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INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES

AMINA HUSSAIN
Contents
Topics

page no

Introduction to individual differences

1

Basic concept

3

Importance

4

Facts of realization...
summary
“According to Borich&Tombari (1997.p29): Individual differences are
the variations we observe among members of any...
/INDIVIDUALDIFFERENCES
Introduction:
The science of psychology studies people at three levels of focus captured by the
wel...
with different cultural backgrounds, different languages, different learning styles,
and different attitudes toward school...
Basic concept:(about individual differences)
Individual differences psychology focuses on this second level of study. It i...
Importance of individual differences:
As teachers, we must be aware of about students’ individual differences
such as diff...
Importance of individual differences:

The notion that individuals differ in various abilities,
capacities

and

personali...
Steps to meet individual differences
Provisions for ‘individual differences’ in Schools:
Realization of the above facts or...
2. Ability grouping:

In the light of results derived from various tests of knowing individual differences
in terms of ind...
For the purpose of individualizing instruction a few practical measures can also prove beneficial
:The student strength of...
7. There are no. of steps which are used by teacher to meet
individual difference
We can neutralize individual differences...
References
1. Eggen, P &Kauchak, D. 1997. Educational psychology windows on
classrooms. 7th ed. New Jersey: Prentice Hall....
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Transcript of "Individual differences"

  1. 1. INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES AMINA HUSSAIN
  2. 2. Contents Topics page no Introduction to individual differences 1 Basic concept 3 Importance 4 Facts of realization for teachers 5 Steps to meet individual differences 6 References 10
  3. 3. summary “According to Borich&Tombari (1997.p29): Individual differences are the variations we observe among members of anyGroup in a particular characteristic, such as temperament, energy level, Friendship patterns and parent-child attachment.”To meet individual diffrences there has been recognition only of intellectual and educational variations among the childrens. It is possible and desireable to adapt the nature of instruction to accommodate individual differences in ability, style or preferences among individuals to improve learning outcomes  Different leaning outcomes require different skills, or abilities  Individuals differ in their abilities to process information, construct meaning from it, or apply it to new situations There are no. of steps which are used by teacher to meet individual difference. We can neutralize individual differences to some extent by  Measuring the intelligence of the pupil  Identification of special aptitudes, interest and talents  Grouping according to ability  Skipping and acceleration  Enrichment of curriculum  Making special provision for gifted and slow learners  Separate arrangement for physically handicapped  Provision for the socially disadvantaged children  Adoption of modern method of teaching
  4. 4. /INDIVIDUALDIFFERENCES Introduction: The science of psychology studies people at three levels of focus captured by the well-known quotation: “Every man is in certain respects (a) like all other men, (b) like some other men, (c) like no other man" (Murray, H.A. & C. Kluckhohn, 1953). “According to Borich&Tombari (1997.p29): Individual differences are the variations we observe among members of anyGroup in a particular characteristic, such as temperament, energy level,Friendship patterns and parentchild attachment.” For example: On first day of school, the individual differences in class are jump out. Gender and physical differences are only the tip of the iceberg. Beneath the surface are students from different socioeconomic strata; students who come from various family configurations; students with special needs, differing interests, and abilities; students
  5. 5. with different cultural backgrounds, different languages, different learning styles, and different attitudes toward school.
  6. 6. Basic concept:(about individual differences) Individual differences psychology focuses on this second level of study. It is also sometimes called Differential Psychology because researchers in this area study the ways in which individual people differ in their behavior.For example, in evaluating the effectiveness of a new therapy, the mean performance of the therapy in one group might be compared to the mean effectiveness of a placebo (or a well-known therapy) in a second, control group. In this context, differences between individuals in their reaction to the experimental and control manipulations are actually treated as errors rather than as interesting phenomena to study. Individual difference psychologists usually express their interest in individuals while studying groups by seeking dimensions shared by all individuals but upon which individuals differ. An Elementary School Snapshot The total school population is 850.  10 percent are African American.  44 percent are Latino.  4 percent are Native Americans, Pacific Islanders, and Asians.  42 percent are Anglo.  560 children are free-lunch recipients.  290 students are recipients of Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC).  36 are identified as gifted.  193 are English language learners.  120 have individual education plans (IEPs).A special day class of students with learning disabilities is mainstreamed into “regular” classes for part of the day.  Some children are homeless.
  7. 7. Importance of individual differences: As teachers, we must be aware of about students’ individual differences such as differences in culture, ethnicity, intelligent, languages, learning styles, etc. It is because it may enhance students’ understanding or limit their opportunity to learn from the school environment. These factors should be taken into consideration when we plan teaching and learning process in the classroom.'Individual differences are characterized by the following attributes:’  Variability and Normality.  Differential rates of growth and learning.  Interrelation of traits.
  8. 8. Importance of individual differences: The notion that individuals differ in various abilities, capacities and personality characteristics necessitates the adoption of individual tendencies in education. It compels the teachers to realize following facts: 1. In any group there are individuals, who deviate from the norms of the group. Along with the average, the presence of very superior and extremely dull is equally possible in his class. 2. Every teacher should try to have the desired knowledge of the abilities, capacities, interests, attitudes, aptitudes and other personality traits of his pupils and in the light of this knowledge should render individual guidance to children for maximum utilization of their potentialities. 3. It is wrong to expect uniformity in gaining proficiency or success in a particular field from a group of students. On account of their subnormal intelligence, previous background, lack of proper interest, aptitude and attitude some students have to lag behind in some or other area of achievement. 4. All students cannotbe benefited by one particular method of instruction and a uniform and rigid curriculum.
  9. 9. Steps to meet individual differences Provisions for ‘individual differences’ in Schools: Realization of the above facts or some more of their nature makes us think that we must have some provision for the wide individual differences among our pupils in our schools. Emphasizing this needs Crow and Crow (1973) write “Since we supposedly are teaching individuals, not groups of individuals, it is the function of the school within its budgetary personnel and curricular limitations to provide adequate schooling for every learner no matter how much he differs from every other learner.” How can we accomplish this task is a pertinent question to be asked at this stage. In fact, to provide adequate schooling or learning experience for every learner according to his individuality is not a simple task. However, the following suggestions can be helpful for any teacher to meet individual differences: 1. Proper knowledge of individual personalities: The first step in making provisions for individual differences is not how abilities, capacities, interests, aptitudes and other personality traits of individual pupils. For this purpose, frequent assessment in the form of intelligence tests, cumulative record card, interest inventories, attitude scales, aptitude tests and measures for assessing personality traits shall be carried out.
  10. 10. 2. Ability grouping: In the light of results derived from various tests of knowing individual differences in terms of individual potentialities in various dimensions, the students in a class or area of activity can be divided into homogeneous groups. Such divisions can prove beneficial in adjusting the method of instruction to varying individual differences. 3. Adjusting the curriculum: To meet the requirement of varying individual differences among the pupils, the curriculum should be as flexible and differentiated as possible. It should have the provision for a number of diversified courses and curriculum experiences so that the pupils may get opportunity to study and work in the areas of their own interests and abilities. It should provide adjustment to suit the local requirements and potentialities of students of different groups. 4. Adjusting the methods of teaching: Considering the varying individual differences, adjustment with regard to the adoption of methods of teaching is very effective. Every teacher should be somewhat free to formulate his own plan and strategy and adopt different instructional procedures which he finds most suited to different pupils. He should follow different procedures or methods of instruction to suit the requirements of varying ability groups of his pupils. 5. Adopting social programs or methods for individualizing instruction: Schools may also adopt some social programs or methods of teaching like the Dalton plan, the Winnekta plan, project method or use programmed learning material for enabling students to learn at their own individual pace. 6. Other causes of individualizing instruction:
  11. 11. For the purpose of individualizing instruction a few practical measures can also prove beneficial :The student strength of the class or section should be made as small as possible. The teacher should try to pay individual attention to the group under instruction. The teacher should keep in view the individual difference of his students while engaging them in drill or practice work in the class-room or assigning home-task. In case where ability grouping is not possible and more specifically under the prevalent system of class teaching, special coaching and guidance program for both the dull and the gifted children are most helpful. Thus, the problem of individual differences can be tackled with multi-dimensional tasks. The teacher, school authorities, the parents and the government as well as voluntary agencies – all should join hands to meet the individual requirements of children who possess tremendous individual differences.
  12. 12. 7. There are no. of steps which are used by teacher to meet individual difference We can neutralize individual differences to some extent by  Measuring the intelligence of the pupil  Identification of special aptitudes, interest and talents  Grouping according to ability  Skipping and acceleration  Enrichment of curriculum  Making special provision for gifted and slow learners  Separate arrangement for physically handicapped  Provision for the socially disadvantaged children  Adoption of modern method of teaching
  13. 13. References 1. Eggen, P &Kauchak, D. 1997. Educational psychology windows on classrooms. 7th ed. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. 2. Papalia, D. E., Olds, S. W., & Feldman, R. D. 2007. Human development. 10th ed.Boston: McGraw Hill. 3. Santrock, J. W. 2008. Educational psychology. 3rd ed. Boston: McGrawHill. 4. Ormrod, J. E. 2006. Educational psychology developing learners. 5th ed. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. 5. Tan O. S., Parsons, R. D., Hinson, S. L. &Sardo-Brown, D. 2003. Educational psychology a practitioner-researcher approach. Australia: Thomson. 6. Woolfolk, A. 2004. Educational psychology. 10th ed. Boston: Pearson. 7. Cognition and development by pervaiziqbal and wahidiqbal 8. Hand book of individual differences, learning and instructions 1993 by David. H. Jonassen, Barbar A.L. Grabowski. 9. www.educationguideonline.net/educational-implications 10. Herman. Wessel. Instances of adaptation to meet individual differences.

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