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Amir Nikzad Thesis Presentation
Amir Nikzad Thesis Presentation
Amir Nikzad Thesis Presentation
Amir Nikzad Thesis Presentation
Amir Nikzad Thesis Presentation
Amir Nikzad Thesis Presentation
Amir Nikzad Thesis Presentation
Amir Nikzad Thesis Presentation
Amir Nikzad Thesis Presentation
Amir Nikzad Thesis Presentation
Amir Nikzad Thesis Presentation
Amir Nikzad Thesis Presentation
Amir Nikzad Thesis Presentation
Amir Nikzad Thesis Presentation
Amir Nikzad Thesis Presentation
Amir Nikzad Thesis Presentation
Amir Nikzad Thesis Presentation
Amir Nikzad Thesis Presentation
Amir Nikzad Thesis Presentation
Amir Nikzad Thesis Presentation
Amir Nikzad Thesis Presentation
Amir Nikzad Thesis Presentation
Amir Nikzad Thesis Presentation
Amir Nikzad Thesis Presentation
Amir Nikzad Thesis Presentation
Amir Nikzad Thesis Presentation
Amir Nikzad Thesis Presentation
Amir Nikzad Thesis Presentation
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Amir Nikzad Thesis Presentation

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Thesis Presentation

Thesis Presentation

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  • Pop growth accompanied by dev growthNew sustainable communities to meet resident expectationsParks are essential, social, economical and environmental benefits Shift from an oil economy to a carbon economyLandscape will have significant valueParks as greening structures for citiesExtent of services depended on sustainability of parksMunicipal government are fundamental since they have sig influence on dev and land-use decisionsas a condition of development or redevelopment or subdivision approval or consent, shall require theConveyance of parkland, or cash in lieuFor residential purposes: 5% of the land being developed or 1 hectare per 300 dwelling units, which ever is greater;
  • Physical form2. Social program3. Promoters4. Intended and actual beneficiaries5. Public reaction
  • Recurring strategies in sustainable design, construction and maintenance practices, plant choices, composting, water harvesting, public-private partnerships and community stewardshipLarger role in solving urban problemsintegration of urban infrastructure into parks. By using parklands to treat city wastewater and stormwaterurban land reclamation, built on military bases, industrial yards, landfillsmight be used to improve and maintain physical and psychological healthincrease social well-being. Direct public participation in the conception, creation and stewardship of Sustainable Parks, reconnects citizens to each other and to the landscape.3.The form of the park, its relationship to the city, its style and management practicesThe use of drought tolerant, low maintenance species, recycled yard waste for soil amendment, wood chips from debris for paths and mulch, recycled plastic lumber for benches, and low maintenance, local, or renewable materials resulted in evolutionary aesthetic and landscape management practices for sustainable parks.
  • Provide habitats for wildlife, aiding biodiversity.Help to stabilise urban temperatures and humidity.Absorb pollutants in air and ground water.Provide opportunities for the recycling of organic materials.Slow storm water runoff and reduce drainage infrastructure.Provide a sense of the seasons and links with the natural world within the urban environment.Add value to the surrounding property, both commercial and residential, consequently increasing tax yield to maintain public services.Contribute to attracting tourists.Encourage employment and inward investment to an area.Help to create a favourable image of a place.
  • conventional methods of development have had huge negative impacts on the natural environment. Humans often underestimate the value of these services when making land-use decisions.Sustainable development is essentially a shift in how we make decisionsintegrating environmental considerations with economic and social valuesAn environmentally sustainable landscape, must engage its users on multiple levels – physical, aesthetic, cultural, spiritual – and its creation and maintenance must be economically feasible.
  • To assist in collecting data from the interviews
  • The rating system works on a 250 point scale, with levels of achievement for obtaining 40, 50, 60 or 80 percent of available pointsrecognized with one through four stars, respectively.
  • To understand the nature of the limitations, when the interviewees indicated that a specific sustainable strategy was not implemented, the researcher presented the following options:
  • Do you require that the consultants develop a site maintenance plan that outlines the long-term strategies and identifies short-term actions to achieve sustainable maintenance goals?
  • By opening up a meaningful discussion about the long-term economical benefits of adopting sustainable strategies in comparison to the conventional methods of development, the budget could be provided.
  • Capital costs include materials and construction work, as well as design and engineering services.BudgetMaintenance costs include all anticipated annual operating expenses, such as routine inspection, seasonal start-up and shutdown, etcReplacement represents overhauls that are not annualSalvage (or resale) is subtracted from money costs, usually allowing 20 percent of the original cost of materials.SupportEngaging the public in conception, creation and stewardship of the projectDuring construction of the site, ensure that the project provides economic or social benefits to the local community.During site use, ensure that the project provides economic or social benefits to the local community.Interpret on-site features and processes to promote understanding of sustainability in ways that positively influence user behavior on site and beyond.
  • Open spaces, local, provincial and national parks, conservation easements, buffer zones, utility corridors, and transportation rights-of-way.Sites with buildings including industrial, retail and office parks, military complexes, airports, botanical gardens, streetscapes and plazas, residential and commercial developments, and public and private campuses.
  • Transcript

    • 1. EXPLORING the utilization of sustainable development strategies FOR the
       
      new parks IN the municipalities OF the Greater Toronto Area
      BY
      AMIR ARDESHIR NIKZAD
      Advisor: Lise Burcher
      2011
    • 2. EXPLORING the utilization of sustainable development strategies FOR the
       
      new parks IN the municipalities OF the Greater Toronto Area
      INTRODUCTION
      Problem Statement
      Research Goal and Objectives
      METHODOLOGY
      Literature Review
      Study Questionnaire
      Study Context
      RESULTS
      Sustainable Development Strategies
      Barriers
      CONCLUSION
      Research limitations
      Future research directions
    • 3. PROBLEM STATEMENT
      “the ‘environment’ is where we all live; and ‘development’ is what we all do in attempting to improve our lot within that abode. The two are inseparable.” (United Nations World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987)
      Southern Ontario
      Population of Canada in 2006: 31.6 million
      36% of the Population of Canada
      94% of the Population of Ontario
      4 million to Greater Golden Horseshoe by 2031
      (Source: http://atlas.nrcan.gc.ca)
      Introduction
      Methodology
      Results
      Conclusion
    • 4. RESEARCH GOAL AND OBJECTIVES
      GOAL
      To explore if, and why, the municipalities in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) have or have not adopted sustainable development strategies in planning, design, construction and management of their new parks.
      OBJECTIVES
      • To identify sustainable development strategies employed in planning, design, construction and management of new parks
      • 5. To identify the barriers in employing sustainable development strategies in planning, design, construction and management of new parks
      Introduction
      Methodology
      Results
      Conclusion
    • 6. PROCESS FLOW CHART
      LITERATURE REVIEW
      Evolution of Parks
      Sustainable Development
      FORMING INTERVIEW QUESTIONS
      2009 version of the Sustainable Sites Initiative
      STUDY CONTEXT
      Four Municipalities in the GTA
      DATA COLLECTION
      Conducting Interviews at the Municipalities
      ANALYSIS OF THE RESULTS
      Analysis and Synthesis of the Collected Data
      CONCLUSION
      Research Limitations and Future Research Directions
      Introduction
      Methodology
      Results
      Conclusion
    • 7. LITERATURE REVIEW
      Evolution of parks in North America
      The Politics of Park Design (Cranz, 1982)
      1. Pleasure Ground
      1850-1900
      2. Reform Park
      1900-1930
      3. Recreation Facility
      1930-1965
      4. Open Space System
      1965-?
      Not self-sufficient
      Large amounts of energy, water, labour, plants, fertilizers
      Produce noise, pesticide-laced runoff, wastewater, lawn clippings, garbage
      Environmental health not considered as one of the social goals
      Introduction
      Methodology
      Results
      Conclusion
    • 8. LITERATURE REVIEW
      Evolution of parks in North America
      Defining the Sustainable Park: A Fifth Model for Urban Parks (Cranz & Boland, 2004)
      Content analysis of 125 parks 1. Physical form
      5 Landscape periodicals from 1982-2002 2. Social program
      3. Promoters
      4. Intended and actual beneficiaries
      5. Public reaction
      5. The Sustainable Park
      1990-Present
      2. Can play a role
      in solving larger urban problems when integrated with surrounding urban fabric
      3. New aesthetic forms emerge for parks and other urban landscapes
      1. Self-sufficient
      With regards to material resources
      Introduction
      Methodology
      Results
      Conclusion
    • 9. LITERATURE REVIEW
      Introduction
      Methodology
      Results
      Conclusion
    • 10. LITERATURE REVIEW
      Benefits of Urban Parks
      Environmental
      • wildlife, biodiversity
      • 11. urban temperatures and humidity
      • 12. pollutants in air and ground water
      • 13. recycling of organic materials
      • 14. storm water runoff
      • 15. natural world
      Social
      • relaxation, informal recreation, peace, space and beauty
      • 16. improve health and personal fitness
      • 17. cultural links with the past, a sense of place and identity
      • 18. community events, voluntary activity and charitable fundraising.
      • 19. educational resource
      Economical
      • value to the surrounding property
      • 20. attracting tourists
      • 21. employment and inward investment
      • 22. create a favourable image of a place
      (Source: http://www.waterfrontoronto.ca)
      Introduction
      Methodology
      Results
      Conclusion
    • 23. LITERATURE REVIEW
      Sustainable Development
      SOCIALLY
      EQUITABLE
      Standard of Living
      Education
      Community
      Equal Opportunity
      Design, construction, operations and maintenance practices that is
      “meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” (United Nations World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987)
      SUSTAINABILITY
      ENVIRONMENTALLY
      SOUND
      Environmental Management
      Natural Resource Use
      Pollution Prevention
      ECONOMICALLY
      FEASABLE
      Profit
      Cost Saving
      Economic Growth
      Research &
      Development
      (Source: 2002 University of Michigan Sustainability Assessment)
      Introduction
      Methodology
      Results
      Conclusion
    • 24. EVALUATION SYSTEM SELECTION
      The Sustainable Sites Initiative (SITES)
      • Initiated in 2005
      • 25. Interdisciplinary effort by:
      American Society of Landscape Architects (ASLA)
      Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Centre (LBJWC)
      United States Botanic Garden (USBG)
      • Modelled after United States Green Building Council’s
      Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED)
      and draws from LEED
      • 55 Individuals developing clear criteria for sustainable
      landscape design, construction, operations and maintenance
      (Source: http://www.sustainablesites.org)
      Introduction
      Methodology
      Results
      Conclusion
    • 26. EVALUATION SYSTEM SELECTION
      The Sustainable Sites Initiative (SITES)
      “any landscape, whether the site of a large subdivision,
      a shopping mall, a park, an abandoned rail yard, or a
      single home, holds the potential both to improve and
      to regenerate the natural benefits and services provided
      by ecosystems in their undeveloped state.”
      • 233 page report released in Nov. 2009
      • 27. New construction and major renovations
      • 28. Pilot stage (June 2010-June 2012), 150 projects
      • 29. 10 Guiding Principles
      (Source: http://www.sustainablesites.org)
      Introduction
      Methodology
      Results
      Conclusion
    • 30. EVALUATION SYSTEM SELECTION
      SITES’ PERFORMANCE BENCHMARKS 2009
      CATEGORIESPOSSIBLE POINTS
      Site selection 21
      Pre-design assessment and planning 4
      Site design – water 44
      Site design – soil and vegetation 51
      Site design – material selection 36
      Site design – human health and well being 32
      Construction 21
      Operations and maintenance 23
      Monitoring and innovation 18
      Total points 250
      One star 100 (40%)
      Two Stars 125 (50%)
      Three Stars 150 (60%)
      Four Stars 200 (80%)
      Introduction
      Methodology
      Results
      Conclusion
    • 31. EVALUATION SYSTEM SELECTION
      SITES Prerequisites
      Site Selection
      1. Limit development of soils designated as prime farmland, unique farmland, and farmland of state-wide importance
      2. Protect floodplain functions
      3. Preserve wetlands
      4. Preserve threatened or endangered species and their habitats
      Pre-design Assessment and Planning
      5. Conduct a pre-design site assessment and explore opportunities for site sustainability
      6. Use an integrated site development process
      Site Design – Water
      7. Reduce potable water use for landscape irrigation by 50 percent
      Site Design – Soil and Vegetation
      8. Control and manage known invasive plants found on site
      9. Use appropriate, non-invasive plants
      10. Create a soil management plan
      Site Design – Materials Selection
      11. Eliminate the use of wood from threatened tree species
      Construction
      12. Control and retain construction pollutants
      13. Restore soils disturbed during construction
      Operations and Maintenance
      14. Plan for sustainable site maintenance
      15. Provide for storage and collection of recyclables
      Introduction
      Methodology
      Results
      Conclusion
    • 32. STUDY QUESTIONNAIRE
      Sections
      Municipality Organizational Structure
      Park Standards and Classification
      Site Selection
      • Water
      • 33. Soil and Vegetation
      • 34. Materials Selection
      Pre-design Assessment and Planning
      Site Design
      Construction
      Operations and Maintenance
      General Questions
      Introduction
      Methodology
      Results
      Conclusion
    • 35. STUDY QUESTIONNAIRE
      Barriers
      1. Limited budget
      2. Lack of support from government (local/higher)
      3. Lack of public support
      4. The strategy/initiative not sustainable
      5. Strategy not considered a priority at the moment
      6. Lack of interest and/or knowledge from the consultants and the contractors
      7. Other
      Introduction
      Methodology
      Results
      Conclusion
    • 36. STUDY CONTEXT
      The Greater Toronto Area
      Introduction
      Methodology
      Results
      Conclusion
    • 37. STUDY CONTEXT
      The Greater Toronto Area
      (Source: http://mapsof.net/toronto/static-maps/png/greater-toronto-area-map/full-size)
      Introduction
      Methodology
      Results
      Conclusion
    • 38. RESULTS
      P – Policy
      Y – Implemented
      N – Not Implemented
      Introduction
      Methodology
      Results
      Conclusion
    • 39. RESULTS
      5. Site Design
      Introduction
      Methodology
      Results
      Conclusion
    • 40. RESULTS
      7. Operations and Maintenance
      Introduction
      Methodology
      Results
      Conclusion
    • 41. RESULTS
      P – Policy
      Y – Implemented
      N – Not Implemented
      Introduction
      Methodology
      Results
      Conclusion
    • 42. RESULTS
      Barriers
      • Limited budget
      • 43. Lack of public support
      • 44. Strategy not being considered a priority
      Introduction
      Methodology
      Results
      Conclusion
    • 45. RESULTS
      47 Staff in 4 municipalities
      35 Landscape Architects
      Introduction
      Methodology
      Results
      Conclusion
    • 46. RESULTS
      Limited Budget
      Life-cycle Costing LCC = C + M +F + R – S
      C: Capital
      M: Maintenance
      F: Fuel
      R: Replacement
      S: Salvage
      Public Support
      Equitable Site Development
      Equitable Site Use
      Promote Sustainability Awareness and Education
      Introduction
      Methodology
      Results
      Conclusion
    • 47. CONCLUSION
      Research limitations
      • Study Context
      • 48. Interviewees
      • 49. Limited literature on history of urban parks in Ontario
      Introduction
      Methodology
      Results
      Conclusion
    • 50. CONCLUSION
      Future research directions
      • Verification of responses at ground level
      • 51. Other municipalities’ park authorities
      • 52. Other types of landscapes
      Introduction
      Methodology
      Results
      Conclusion
    • 53. THANK YOU FOR LISTENNING!
      Introduction
      Methodology
      Results
      Conclusion

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