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Islamic philosophy of education, areas of Islamic philosophy

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    Islamic philosophy of education Islamic philosophy of education Document Transcript

    • ASSIGNMENT PHILOSOPY OF ISLAMIC EDUCATION Subject: Educational Philosophy Submitted To: Miss Shakeela Submitted By: Aroosha Hussain and Amina Hussain University Of Education Bank Road Campus Lahore
    • Table of Contents PHILOSOPHY OF ISLAMIC EDUCATION __________________________________________ 1 1.2 INTRODUCTION TO ISLAM __________________________________________________ 1 1.3 PHILOSOPHY OF ISLAMIC EDUCATION ________________________________________ 1 1.4 BACKGROUND: FAMOUS MUSLIM PHILOSOPHERS ______________________________ 2 1.5 AREAS OF ISLAMIC PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION ________________________________ 2 1.5.1 METAPHYSICAL BELIEVES / ONTOLOGY (Ultimate Reality: God and His Attributes) ____________ 2 1.5.1.1 NATURE OF REALITY__________________________________________________________ 3 1.5.1.2 WORLD/UNIVERSE ___________________________________________________________ 3 1.5.1.3 ALLAH’S RELATION TO MAN ___________________________________________________ 4 1.5.1.4 SOUL ______________________________________________________________________ 4 1.5.1.5 MAN’S POWER ______________________________________________________________ 5 1.5.1.6 DEATH _____________________________________________________________________ 5 1.5.1.7 LIFE AFTER DEATH ___________________________________________________________ 5 1.5.2 EPISTEMOLOGY: CONCEPT OF KNOWLEDGE IN ISLAM ___________________________________ 6 1.5.3 AXIOLOGY: CONCEPT OF VALUE IN ISLAM _____________________________________________ 8 1.5.3.1 LIFE _______________________________________________________________________ 8 1.5.3.2 RELIGION __________________________________________________________________ 8 1.5.3.3 ETERNITY (TIME WITHOUT END) ________________________________________________ 8 1.5.3.4 UNITY _____________________________________________________________________ 8 1.5.3.5 TRUTH OR WISDOM __________________________________________________________ 9 1.5.3.6 KNOWLEDGE _______________________________________________________________ 9 1.5.3.7 JUSTICE ____________________________________________________________________ 9 1.5.3.8 LOVE ______________________________________________________________________ 9 1.5.3.9 GOODNESS _________________________________________________________________ 9 1.5.3.10 BEAUTY ___________________________________________________________________ 10 1.6 1.6.1 1.6.2 1.6.3 1.6.4 1.6.5 1.6.6 1.6.7 1.7 EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS ______________________________________________ 10 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES ___________________________________________________________ 10 TEACHER ______________________________________________________________________ 11 STUDENTS _____________________________________________________________________ 11 TEACHING METHODS ____________________________________________________________ 11 CURRICULUM __________________________________________________________________ 11 LEADERSHIP ____________________________________________________________________ 11 EVALUATION ___________________________________________________________________ 12 REFERENCES ____________________________________________________________ 12 SUMMARY ___________________________________________________________________ 13
    • PHILOSOPHY OF ISLAMIC EDUCATION 1.2 INTRODUCTION TO ISLAM Islam is a monotheistic Abrahamic religion originating with the teachings of Muhammad (SAW). The word Islam is derived from the Arabic word Aslama, which means “to accept, surrender or submit" or "submission", or “the total surrender of oneself” to Allah. An adherent of Islam is known as a Muslim, meaning "one who submits (to Allah)". The prime message of Islam is the Unity of God, that the Creator of the world is One and He alone is worthy of worship and that Muhammad (SAW) is His Messenger. 1.3 PHILOSOPHY OF ISLAMIC EDUCATION The philosophy of Islamic education is looking at the principles and concepts underlying education in Islam, it is analyzing and criticizing, deconstructing and disintegrating of the existing educational infrastructure and strives to produce new concepts continuously or displays what should be the concepts. The Islamic Education is seeking to achieve the distinct role of the human being which is reform and construction of human life. This Islamic concept of life based on the fundamental concepts as individual, society and the Islamic Education Page 1
    • PHILOSOPY OF ISLAMIC EDUCATION world, and education works to find a balanced relationship and equitable between the parties to this equation which are based on a relationship characterized by a mutual and integration, so one party cannot survive without the other parties. 1.4 BACKGROUND: FAMOUS MUSLIM PHILOSOPHERS The first Muslim philosopher of note was al-Kindi. He was of Arab descent and died sometime before 870 A.D. Next was al-Razi (Rhazes), who died about 925 or 935 A.D. and was known for his rejection of revealed religion. Al-Farabi, who died in 950 A.D. was of Turkish descent and was known among Muslims as the “second teacher,” Ibn Sina (Avicenna), who died in 1037 A.D., was without doubt the most influential of all the Muslim philosophers on the later development of Islamic philosophy and theology. Ibn Rushd (Averroes), a Spaniard who died in 1198 A.D., was known mainly for his commentaries on Aristotle. 1.5 AREAS OF ISLAMIC PHILOSOPHY OF EDUCATION 1.5.1 METAPHYSICAL BELIEVES / ONTOLOGY (Ultimate Reality: God and His Attributes) The term reality, in its widest sense, includes everything that is, whether or not it is observable or comprehensible. Islamic Education Page 2
    • PHILOSOPY OF ISLAMIC EDUCATION 1.5.1.1 NATURE OF REALITY The ultimate Being or Reality is Allah. Allah, as described by the Quran for the understanding of man, is the sole self-subsisting, all pervading, eternal and Absolute Reality. He is the first and the last, the seen and unseen. No vision can grasp Him. He is above all comprehension. He is transcendent also because He is beyond the limitation of time, space, and sense-content. God, is thus, a living, self-subsisting, eternal, and absolutely free creative reality which is one, all powerful, al-knowing, all beauty, most just, most loving, and all good. 1.5.1.2 WORLD/UNIVERSE Allah is omnipotent. To Him is due the primal origin of everything. It is He, the Creator, who began the process of creation and adds to creation as He pleases. To begin with He created the heavens and the earth. The heavens and the earth as separate existents with all their produce were created by Him in six days (six great epochs of evolution). He draws the night as a veil over the day, each looking for the other in a rapid series. He created the sun, the moon, and the stars, all governed by the laws designed by Him and under His command. Every creature in the heavens and the earth willingly submits to his laws. The sun runs its course for a determined period; so does the moon. The growth of a seed into a plant bearing flowers and fruit, the constellations in the sky, the succession of the day and night-these and all other things show proportion, measure, order, and law. He it is who is the creator, evolver, and restorer of all forms. He it is who sends down water from the sky in due measure, causes Islamic Education Page 3
    • PHILOSOPY OF ISLAMIC EDUCATION it to soak in the soil, raises the life to land that is dead, and then drains it off with ease”. He is the Lord of Throne and Honor and the Throne of Glory Supreme, the Lord of the dawn and all the ways of ascent. To Him belong the east and the west, where ever, you turn, there is His presence. It is He who spreads out the earth like a carpet, sends down water from the sky in due measure to revive it with fruit, corn, and plants, and has created pairs of plants, each separate from the others, and pairs of all other things. It is He who gives life and death and has power over all things. God is not only the creator, but also the cherisher, sustainer, protector, helper, guide, and reliever of distress and suffering, of all His creatures, and is most merciful, most kind, and most forgiving. 1.5.1.3 ALLAH’S RELATION TO MAN In reality, man is the highest of all the creation Allah has created him in the most beautiful of moulds. He is born with the divine spirit breathed into him. The sole aim of man therefore is a progressive achievement of all divine attributes. Allah is always near man nearer than his jugular vein. 1.5.1.4 SOUL The soul of man is of divine origin because Allah has breathed a bit of His own spirit into him. It is a deep mystery, a command of Allah, of the knowledge of which only a little has been communicated to man. The conscious self or mind is of three degrees. In the first degree Islamic Education Page 4
    • PHILOSOPY OF ISLAMIC EDUCATION it is the impulsive mind (Nafs Ammarah) which man shares with animals; In the second degree it is the careful or morally conscious mind (Nafs Lawwamah) struggling between good and evil and regretful for the evil done; in the third degree it is the mind perfectly in tune with the divine will, the mind in peace (Nafs Mutma”innah). 1.5.1.5 MAN’S POWER Allah has subjected for the use of man, everything in the heavens and the earth – the sun and the moon, day and night, winds and rain, the rivers and the seas and the ships that sail, pearls and corals, springs steams, and mountains, moisture, and pastures, and animals to ride and grain and fruit to eat. 1.5.1.6 DEATH Death of the body has been decreed by Allah to be the common group of mankind. Wherever a man is, death will overtake him. Every soul shall be given a taste of death and in the end brought back to Allah and duly judged on the Day of Judgment, and only he who is saved from fire will admitted to paradise; it is than he will have attained the goal of his life. 1.5.1.7 LIFE AFTER DEATH For everyone after death there shall be an interval lasting till the Day of Resurrection. On that day all the dead shall be raised up again. They shall all now meet their lord. The scale of justice shall be set up. All in proportion to their respective deeds and for a period of longer Islamic Education Page 5
    • PHILOSOPY OF ISLAMIC EDUCATION and shorter shall go to the state of pain and sorrow, designated in the Quran as hell, and the righteous saved from hell shall enter a state of perpetual peace, designated as paradise. 1.5.2 EPISTEMOLOGY: CONCEPT OF KNOWLEDGE IN ISLAM Knowledge can be defined as “The state or fact of knowing.” (knowledge is mandatory for all men and women) The knowledge According to Islam has three degrees 1. Deductive knowledge: Knowledge by inference (Ilm al-Yaqin) 2. Observatory knowledge: Knowledge by perception (Ain al-Yaqin) 3. Empirical knowledge: Knowledge by personal experience or intuition (Haq alYaqin) Deductive knowledge is the lowest level of knowledge. Observation leads it to perfection through experiencing. The empirical or experimental knowledge is last stage comes very late. According to Islamic philosophy knowledge is mandatory for all men and women. When angels questioned the superiority of Adam, it was his knowledge which made the angels admit the fact and bow down to him as ordained by Allah. “He imparted knowledge to man which He did not do to angels “Islam is the religion of knowledge. Islamic Education Page 6
    • PHILOSOPY OF ISLAMIC EDUCATION The first aayah of the Quran to be revealed enjoined reading which the key to knowledge is. Allah says: “Read! In the Name of your Lord Who has created (all that exists). He has created man from a clot (a piece of thick coagulated blood). Read! And your Lord is the Most Generous. Who has taught (the writing) by the pen. He has taught man that which he knew not” [al-‘Alaq 96:1-5]. Because of the importance of knowledge, Allah commanded His Messenger to seek more of it. Allah says: “And say: ‘My Lord! Increase me in knowledge” [Ta-Ha 20:114] Islam calls us to seek knowledge. The Prophet (SAW) made seeking knowledge an obligation upon every Muslim. He said that; “The scholars are the heirs of the Prophets and that the Prophets did not leave behind dinars and dirhams (i.e., money), rather their inheritance was knowledge, so whoever acquires it has gained a great share”. The Prophet (SAW) said that seeking knowledge is a way to Paradise. He (SAW) said: “Whoever follows a path in the pursuit of knowledge, Allah will make a path to Paradise easy for him.” (Narrated by al-Bukhaari, Kitaab al-‘Ilm, 10) Islam calls us to learn all kinds of beneficial knowledge. Branches of knowledge vary in status, the highest of which is knowledge of sharee’ah, then knowledge of medicine, then the other fields of knowledge. The best of all branches of knowledge are the sciences of sharee’ah through which man comes to know his Lord, and his Prophet and religion. This is the knowledge with which Allah honored His Messenger; He taught it to him so that he might teach it to mankind. Knowledge brings a great reward. When the knowledgeable person dies, his reward with Allah does not cease when he dies, rather it continues to increase so long as people benefit from his knowledge. The Prophet (SAW) said: “When a man dies, all his deeds come to an end except for three – an ongoing charity, beneficial knowledge or a righteous son who will pray for him.” (Narrated by Muslim, 1631). The main purpose of Islamic Education Page 7
    • PHILOSOPY OF ISLAMIC EDUCATION acquiring knowledge is to bring us closer to Allah. It is not simply for the satisfaction of the mind or the senses. 1.5.3 AXIOLOGY: CONCEPT OF VALUE IN ISLAM Values can be defined as “those things that are important to or valued by someone”. According to Islamic philosophy values are universal, permanent and not relative. Spiritual values are regarded more valuable than material one. There are some basic values in Islam and Islam preaches to that. A human being cannot live without these basic values. Individuals and states are advised to protect or at least to respect these basic values. 1.5.3.1 LIFE Allah is living one Himself and gives life to others. 1.5.3.2 RELIGION Religion is considered as a basic value or fundamental right of every individual. 1.5.3.3 ETERNITY (TIME WITHOUT END) This attribute in its fullness is exclusively Allah’s. Man is created within time for a stated term; yet, he has within himself a deep desire of eternity and for a kingdom that never fails or ends. The way is open for the finite and temporal man to attain life everlasting. 1.5.3.4 UNITY The greatest emphasis in the Quran is on the unity of Allah. Faith in Allah is the necessary prerequisite of moral life, but it should not be mere verbal acceptance; it must be accompanied by good deeds, implying an attitude of mind which is motivated by a complete submission to Allah’s will. All believing men and women are truthful in their words and deeds. This ideal of unity also implies peace and harmony among members of a family. Unity also implies that members of a national or ideological group should develop ties of close Islamic Education Page 8
    • PHILOSOPY OF ISLAMIC EDUCATION relationship among themselves so that the ideal of an organic whole may be realized in a broader context. The Quran says that “All Muslims are brothers and have great love and affection among themselves”. 1.5.3.5 TRUTH OR WISDOM Wisdom as a human ideal stands for man’s search for knowledge or truth. It is something which is distinguished form conjecture or imperfect knowledge and mere believe. 1.5.3.6 KNOWLEDGE God is all knowledge. He is the Truth. He witnesses all things. Really, nothing on the earth or in the heavens is hidden from Him, not even as much as the weight of an atom. 1.5.3.7 JUSTICE Allah is the best to judge and is never unjust. He does not deal unjustly with man; it is man that wrongs his own soul. On the Day of Judgment, He will set up the scales of justice and even the smallest action will be taken in to account. He is swift in taking account, and punishes with exemplary punishment. For those who refrain from wrong and do what is right there is great reward. Divine punishment is equal to the evil done. 1.5.3.8 LOVE Islam emphasized on the basic values of love. God is loving and He exercises His love in creating, sustaining, nourishing, sheltering, helping, and guiding 1.5.3.9 GOODNESS “Allah is all good, free from evil (Quddus). He is also the source of all good and worthy of all praise” .Goodness is an attribute of Allah and therefore, it becomes the duty of every person to obey his own impulse to good. He should do good as Allah has been good to all and love those who do good. Believers hasten in every good work as all prophets were quick in emulating good works so all people are advised to strive together towards all that is good. Islamic Education Page 9
    • PHILOSOPY OF ISLAMIC EDUCATION 1.5.3.10 BEAUTY Inner beauty has more weightage than the apparent beauty alone. Allah possesses most beautiful named and highest excellence and creates everything of great beauty. Man is created in the best of moulds and is given a most beautiful shape. Allah created the universe with beauty 1.6 1.6.1 EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS AIMS AND OBJECTIVES  To provide the teachings of Holy Quran as first step of education  To provide experiences which are based on fundamentals of Islam.  To provide experiences in the form of knowledge and skills with clear understanding that these experiences are likely to be changed in the light of changes in society.  To develop understanding that knowledge without the basis in faith and religion is incomplete education  To develop commitment towards the basic values which have been prescribed in religion.  To develop sense of accountability towards Almighty creator so that man passes his life like a faithful servant  To encourage international brotherhood irrespective of differences in generations, occupations and social class.  To foster great consciousness of the Divine presence in the Universe  To bring man nearer to an understanding of God and of the relation in which man stands to his Creator  To develop piety and faith amongst the followers  To produce man who has faith as well as knowledge in spiritual development Islamic Education Page 10
    • PHILOSOPY OF ISLAMIC EDUCATION  To develop such qualities of a good man which are universally accepted by the societies that have faith in religion. 1.6.2 TEACHER Teacher is given the status of spiritual father. Teacher is supposed to have qualities of tolerance, patience, hardworking, honesty and punctuality. 1.6.3 STUDENTS Student’s character building is given importance because he/she is supposed to be an innocent soul. 1.6.4 TEACHING METHODS Rote memorization, drill, dictation, discussion, lecture method, problem solving, in-depth study method may be used by the teachers. Teacher is free to use the teaching method of teaching which he supposes the best. 1.6.5 CURRICULUM In Islamic philosophy the curriculum has two essential parts Revealed knowledge: it is included in curriculum without any charge and is compulsory for all. Knowledge of Quran, sayings of prophet (S.A.W), beliefs and worship includes in revealed knowledge. Acquired knowledge: It is included in curriculum and is not compulsory for all. It includes all the types of knowledge that are beneficial for humanity like physics, chemistry, mathematics, sociology, literature, geography etc. 1.6.6 LEADERSHIP Leadership is democratic, based on service with consultancy. Answerable to Allah Almighty. Islamic Education Page 11
    • PHILOSOPY OF ISLAMIC EDUCATION 1.6.7 EVALUATION Oral or written tests. 1.7 REFERENCES Akgunduz, A. (2008). Norms and Values in Islam. Islamic University Rtterdam Aelbrechtskade. Heer, N. (2009). Papers on Islamic philosophy, theology and mysticism. Seattle, Washington. Rayan, S. (2012). Islamic Philosophy of Education. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 2, 150-156. Rizavi, S. S. (1986). Islamic Philosophy of Education.Malik Faiz Bakhsh (Secretary) Institute of Islamic Culture. Lahore. Sharif, M. M. (2004). A History of Muslim Philosophy (Vol. 1): Pakistan Philosophical Congress. Waghid, Y. (2011). Conceptions of Islamic education: pedagogical framings, New York: Peter Lang. Islamic Education Page 12
    • PHILOSOPY OF ISLAMIC EDUCATION SUMMARY Introduction Islam is a monotheistic Abrahamic religion originating with the teachings of Muhammad (SAW). The word Islam is derived from the Arabic word Aslama, which means “to accept, surrender or submit" or "submission", or “the total surrender of oneself” to Allah. The philosophy of Islamic education is looking at the principles and concepts underlying education in Islam, it is analyzing and criticizing, deconstructing and disintegrating of the existing educational infrastructure and strives to produce new concepts continuously or displays what should be the concepts. There are number of Islamic philosophers who contributed to the field of philosophy of Islamic education like al-Kindi, al-Razi (Rhazes), Al-Farabi etc. Areas of Islamic philosophy of education The three main areas of Islamic philosophy are 1. Metaphysical believes / ontology: (ultimate reality: god and his attributes) 2. Epistemology: concept of knowledge in Islam: (knowledge is mandatory for all men and women) 3. Axiology: concept of value in Islam : (are universal, permanent and not relative) Educational Implications 1. Aims and Objectives: To bring man nearer to an understanding of God and of the relation in which man stands to his Creator. To develop piety and faith amongst the followers. To develop such qualities of a good man which are universally accepted. 2. Teacher: Teacher is given the status of spiritual father. 3. Students: Student’s character building is given importance because he/she is supposed to be an innocent soul. 4. Teaching Methods: Rote memorization, drill, dictation, discussion, lecture method, problem solving, in-depth study method may be used by the teachers. 5. Curriculum: In Islamic philosophy the curriculum has two essential parts 6. Revealed knowledge: Knowledge of Quran, sayings of prophet (S.A.W), beliefs and worship Acquired knowledge: beneficial for humanity like physics, mathematics, sociology, etc. 7. Leadership: Leadership is democratic, based on service with consultancy. 8. Evaluation: Oral or written tests. Islamic Education Page 13
    • PHILOSOPY OF ISLAMIC EDUCATION (Rizavi, 1986) (Sharif, 2004) (Akgunduz, 2008) (Heer, 2009) (Waghid, 2011) (Rayan, 2012) Islamic Education Page 14