Perfumery : Art, Science &      Technology
How do we smell:Human Olfactory System:  1. Olfactory Bulb.  2. Mitral Cells.  3. Bone.  4. Nasal Epithelium.  5. Glomeru...
Receptor                   Signal Processing Path  cells               Olfactory                 bulb                     ...
Perfume:•    Perfume is a mixture of fragrant aroma  compounds, fixatives and solvents used to give the  human body , anim...
Perfume Constituents1. Vehicles:     Functions: Acts as solvents for blending & holding perfume materials. Being volatil...
2. Fixatives:      Functions: Retarding the rate of evaporation of various    odorous  constituents. Pre-fixation of the...
3. Odorous Substances:Categorized under three headings:a) Essential Oils: Volatile, odoriferous oils of vegetable origin. ...
Basic Biosynthesis Routes in Plants
Fragrance from Animal Sources
Few synthetic schemes:
Fragrance “Notes”• Top : Sensed immediately after  application. E.g. Violet.  also called “Head” note.• Middle: Emerges ju...
Fragrance Technology
The Perfume Brief:
Degrees of Freedom
Stability:Factors which play major roles:1. pH range of different cosmetic formulations.2. Degradation due to aging.3. Poo...
Additives are added to increase stabilityExamples UV absorbers improve stability towards light. E.g.Benzophenone – 2 Che...
Accountable Physical Properties1. Perfume Ingredient Volatility: Relative molecular   mass, boiling point, saturated vapou...
Measuring Odour                  Odour Intensity & Threshold                  Value
Major Players of World Market  Company              Market Share    2010 %   Market Share     2011 %  Givaudan            ...
Conclusion• Future Aspects:    Improvement in understanding of “Physiological   Mechanism of Olfaction” & Pharmaceutical i...
• References:• David H Pybus & Charles S Sell; Chemistry of Fragrances – second  edition, RSC Paperbacks.• David Rowe; Che...
AcknowledgementI like to convey my regards to my respected teachers    Dr. Arup Mukherjee, Dr. Achintya Saha & Dr.    Srip...
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  1. 1. Perfumery : Art, Science & Technology
  2. 2. How do we smell:Human Olfactory System: 1. Olfactory Bulb. 2. Mitral Cells. 3. Bone. 4. Nasal Epithelium. 5. Glomerulus (olfaction). 6. Olfactory Receptor Cells.
  3. 3. Receptor Signal Processing Path cells Olfactory bulb trigeminal Thalamus taste others Hypothalamus Olfactory cortex
  4. 4. Perfume:• Perfume is a mixture of fragrant aroma compounds, fixatives and solvents used to give the human body , animals, objects and living spaces “a pleasant scent”.• The aroma compounds are volatile substances generally having a molecular weight under 300 Da & hydrophobic in nature.• According to the origin fragrant molecules can be classified as Natural, Nature – identical & Artificial.
  5. 5. Perfume Constituents1. Vehicles: Functions: Acts as solvents for blending & holding perfume materials. Being volatile helps to project the scent it carries. Desired qualities: Fairly inert to the solutes. Should not contribute to the olfaction. Example: Ethyl alcohol mixed with more or less water. However neutral – smelling oils such as liquid waxes are also used.
  6. 6. 2. Fixatives: Functions: Retarding the rate of evaporation of various odorous constituents. Pre-fixation of the solvent i.e. removing its slight natural odour. Desired qualities: Higher boiling point, fairly inert & don’t contribute to olfaction. If they do, they must blend with & complement the main fragrance. Example:Animal fixative: Musk; Resinous: Ambrein; Essential oil: SandalwoodSynthetic: Vanillin, Benzophenone.
  7. 7. 3. Odorous Substances:Categorized under three headings:a) Essential Oils: Volatile, odoriferous oils of vegetable origin. Compounds occurring are phenols, ketones, terpenes, lactones etc. Extracted by distillation, expression etc processes.b) Isolates: Pure chemical compounds whose source is an essential oil or other perfume material. E.g. eugenol from clove oil.c) Synthetic & semi-synthetic materials: These are synthesized by chemical reaction processes like condensation, esterification, nitration, oxidation etc. E.g. vanillin from eugenol.
  8. 8. Basic Biosynthesis Routes in Plants
  9. 9. Fragrance from Animal Sources
  10. 10. Few synthetic schemes:
  11. 11. Fragrance “Notes”• Top : Sensed immediately after application. E.g. Violet. also called “Head” note.• Middle: Emerges just prior to when the top notes dissipate. E.g. Floral. Other name – “Heart” note.• Base: Scent that appears after 30 mins of application. E.g. Musk, Vanilla. Other name – “Soul” note.
  12. 12. Fragrance Technology
  13. 13. The Perfume Brief:
  14. 14. Degrees of Freedom
  15. 15. Stability:Factors which play major roles:1. pH range of different cosmetic formulations.2. Degradation due to aging.3. Poor stability due to the presence of reactive functional groups like aldehyde.4. Improper packaging materials allowing oxygen penetration and results in rancidity. Imine formation
  16. 16. Additives are added to increase stabilityExamples UV absorbers improve stability towards light. E.g.Benzophenone – 2 Chelating agents prevent discolouring reactions. E.g. EDTA & its salts. Antioxidants helps to prevent rancidity. E.g. citric acid, tartaric acid.
  17. 17. Accountable Physical Properties1. Perfume Ingredient Volatility: Relative molecular mass, boiling point, saturated vapour pressure are checked.2. Perfume Polarity: Measuring activity coefficient γ along with equilibrium headspace profile.3. Retention & Substantivity: Measure longevity of perfume materials.
  18. 18. Measuring Odour Odour Intensity & Threshold Value
  19. 19. Major Players of World Market Company Market Share 2010 % Market Share 2011 % Givaudan 20.6 19.1 Firmenich 13.5 12.9 IFF 11.9 12.8 Symrise 9.6 9.4 Takasago 6.4 6.8 Mane SA 2.9 3.4S Technologies 2.6 2.8 T Hasegawa 2.5 2.6 Frutarom 2.2 2.4 Robertet 2.1 2.2
  20. 20. Conclusion• Future Aspects: Improvement in understanding of “Physiological Mechanism of Olfaction” & Pharmaceutical industry alike “Synthetic Fragrant Design & Development”.“ Smell is a potent wizard that transports you across thousands of miles & all the years you have lived ” Helen Keller
  21. 21. • References:• David H Pybus & Charles S Sell; Chemistry of Fragrances – second edition, RSC Paperbacks.• David Rowe; Chemistry & Technology of Flavors & Fragrances – Blackwell Publishing.• Horst Surburg & Johannes Panten; Common Fragrance & Flavour Materials – Preparation,Properties & Uses; 5th edition Wiley-VCH.• Robert R Calkin & J. Stephan Jellinek; Perfumary – Practice & Principles; 1994 Wiley.• Stig E Friberg & Zhiqiang ZhangStability factors & vapor pressures in a model fragrance emultion system. J . Cosmet Sci 50, 203- 219, (July/August 1999).• Shrieve’s Industrial Chemistry. 10th Edition.• www.wikipedia.com
  22. 22. AcknowledgementI like to convey my regards to my respected teachers Dr. Arup Mukherjee, Dr. Achintya Saha & Dr. Sriparna Dutta for guiding & helping me to enrich my knowledge with proper vision. Thanks to all my classmates for helping me out with resources.

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