Production ConceptIt holds that consumers prefer products thatare widely available and inexpensive.(key strategy of many Japanese companies)
Product Concept•It holds that consumers favor those productsthat offer the most quality, performance, orinnovative features.•Product-oriented companies often design theirproducts with little or no customer input, trustingthat their engineers can design exceptionalproducts. This may lead to marketing myopia.
Selling Concept•It holds that consumers will ordinarily not buyenough of the organization’s products.•The organization must, therefore, undertakean aggressive selling and promotion effort.(Most firms practice the selling concept when they haveovercapacity.)
Marketing Concept•It holds that the key to achieving organizational goalsconsists of the company being more effective than itscompetitors in creating, delivering, and communicatingcustomer value to its chosen target markets.–Target market–Customer needs–Integrated marketing–Profitability.The marketing concept rests on four pillars:
Integrated Marketing: takes place on two levels:oFirst, the various marketing functions—sales force, advertising, customer service,product management, marketing research—must work together.• Second, marketing must be embraced by theother departments.
Difference between Selling conceptand Marketing concept:“Selling focuses on the needs of the seller; marketingon the needs of the buyer. Selling is preoccupied withthe seller’s need to convert his product into cash;marketing with the idea of satisfying the needs of thecustomer by means of the product and the wholecluster of things associated with creating, deliveringand finally consuming it”“Selling concept takes an inside-out perspective whileMarketing concept takes an outside-in perspective.”
Societal Marketing ConceptIt holds that the organization’s task is to determine theneeds, wants, and interests of target markets and todeliver the desired satisfactions more effectively andefficiently than competitors in a way that preserves orenhances the consumer’s and the society’s well-being.
Cause-related marketing: activity by which acompany with an image, product, or serviceto market builds a relationship or partnershipwith a ‘cause,’ or a number of ‘causes,’ formutual benefit.