Introduction   1.1 Introduction   With an ever increasing demand for capacity for future generation multimedia application...
CategoriesThe main goal of HAPs is to provide semi-permanent high data rate, high capacity-densitycommunications provision...
History  Like with the start of many new fundamental technologies it is very difficult to pin- point the inventor or the f...
1: Grob Egrett G520 Grob Egrett was a surveillance aircraft developed in Germany in the 1980s by an international partners...
2 : Global Observer ®The Global Observer® system is designed to work like a12-mile-high, redeployable satellite to provide...
Communications RelayProviding broad and persistent communications whenmission operators need it most.A squad is patrolling...
Disaster Relief                  Providing real-time imagery and                  backup communications when lives are    ...
Maritime OperationsProviding continuous surveillance of critical shipping lanes andvital coastlines.A massive coastline pl...
Pathfinder Pathfinder Solar-Powered Aircraft Just imagine... An aircraft that could stay aloft all day, powered only by su...
ERAST programPathfinder is one of several remotely piloted aircraft being evaluated under NASAsEnvironmental Research Airc...
Aircraft Description The Pathfinder is a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft that is demonst...
Pathfinder PlusDuring 1998, the Pathfinder was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder-Plus configuration. On Aug. 6, 1...
Aircraft Specifications Aircraft Specifications Wingspan: Pathfinder 98.4 feet (29.5 meters); Pathfinder-Plus 121 feet (36...
High Altitude Airship (HAA™)The Lockheed Martin High Altitude Airship (HAA™) – and its sub-scaledemonstrator, the High Alt...
High Altitude Airship Lockheed Martin and the U.S. Army launched the first-of-its-kinds HALE-D on July 27, 2011, demonstra...
FinishHigh Altitude Platform system          Amir Gilan                                Amir@Gilan.tel
High Altitude Platform Systems - HAPS | Amir Gilan
High Altitude Platform Systems - HAPS | Amir Gilan
High Altitude Platform Systems - HAPS | Amir Gilan
High Altitude Platform Systems - HAPS | Amir Gilan
High Altitude Platform Systems - HAPS | Amir Gilan
High Altitude Platform Systems - HAPS | Amir Gilan
High Altitude Platform Systems - HAPS | Amir Gilan
High Altitude Platform Systems - HAPS | Amir Gilan
High Altitude Platform Systems - HAPS | Amir Gilan
High Altitude Platform Systems - HAPS | Amir Gilan
High Altitude Platform Systems - HAPS | Amir Gilan
High Altitude Platform Systems - HAPS | Amir Gilan
High Altitude Platform Systems - HAPS | Amir Gilan
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High Altitude Platform Systems - HAPS | Amir Gilan

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  • HAPS by Amir Gilan Amir@Gilan.tel
  • HAPS by Amir GilanAmir@Gilan.tel
  • HAPS by Amir Amir@Gilan.tel
  • From Broadband Communications via High-Altitude Platforms Book
  • HAPS by Amir Gilan andmeysamKholghiAmir@Gilan.tel
  • HAPS by Amir Gilan
  • HAPS by Amir Gilan andmeysamKholghiAmir@Gilan.tel
  • HAPS by Amir GilanAmir@Gilan.tel
  • HAPS by Amir GilanAmir@Gilan.tel
  • HAPS by Amir GilanAmir@Gilan.tel
  • HAPS by Amir GilanAmir@Gilan.tel
  • HAPS by Amir GilanAmir@Gilan.tel
  • HAPS by Amir GilanAmir@Gilan.tel
  • HAPS by Amir GilanAmir@Gilan.tel
  • High Altitude Platform Systems - HAPS | Amir Gilan

    1. 1. Introduction 1.1 Introduction With an ever increasing demand for capacity for future generation multimedia applications, service providers are looking for novel ways to deliver wireless communications services. In developed countries we are familiar today with seeing mobile phone masts dotted around the countryside, but these can be expensive to deploy and continually service. This patchwork of coverage delivers cellular communications, an efficient way of delivering high-capacity density services. We use the term cellular here to describe the way in which the radio spectrum is reused in order to deliver the high-capacity densities. This concept is now being adopted with a number of technologies, including the widely known 2G and 3G mobile systems, but also new technologies such as WiMAX, and also WiFi, where in this latter case islands of coverage (hot-spots) are provided through spectrum reuse. An alternative for more rural or less developed areas is to use satellite commu- nications. Satellites today are increasingly sophisticated, and capable of delivering spot beam coverage, with minimal ground infrastructure. However, they are inca- pable of matching the high-capacity densities seen with terrestrial infrastructure. A possible third alternative way of delivering communications and other services is to use high altitude platforms (HAPs). HAPs are either airships or planes, which operate in the stratosphere, 17–22 km above the ground [1, 2]. Such platforms will have a rapid roll-out capability and the ability to serve a large number of users, using considerably less communications infrastructure than required by a terrestrial network [3]. Thus, the nearness of HAPs to the ground, while still maintaining wide area coverage, means that they exhibit the best features of terrestrial and satellite communications.
    2. 2. CategoriesThe main goal of HAPs is to provide semi-permanent high data rate, high capacity-densitycommunications provision over a wide coverage area, ideally from a fixed point in the sky. Inpractice due to aeronautical constraints all HAPs present compromises. It is helpful tospecify the following HAP ‘vital’ statistics, and as we shall see, these may radically affectthe communications system design and ultimate capabilities:. payload power, mass and volume;. station keeping and attitude control; . endurance.HAPs can be divided into four categories (as shown in Figure 1.1):1. Manned plane, e.g. Grob G520 Egrett2. Unmanned plane (fuel), e.g. AV Global Observer3. Unmanned plane (solar), e.g. AV/NASA Pathfinder Plus4. Unmanned airship (solar), e.g. Lockheed Martin HAA
    3. 3. History Like with the start of many new fundamental technologies it is very difficult to pin- point the inventor or the first time it appeared in print. HAPs have their origins back to 1783 when the Montgolfier brothers launched the first hot air balloon. However, it is not until the early 1960s that we start to find direct references or use of airborne craft capable of providing a semi- permanent presence to deliver communications. One example was Echo which was a balloon that was used to bounce radio signals from the Bell Laboratories facility at Crawford Hill to long distance telephone call users. At a similar time the Communications Research Laboratory of Japan published a study on the use of airships to deliver communications. To our knowledge these were not taken much further, and there are other anecdotal references to projects over the years since then. The next public reference that we have come across appears in an editorial in 1992, again proposing a similar concept. It was 1997/8 when HAPs really started generating interest. This was catalysed by SkyStation International who put forward the concept of a 200 m long solar powered airshipHAP,capableofflyingat20kmaltitudeforaperiodofyears.Theiraimwasto provide 3G and broadband communications, both in their infancy at that time. Coverage was planned to be upwards of 300 km diameter, as shown in Figure 1.2, delivered from 700 cells produced from a phased array antenna system. They had a number of credible backers including Alexander Haig former US Secretary of State, and Y.C. Lee as its Chief Technology Officer. This project was taken seriously and much of the initial work within the International Telecommunications Union – Radio communication Sector (ITU-R) was undertaken on behalf of SkyStation, with ITU-R Recommendation F.1500 based on their design. They successfully managed to get 47/48 GHz band for HAPs use at the World Radio communication Conference (WRC) in 1997, with further frequencies at subsequent WRC gatherings.
    4. 4. 1: Grob Egrett G520 Grob Egrett was a surveillance aircraft developed in Germany in the 1980s by an international partnership. It was intended to fill a joint Luftwaffe- USAF requirement for a high-altitude, long-duration surveillance platform for treaty verification and environmental Manned plane monitoring. The G520 design was finalized in 1991. In 1992, the Luftwaffe placed an order for 16 Egrett IIs, including a G 520T two-seat trainer, to be delivered by 2001. However, before much production had taken place, the whole program was cancelled when Eastern Europe ceased to be perceived as a threat, Only 6 aircraft were built and only 5 survive
    5. 5. 2 : Global Observer ®The Global Observer® system is designed to work like a12-mile-high, redeployable satellite to provide coverageover an area of up to 600 miles in diameter. GlobalObserver will be capable of supporting multiple high-value applications, including communications relay;intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR)missions for defense and homeland security, stormtracking, telecommunications infrastructure; wildfiredetection, maritime operations, and disaster recoveryservices.
    6. 6. Communications RelayProviding broad and persistent communications whenmission operators need it most.A squad is patrolling anarea far from base that is known for enemy activity.Ambushed! Pinned down by deadly enemy fire. Line-of-sight communications blocked by mountains. Noreception and no means of contacting friendly forces.Life-saving help is needed.Global Observer® carrying acommunications relay payload can link the squad todistant base. Includes satellite-like capabilities toenable affordable, persistent and seamlesscommunications relay capabilities where missionoperators need it most. Global Observer can providemore bandwidth to interconnect and route data. Teamsseparated by topographical barriers and using legacyradio equipment with disparate radio frequencies andsignal formats can use communications relay tocommunicate with each other and to distant commandcenters in real time.
    7. 7. Disaster Relief Providing real-time imagery and backup communications when lives are at stake.A Category 5 hurricane is expected to make landfall soon. Millions of lives at stake. Need to know when and where the hurricane will reach land.Global Observer® can provide real-time remote imagery, storm data and backup communications to assist with life- saving measures. Provides hurricane/storm tracking, weather monitoring and sustained support for evacuation planning, relief operations and first response coordination. With a communications payload, Global Observer can provide communications relay if terrestrial communications assets such as cell towers, microwave relays and satellite downlinks are damaged.
    8. 8. Maritime OperationsProviding continuous surveillance of critical shipping lanes andvital coastlines.A massive coastline plagued by transport of illegalgoods. Existing manned and unmanned reconnaissance assetsare unable to provide the broad coverage needed.GlobalObserver® at 65,000 feet in altitude can provide coverage ofabout 600 miles in diameter. Global Observer using anintelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) payload canprovide long-term surveillance for analysts to observe suspiciousactivity, determine patterns of behavior and identify threats toenable rapid and effective countermeasures/actions.In addition,Global Observer can provide:Dedicated Communications Supportto other UAVsGlobal positioning systems (GPS) services includingGPS Augmentation for High Power Anti-Jam/JammerTrackingBroadband communications relay for military,government and commercial applicationsDetection and Locationof Electromagnetic Interference (DCS)Tactical On-station WeatherMonitoring and DataEnhancement of Freedom to Commit NSS toHigher Threat Areas/PrioritiesDynamic Tasking to TheaterCommandersProvision of Limited ReconstitutionCapabilityPersistent, Actionable Intelligence (Optical, IR,GMTI)Battlespace Awareness (Airspace Collision Avoidance)Forhigh-value missions requiring persistent coverage, GlobalObserver provides a solution that makes sense.
    9. 9. Pathfinder Pathfinder Solar-Powered Aircraft Just imagine... An aircraft that could stay aloft all day, powered only by sunlight. An aircraft that is no more than a flying wing, able to maneuver without rudders, ailerons, tails or other control surfaces typical of conventional aircraft. An aircraft that flies without an onboard human pilot, but instead is controlled remotely from a ground station. At the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards, Calif., imagination has become reality, and that reality is the Pathfinder solar-powered, remotely piloted aircraft.
    10. 10. ERAST programPathfinder is one of several remotely piloted aircraft being evaluated under NASAsEnvironmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program. The ERASTprogram is one of NASAs initiatives designed to develop the new technologies needed tocontinue Americas leadership in the highly competitive aerospace industry.Additional technologies considered by the joint NASA-industry ERASTAlliance include lightweight materials, avionics, sensor technology,aerodynamics and other forms of propulsion suitable for extreme altitudesand duration. The most extreme mission envisioned for solar-poweredaircraft such as Pathfinders successor, the Helios, would reach altitudes ofup to 100,000 feet for science and commercial applications, as well as fly for weeks ormonths at a time on extended duration missions with the assistance of a fuel cell basedsupplemental energy system for nighttime flight.The ERAST program is sponsored by the Office of Aerospace Technology at NASAHeadquarters, and is managed the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center.
    11. 11. Aircraft Description The Pathfinder is a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft that is demonstrating the techno of applying solar power for long duration, high-altitude flight. It is literally the pathfinder for a future fleet of solar-po aircraft that could stay airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions. Solar arrays covering most of the upper wing surface provide power for the aircrafts electric motors, avionics, communications and other electronic systems. Pathfinder also has a backup battery system that can provide power between two and five hours to allow limited-duration flight after dark. Pathfinder flies at an airspeed of only 15 to 25 mph. Although pitch control is maintained by the use of tiny elevons the trailing edge of the wing, turns and yaw control are accomplished by slowing down or speeding up the motors o outboard sections of the wing. Pathfinder was designed, built and is operated by AeroVironment, Inc., of Monrovia, Calif., the firm that developed t pioneering Gossamer Penguin and Solar Challenger solar-powered aircraft in the late 1970s and early 1980s.
    12. 12. Pathfinder PlusDuring 1998, the Pathfinder was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder-Plus configuration. On Aug. 6, 1998,the modified aircraft was flown to a record altitude of 80,201 feet for propeller-driven aircraft on the third of aseries of developmental test flights from PMRF on Kauai. The goal of the flights was to validate new solar,aerodynamic, propulsion and systems technology developed for the Pathfinders successor, the Centurion/HeliosPrototype, which was designed to reach and sustain altitudes in the 100,000-foot range.Essentially a transitionalvehicle between the Pathfinder and the follow-on solar wings, thePathfinder-Plus is a hybrid of the technologythat was employed on Pathfinder and developed for Centurion/Helios.The most noticeable change is theinstallation of a new 44-foot-long center wing section that incorporates a high-altitude airfoil designed forCenturion/Helios. The new section is twice as long as the original Pathfinder center section and increases theoverall wingspan of the craft from 98.4 feet to 121 feet. The new center section is topped by more-efficient siliconsolar cells developed by SunPower Corp., Sunnyvale, Calif., that can convert almost 19 percent of the solarenergy they receive to useful electrical energy to power the crafts motors, avionics and communicationsystems.,That compares with about 14 percent efficiency for the older solar arrays that cover most of the surfaceof the mid- and outer wing panels from the original Pathfinder. Maximum potential power was boosted from about7,500 watts on Pathfinder to about 12,500 watts on Pathfinder-Plus.In addition, the Pathfinder-Plus is powered byeight electric motors, two more than powered the previous version of Pathfinder. Designed for theCenturion/Helios Prototype follow-on solar wings, the motors are slightly more efficient than the originalPathfinder motors. The Pathfinder-Plus also validated a new flight control system for the Centurion/HeliosPrototype, although only the Pathfinders own system actually controlled the motors and control surfaces.
    13. 13. Aircraft Specifications Aircraft Specifications Wingspan: Pathfinder 98.4 feet (29.5 meters); Pathfinder-Plus 121 feet (36.3 meters) Length: 12 feet (3.6 meters) Wing chord: 8 feet (2.4 meters) Wing Aspect Ratio: Pathfinder -12 to 1; Pathfinder-Plus-- 15 to 1 Gross weight: Pathfinder about 560 pounds (252 kg.); Pathfinder-Plus about 700 pounds (315 kg.). Payload: Pathfinder—up to 100 pounds (45 kg.); Pathfinder-Plus up to 150 pounds (67.5 kg.) Airspeed: Approx. 17-20 mph cruise. Power: Arrays of solar cells, maximum output: Pathfinder—about 7,500 watts; Pathfinder-Plus—about 12,500 Motors: Pathfinder, six electric motors; Pathfinder-Plus, eight electric motors, 1.5 kW maximum each. Endurance: About 14 to 15 hours, daylight limited with two to five hours on backup batteries. Glide ratio (power off): Pathfinder—18 to 1; Pathfinder-Plus—21 to 1. Manufacturer: AeroVironment, Inc., Monrovia, Calif. Primary materials: Carbon fiber, Nomex, Kevlar, plastic sheeting and plastic foam.
    14. 14. High Altitude Airship (HAA™)The Lockheed Martin High Altitude Airship (HAA™) – and its sub-scaledemonstrator, the High Altitude Long Endurance-Demonstrator (HALE-D) – is an un-tethered, unmanned lighter-than-air vehicle that will operate above the jet stream ina geostationary position to deliver persistent station keeping as a surveillanceplatform, telecommunications relay, or a weather observer. The HAA also providesthe Warfighter affordable, ever-present Intelligence, Surveillance andReconnaissance and rapid communications connectivity over the entire battlespace. The technology is available now and ready for integration and flight test.Thisupdated concept of a proven technology takes lighter-than-air vehicles into a realmthat gives users capabilities on par with satellites at a fraction of the cost (1 to 2orders of magnitude less). The HAA will also integrate reconfigurable, multi-missionpayload suites. HAA is significantly less costly to deploy and operate than otherairborne platforms, and supports critical missions for defense, homeland security,and other civil applications. Its operational persistence eliminates the need for in-theater logistic support. In position, an airship would survey a 600-mile diameterarea and millions of cubic miles of airspace.
    15. 15. High Altitude Airship Lockheed Martin and the U.S. Army launched the first-of-its-kinds HALE-D on July 27, 2011, demonstrating key technologies critical to the development of unmanned airships. We demonstrated a variety of advanced technologies, including launch and control of the airship, communications links, unique propulsion system, solar array electricity generation, remote piloting communications and control capability, and in-flight operations. High altitude airships can improve the military’s ability to communicate in remote areas such as those in Afghanistan, where mountainous terrain frequently interferes with communications signals. High-strength fabrics to minimize hull weight, thin-film solar arrays for the regenerative power supply, and lightweight propulsion units are key technologies ready to make a high-flying airship a reality. The combination of photovoltaic and advanced energy storage systems delivers the necessary power to perform the airship functions. Propulsion units will maintain the airships geostationary position above the jet stream, propel it aloft and guide its takeoff and landing during ascent and descent. Lighter-than-air vehicles, operating at altitudes above controlled airspace under the control of a manned ground station, give users the flexibility to change payload equipment when the airship returns to its operational base to perform different tasks.
    16. 16. FinishHigh Altitude Platform system Amir Gilan Amir@Gilan.tel
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