Tex procil Others towards problems faced Problems in availing credit 3.22 2.94 3.10 - Problem in receiving Duty draw back 3.04 2.94 3.40 - Problem in the rate of Incentives 2.62 3.11 3.30 - Export procedures 3.22 3.03 3.00 - Training Advancement 3.18 3.26 3.40 - Council / Committee Problems It is known from the above table that out of the respondents having membership in different councils or committees like export promotion council, textile committee, Tex Procil and others have opined neutrally towards problems faced. 84 the
  85. 85. It is concluded that respondents having membership in different councils and committees have opined neutrally towards problems faced. 85
  86. 86. 3.2CHI-SQUARE ANALYSIS Personal factors versus opinion towards the institution that offers assistance and inculcates knowledge Table 3.2.1 shows the chi-square values and hypothesis testing of personal factors and opinion of the respondents towards the institution that offers assistance and inculcates knowledge. Hypothesis: There is no significant relationship between the personal factors and opinion of the respondents towards the institution that offers assistance and inculcates knowledge. 86
  87. 87. Table No. 3.2.1 Table showing the Personal factors versus opinion towards the institution that offers assistance and inculcates knowledge ChiSquare analysis p value Significant / Not significant Hypothesis Accepted / Rejected Number of years of experience 15.382 0.636 Not significant Accepted Export destinations 223.140 0.000 Significant Rejected Number of countries operated with 14.023 0.299 Not significant Accepted Membership 36.922 0.000 Significant Rejected Personal factors Significance p value < 0.05 It is known from the above table that there is no significant relationship between number of years of experience and number of countries operated with and the opinion of the respondents towards the institution that offers assistance and inculcates knowledge. There is significant relationship between the export destinations and membership and the opinion of the respondents towards the institution that offers assistance and inculcates knowledge. It is concluded that there is significant relationship with export destinations and membership and there is no significant relationship between number of years of experience and number of countries operated with and the opinion of the respondents towards the institution that offers assistance and inculcates knowledge. 87
  88. 88. 4.1 FINDINGS  Majority (38%) of the respondents have an experience of 5 – 8 Years in the field of exports.  Majority (72%) of the organization does not have any branches.  Majority (60.71%) of the respondents have two branches.  Majority (56%) of the respondents export their goods to European countries.  Majority (51%) of the respondents export their products to 3 – 5 Countries.  Majority (48.65%) of the respondents are members in Export Promotion Council.  Majority (90%) of the respondents feel that the education institutions are important.  Majority (22.41%) of the respondents have marked Chamber of Commerce to be the organization that offers assistance and that inculcates knowledge about export procedures.  Majority (28.42%) of the respondents say that Chamber of Commerce offers export and import incentives.  Majority (56.41%) of the respondents receive assistance for the purpose of Duty drawback from chamber of commerce.  Majority (36.89%) of the respondents avail assistance in Collection of Data from Indian Institute of Foreign Trade and Indian Institute of Export management. 88
  89. 89.  Majority (43.36%) of the respondents receive upgraded technology assistance from Indian Promotion organization and Trade Fair Authority of India.  Majority (50%) of the respondents are provided with consultancy services from Federation of Indian Export.  Majority (39.62%) of the respondents are provided with guarantees to the banks from Export Credit Guarantee Corporation.  Majority of the respondents are satisfied towards the assistance provided by various education institutions.  Majority (37%) of the respondents possess a credit limit of more than 1 Crore.  Majority (75%) of the institutions prefer Letter of Credit as the security to provide credit to the respondents.  Majority of the respondents agree that they have problems in availing credit, export procedures and training advancement.  Respondents with different years of experience in the field of exports are satisfied towards the Education Institutions.  Respondents exporting to different export destinations are satisfied towards the assistance provided by different educational institutions.  Respondents operating with different countries are satisfied towards the assistance provided by the education institutions  Respondents with membership in different organizations are satisfied towards the assistance provided by different education institutions. 89
  90. 90.  Respondents with different years of experience have opined neutrally towards majority of the factors.  Respondents exporting to different destinations have opined neutrally towards the problems faced.  Respondents operating in different countries opine neutrally towards the problems faced.  Respondents having membership in different councils and committees have opined neutrally towards problems faced.  There is significant relationship with export destinations and membership and there is no significant relationship between number of years of experience and number of countries operated with and the opinion of the respondents towards the institution that offers assistance and inculcates knowledge. 90
  91. 91. 4.2 SUGGESTIONS  Export procedure is considered to be very complex and tough to be followed, thus simplifying them in such a way that it is adaptable by every exporter.  Though many exporters are aware of the various assistance and are successful in getting the assistance from various institution, it takes aback to notice that few exporters any of the assistance provided by many institution.  The exporters encounter problems in availing the duty draw back, which is a major incentive that encourages the exporters to export their products. Thus duty draw back schemes must be made easily.  The incentives provided to the agriculture products and core products are to be increased as this will entertain the exporters to concentrate on those industries.  The training provided by the education institutions must be simplified in such a way that it is understandable and adaptable by the exporters.  Many exporters have expressed their grievance regarding the lengthy procedure and time consuming formalities in getting the assistance.  The general opinion among many exporters is that the required loan is to be made available by offering minimum security and the interest rate is to be reduced for long term loans. They also would like to have minimum tax burden.  All the needs of the exporters can very well be taken care by the Government provided necessary changes are implemented in its policy. 91
  92. 92. 4.3 CONCLUSION Exports are one of the major Foreign earning industry in the country. Concentration and due care are provided in order to encourage and improve the quantity of exports. Government provides incentives, duty draw backs and other specialized schemes and offers to the exporters. One such way to encourage export is by way of educating the potential businessmen and small export units about the complex export procedures, terms and conditions. The educational institutions like Chamber of commerce, Export promotion council, Textile committee etc., are engaged in such educational activities. The institutions are performing in a very successful manner by educating the exporters in different areas of exports in a satisfactory manner. This has increased a good number of exporters to export in an efficient manner. The exporters are satisfied towards the assistance provided to them and other monetary benefits provided by the institutions. Buy liquidating the procedure for exports, simplifying the training and by providing incentives and support to the exporters exports can be enhanced very successfully. 92

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