1. Increase Comprehensibility• Krashen’s theory of comprehensible input – involves the ways in which teachers can make content more understandable to their students – providing many nonverbal clues such as pictures, objects, demonstrations, gestures, and intonation cues – building from language that is already understood, using graphic organizers, hands-on learning opportunities, and cooperative or peer tutoring techniques• Native Language – the advantage of incorporating a student’s native language into their instruction – using a student’s native language as a support can be seen as both a general method or as any of a number of specific strategies. – Many of the strategies including implicitly or explicitly, the use of a student’s native language to increase his or her understanding.
2. Increase Interaction• Drawing from Swain’s emphasis on comprehensible output• a number of strategies have been developed that increase students’ opportunities to use their language skills in direct communication and for the purpose of "negotiating meaning" in real-life situations.• cooperative learning, study buddies, project- based learning, and one-to-one teacher/student interactions.
3. Increase Thinking Skills• Drawing from Cummins’s theories of academic language and cognitively demanding communication ways to develop more advanced, higher order thinking skills as a student’s competency increases.• These include asking students higher order thinking questions (e.g.,what would happen if…?), modeling "thinking language" by thinking aloud, explicitly teaching and reinforcing study skills and test-taking skills, and holding high expectations for all students.
Attitudes• Gardner and Lambert’s (1972) defined motivation as a construct made up of certain attitudes.• Positive attitudes toward self, the native language group, and the target language group enhanced proficiency.• Negative attitudes may lead to decreased motivation and, in all likelihood, because of decreased input and interaction, to unsuccessful attainment in proficiency.
Successful language learner’s attitude• Positive towards English and speakers of English• Motivated to learn English for a few reasons : – to interact with other speakers of English – to further their education – to get a better paid job – to read books, magazines in English• Make efforts to get into situations where English is used and they use English as often as they can.
• Consciously try out new strategies learning and remembering new words, phrases and sentences and their meaning.• Prepared to take risks. – Dare to make mistakes and learn from mistakes that they make. – They achieve success and develop competence, thus, motivates them to learn more.
Cognitive • Driven by basic human needs (exploration, manipulation, et c.) • Degree of effort expended • Internal, individual forces in controlBehavioristic Constructivist• Anticipation of reward • Social context• Desire to receive positive • Community reinforcement • Social status• External, individual forces in • Security of group control • Internal, interactive forces in control Motivation
Learner’s Motivation• Motivation is a very important factor in successful language acquisition.• In a group of students of similar intelligence’s level, students who are highly motivated will achieve greater success compared to less motivated students.• 2 types of motivation – Extrinsic – Intrinsic
Extrinsic motivation• Caused by external factors – Integrative motivation • To be accepted into the culture of the speakers of English – Instrumental motivation • The prospect of gaining entry into a college or university or getting a better paid job. – To be acknowledged • A desire for praise and recognition from fellow students and teachers.
Intrinsic motivation“Intrinsically motivated activities are ones for whichthere is no apparent reward except the activity itself.People seems to engage in the activities for their ownsake and not because they lead to an extrinsicreward….Intrinsically motivated behaviors are aimed atbringing about certain internally rewardingconsequences, namely; feelings of competence and selfdetermination.” -Edward Deci, 1975
• Desire to learn English for its own sake – eg. Student who comes from a family that has a very positive attitude towards English will also have a love for the language and will want to master it to the best of his ability.
Types Of Language Learning Motivation Intrinsic ExtrinsicIntegrative L2 learner wishes to Someone else wishes the integrate with the L2 L2 learner to know the L2 culture (e.g., for for integrative reasons immigration or marriage)Instrumental L2 learner wishes to External power wants L2(learner anticipates a achieve goals utilizing L2 learner to learn L2 (e.g.,reward) (e.g., for a career) corporation sends Japanese businessman to U.S. for language training)
Learner’s level of ability• Ability refers to an individuals capacity to perform the various tasks in a job. It is a current assessment of what one can do.
Learner’s level of ability Physical Spiritual Emotional ABILITIES Social Intellectual
Dimension DescriptionMemory Ability to retain and recallSpatial visualization Ability to imagine how an object would look if its position in space were changedDeductive reasoning Ability to use logicInductive reasoning Ability to identify logical sequence in a problemPerceptual speed Ability to identify visual similarities & differences quickly.Verbal comprehension Ability to understand what is read or heardNumber Aptitude Ability to do accurate arithmetic
Physical Abilities• It is the capacity to do tasks demanding stamina, dexterity, strength, and similar characteristics.
Emotional abilities• Emotions are important in the classroom in two major ways. – influence ability to process information and to accurately understand what we encounter. For these reasons, it is important for teachers to create a positive, emotionally safe classroom environment to provide for the optimal learning of students. – learning how to manage feelings and relationships constitutes a kind of “emotional intelligence” that enables people to be successful.
Social abilities• Ability to socialize with others. – To fit in