History of greek education

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History of Greek education. life overview and major contributions of Socrates Aristotle and Plato

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History of greek education

  1. 1. HISTORY OF GREEK EDUCATION AND THEIR PROMINENT PHILOSPHERS Submitted To: Miss Nazia Waheed Submitted By: Aroosha Hussain Ayesha Bashir, Ayesha Latif, Amina Hussain University of Education Bank Road Campus Lahore
  2. 2. TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION TO HISTORY OF EDUCATION ________________________________ 1 1.1 Definition of History of Education ____________________________________________ 1 2. APPLYING HISTORY TO EDUCATION ________________________________________ 2 3. PURPOSES OF EDUCATIONAL HISTORY______________________________________ 2 4. EDUCATION IN ANCIENT GREECE __________________________________________ 3 4.1 5. The Greek culture _________________________________________________________ 3 EDUCATION SYSTEM OF SPARTAN AND ATHENS ______________________________ 4 5.1 Spartan Education: Main characteristics _______________________________________ 4 5.1.1 Purpose of Spartan education ______________________________________________________ 5.1.2 Curriculum of Spartan education ___________________________________________________ 5.1.3 Teacher and student relation ______________________________________________________ 5.1.4 Stages of Spartan education system _________________________________________________  Primary Education: _________________________________________________________________  Military Education _________________________________________________________________  Physical Education: _________________________________________________________________  Ethical Education: __________________________________________________________________  Religious Education: ________________________________________________________________ 5.2 Athens Education: Main characteristics _______________________________________ 6 5.2.1 Purposes of Athenian education ____________________________________________________ 5.2.2 Curriculum of Athenian education __________________________________________________ 5.2.3 Teacher and student relation ______________________________________________________ 5.2.4 Stages of Athenian education system ________________________________________________  Elementary Education: ______________________________________________________________  Secondary Education: _______________________________________________________________  Military Education _________________________________________________________________  Higher Education: __________________________________________________________________ 5.2.5 Difference between Spartan and Athens on the basis of Education ________________________ 6. 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 SOCRATIC TEACHING LEARNING METHODS __________________________________ 8 6.1 Introduction: Socrates’s life (399-469 B.C.) _____________________________________ 8 Aim of education: ______________________________________________________________________ 8 View about knowledge: __________________________________________________________________ 8 Students ______________________________________________________________________________ 8 6.2 7. Learning method of Socrates: _______________________________________________ 8 PLATO’S STAGES OF EDUCATION __________________________________________ 9 7.1 Introduction: Plato’s life (348-427 B.C.) _______________________________________ 9 Aim of education: _____________________________________________________________________ 10 View about knowledge: He was a rationalist „the person who believed in wisdom‟. _________________ 10 Students _____________________________________________________________________________ 10 7.2 Stages of Education: ______________________________________________________ 10
  3. 3. First stage: (0-6) _______________________________________________________________________ 10 Second stage (7-17) ____________________________________________________________________ 10 The third stage (18-20) _________________________________________________________________ 10 The fourth stage (20-30) ________________________________________________________________ 10 The fifth stage (30-35) __________________________________________________________________ 11 The six stage (35-50) ___________________________________________________________________ 11 Method of teaching ____________________________________________________________ 11 8. ARISTOTLE’S ACADEMY LYCEUM _________________________________________ 12 8.1 Introduction: Aristotle’s life (322-384 B.C.) ____________________________________ 12 Aim of education: _____________________________________________________________________ 12 View about knowledge: _________________________________________________________________ 12 Curriculum: __________________________________________________________________________ 12 8.2 Teaching methodology: ___________________________________________________ 13 Stages of education: ___________________________________________________________________ 13 9. References ___________________________________________________________ 13
  4. 4. INTRODUCTION TO HISTORY OF EDUCATION 1. INTRODUCTION TO HISTORY OF EDUCATION The history of education according to Dieter Lenzen (President of Frcic University Berlin, 1994) began either millions years ago at the end of 1770. Presumably every generation, since the beginning of human existence, somehow passed on its stock of values, traditions, methods and skills to the next generation. The systematic provision of learning techniques to most children, such as literacy, has been a development of the last 150 or 200 years, or even last 50 years in some countries. The history of curricula of such education reflects human history itself, the history of knowledge, beliefs and skills and cultures of humanity. The passing on of values, traditions, methods and culture is also known as enculturation and the learning of social values and behaviors is socialization. History: The branch of knowledge that records and analyzes past events Education: since early Greek era till now education has always been a source of transference of data (values, religion, knowledge, morality, customs etc.) from one generation to other. 1.1 Definition of History of Education “In widest sense, history of learning, curricula, values, culture, civilization, skills and above all chronological overview of human evolution through ages is regarded as history of education”. OR The branch of knowledge that records and analyzes past events related to educational perspectives known as history of education. History of Education Page 1
  5. 5. APPLYING HISTORY TO EDUCATION 2. APPLYING HISTORY TO EDUCATION The history of education is part of the past and present teaching and learning. Education as a science cannot be separate from the educational traditions that existed before. Education was natural response of early civilizations to the struggle of surviving and thriving as a culture. As a specie, the evolution of human being and their culture dependent on this practice of transmitting knowledge. Story telling continued from one generation to the next. Oral language then developed into written symbols and letters by the time. As the time passed human outlooks, approaches changed that is evident through comparison of Athenians and Spartans, Europeans Americans and Muslims. With the change in human needs and social needs education got various alterations. So, for several purposes, educational history is applied to modern education system. These purposes are as follows. 3. PURPOSES OF EDUCATIONAL HISTORY History of education basically tells, indicates and suggests the ways and means to cover previous educational flaws. i. To analyze background of human culture, civilization and education in accordance with modern approaches. ii. To study evolution in human approaches and practices. iii. To introduce innovation in the field of education iv. To help individuals to secure religious and prime moral values. v. To helps in transmittance of culture. vi. Helps to provide relationship between culture and education vii. To provide recognition of educational theories viii. Helps to comprehend educational techniques and concepts History of Education Page 2
  6. 6. APPLYING HISTORY TO EDUCATION ix. Provides evaluation of education decline x. Helps in Review of objectives xi. Helps to explore the alternate educational views throughout history and contemporary (modern) period xii. Helps to know the past experiences of educationists, philosophers and psychologists for educational research work. 4. EDUCATION IN ANCIENT GREECE The ancient Greeks ruled the world of politics and education when other communities of the world were still roaming in the Stone Age. Greek education can be divided into two periods i. Old Greek period (ends at the age of Pericles 445-431 B.C. middle of fifth century B.C.) It is subdivided in to Ancient Education System a) Homeric age & b) Historic period (includes Spartan &Athenian education) ii. 4.1 New Greek period starts after old period. The Greek culture There are two forms of education in ancient Greece Formal education: Attained through school or by hired tutor. Informal education: Provided by an unpaid teacher in non-public setting. History of Education Page 3
  7. 7. APPLYING HISTORY TO EDUCATION 5. EDUCATION SYSTEM OF SPARTAN AND ATHENS The Greek city states are the clues that Greeks were much more developed and wise then their contemporary generations. Greece comprise of small city states, which had its own laws and governance. The citizens of the city states were obedient to the laws of their state. They were fond of observing, thinking and putting forth theories. Two of the city states which got fame Ancient Greek Education and power then others were Sparta and Athens. 5.1 Spartan Education: Main characteristics Education in Sparta was typical of old Greek education. The complete dominance of state upon individual was secured through education. The government held the entire control of education in order to preserve their national existence against several political threats around them. 5.1.1 Purpose of Spartan education In ancient Sparta the purpose of education was to produce a well drilled, well-disciplined marching army. Military tactics were given importance more than other subjects. 5.1.2 Curriculum of Spartan education Almost entirely gymnastic training (running, leaping, jumping, javelin throwing, boxing, military Drill, wrestling, hunting) and discipline in itself. The intellectual training consisted of music, religious ceremonies, stayed in company of elders and thus the art of conversation was taught. 5.1.3 Teacher and student relation The relationship based upon friendship and affection. History of Education Page 4
  8. 8. APPLYING HISTORY TO EDUCATION 5.1.4 Stages of Spartan education system  Primary Education: Pupils taught at home until age of seven. After that they were taken to the boarding by the state, abiding laws, nationalism and operoseness were the main aspects of the curriculum. The students learned these subjects till the age of eighteen.  Military Education: After the age of eighteen, the students were trained the use of weapons and art of war. After the train it was necessary for each trainee were supposed to serve in army for at least 20 to 30 years otherwise they were not the right citizen.  Physical Education: In this stage the students were taught the art, physical exercise, wrestling, boxing, athletic and swimming etc.  Ethical Education: The young students listened to heroic and legendary stories by their elders. The elders taught the students every possible thing, which belonged to ethics.  Religious Education: There was not any tradition or program for religious education. The curriculum focuses on nationalism and abidance of laws. History of Education Page 5
  9. 9. APPLYING HISTORY TO EDUCATION Athens Education: Main characteristics 5.2 Education was supervised by the state but state was not the sole authority responsible for education of public. Unlike Spartan education in Athens other subjects were given more importance than military because they thought that only military tactics are not sufficient to run the stat successfully. To run a state successfully, well-educated citizens are required; this is why the citizens were free in getting education. In Athens girls‟ education is limited to indoor business. Teachers are Athenian Education private. Social position of teacher is low. Method of teaching was learning by doing. 5.2.1 Purposes of Athenian education In ancient Athens the purpose of education was to produce citizens trained in the arts, and to prepare citizens for both peace and war. 5.2.2 Curriculum of Athenian education The curriculum consisted of physical training, athletics, and music, writing, reading, dancing, ethical poems, literature, counting, geometry, drawing and arithmetic. 5.2.3 Teacher and student relation Teacher had great importance as the role model of morality for students. 5.2.4  Stages of Athenian education system Elementary Education: Till the age of seven the pupils were kept at home under supervision of their parents. After that they were admitted to a primary school. The main aspects of the curriculum in school were physical training, athletics, and music, writing, reading, dancing and ethical poems. The students learned these subjects till the age of fifteen. History of Education Page 6
  10. 10. APPLYING HISTORY TO EDUCATION  Secondary Education: Duration of this stage was from age 15-18. The secondary education was known as Gymnasium. The curriculum consisted of physical training and harsh physical exercise.  Military Education: Duration of military education was from age of eighteen to twenty one. The military tactics were the main curriculum. The trained were sent to the cantonments, castles and state borders. This was the end of formal education. Higher Education: this was informal education. For this Plato‟s academia and  Aristotle‟s lyceum was famous. 5.2.5 Difference between Spartan and Athens on the basis of Education Sr.no. 1. Spartans Athens Sparta has autocratic approach towards Athens has democratic approach towards the education. 2. the education. They give training about war only. They gave training about both peace and war 3. Reasoning was not allowed here. 4. The main educational aim production of competent warriors 5. was Main aim was complete personality development. Training for war was started very earlier Formal education was started from seven in life. 6. Reasoning was allowed here. years age. Less advanced system as compared to More advanced system as compared to Athens. Spartans 7. Focused on physical training. Focused on mind training. 8. Spartan gave women‟s equal chances of The education was only for boys. education. History of Education Page 7
  11. 11. APPLYING HISTORY TO EDUCATION 6. SOCRATIC TEACHING LEARNING METHODS 6.1 Introduction: Socrates’s life (399-469 B.C.) Socrates was born in 469 B.C. in the outskirts of Athens. He was the most familiar figure of Athens. He had ugly appearance but beautiful nature. He was son of sophronicus “a sculptor”. He learned sculpture but soon gave it up to seek „the truth‟. He was often found busy in contemplation and in discussion with young about morals and politics. In 432 B.C., in war against Sparta, he fought like a lion and served with distinction. He became famous in Athens and was considered wisest in society. Socrates Aim of education: To dispel error and to discover truth View about knowledge: According to Socrates knowledge laid under the basis of all virtues actions. It is necessary for free action, right action and for art of living. It can be obtained objectively through the process of thinking and conversation. It can be obtained subjectively by reflection and classification of one‟s own experiences Students: According to Socrates the students are not a passive recipient of knowledge. The student should try to find out the truth of knowledge through discussion, conversation and inquiry or research work as far as possible. 6.2 Learning method of Socrates: Socrates believed that a learner should be able to think for them, to draw conclusions and to find out the truth by themselves. The student should learn to discover universal truth. For this purpose he presented the dialectic method of inquiry which also named as Socratic Method. It is also named as questioning method, discussion method and conversational method. History of Education Page 8
  12. 12. APPLYING HISTORY TO EDUCATION Socratic Method: The Socratic Method is a negative method of hypothesis elimination, in that better hypotheses are found by steadily identifying and eliminating those that lead to contradictions. It was designed to force one to examine one's own beliefs and the validity of such beliefs. Limitations: i. This method is inadequate for the subjects like science, history and literature, where a person does not go under the experiences of content. ii. Socratic Method is helpful in generalization, classification and interpretation of ideas, but it cannot produce the subject matter. 7. PLATO’S STAGES OF EDUCATION 7.1 Introduction: Plato’s life (348-427 B.C.) Plato (348-427 B.C.) is actually nick name of Aristocles. He is the son of the oldest and most elite (best) Athenian family. Aristocles means best, most renowned (famous). He is said to have done well at practically everything as a young man: music, logic, debate, math, poetry. He is attractive and made his mark as a wrestler. Plato distinguished himself in three battles and won a prize of Plato bravery. After the execution of Socrates, Plato left Athens and wondered for 12 years. During his traveling he studied geometry and mathematics. Plato became a very important and famous educational thinker and Greek philosopher. Probably at the age of forty he found his own academy where he worked as a teacher, lecturing without notes until he died. He wrote a book “the republic” which was a study of Plato‟s ideal society and by extension a study of types of individual. History of Education Page 9
  13. 13. APPLYING HISTORY TO EDUCATION Aim of education: Purpose of education is welfare of both individual and society. View about knowledge: He was a rationalist „the person who believed in wisdom‟. He gave immense importance to education. According to him knowledge is fixed and ideas are change able Students: According to Plato student are active learners. 7.2 Stages of Education: According to Plato there are different stages of life and he has suggested proper education for these periods. First stage: (0-6) Plato believed that education began from the age of seven and before these children should stay with their mothers for moral education and genders should be allowed to plays with each other. Second stage (7-17) This stage is till the age of seventeen. The content of education comprises Gymnastics, literature, music elementary mathematics. Gymnastics is essential for the physical and mental growth. Music is chosen as the medium of education, an avenue for the spiritual growth, and ideas are the contents of education for this stage. The third stage (18-20) This stage is meant for cadetship and is related to physical and military training. The youth are bought into the stage of battle in this age. The fourth stage (20-30) This stage is from twenty to thirty where advance mathematics and their relation to reality are taught. Here students undergo mathematical training preparatory to dialectic. Plato has highlighted the qualities needed for an individual to enter higher education. He proclaimed that preference should be given to the surest, bravest, fairest and those who have the natural gifts to facilitate their education. History of Education Page 10
  14. 14. APPLYING HISTORY TO EDUCATION The fifth stage (30-35) This age is from ages thirty to thirty five. Plato restricted the study of dialectic to this age because he felt that an individual should be mature enough to carry on the study in dialectic, especially about ultimate principles of reality. The six stage (35-50) This age is from thirty five to fifty years, when according to Plato, an individual is ready as a philosopher or ruler, to return to practical life to take command in war and hold such offices of state as befits him. After reaching 50 one should spend the life in contemplation of “the Good” their chief pursuit should be philosophy and should participate in politics, and rule for the good of the people as a matter of their duty. Method of teaching According to Plato knowledge which is acquired under compulsion detains no hold on the minds of the bearers. Plato believed that there was no compulsion in teaching and it should be more of an amusement. Plato says all elements of instruction should be presented to the mind in childhood, nor however, under any notion of forcing. He says that, “it is better for a learner to be a free man and not to a slave in the acquisition of knowledge." History of Education Page 11
  15. 15. APPLYING HISTORY TO EDUCATION 8. ARISTOTLE’S ACADEMY LYCEUM 8.1 Introduction: Aristotle’s life (322-384 B.C.) Aristotle has born in 322 B.C.at Stagira. His father was a physician and a friend of the king of Macedonia. Aristotle spent most of his boyhood at royal court. As, young man, when he was 18 he was sent to study at Plato‟s academy in Athens. He was very intelligent, so, Plato called him “the mind of school”. He left academy after the death of his beloved teacher whom he always respect. After leaving the academy in 347 B.C. he went to school on the coast of Asia Minor, here he got married. He taught the PLATO AND ARISTOTLE son of king, Alexander who became king at the age of 19. At the age of fifty Aristotle returned to Athens and set up a new school by the money received from “Alexander the Great”. Aim of education: The aim of education is attainment of happiness or goodness in life. View about knowledge: He defined education as “creation of a sound mind in a sound body” Curriculum: Aristotle discussed the hierarchy of the subjects to be taught. Gymnastic (to develop the spirit of sportsman ship and to develop good habits for the control of passion and appetite), Music and Literature (for moral and intellectual development), Mathematics (to develop the power of deductive reasoning), importance to Physics and Astronomy was also given with practical training in citizenship. History of Education Page 12
  16. 16. APPLYING HISTORY TO EDUCATION 8.2 Teaching methodology: Aristotle seeks truth in objective facts of nature and social life. He used inductive and deductive methods for finding out knowledge and he was the first to formulate the logic of these procedures. He applied these methods for the objective and subjective studies. He is often called father of modern sciences. Stages of education: the stages of education are same as presented by Plato. He believed that the early education was the responsibility of parents. 9. References 1) Barker, Ernest (1960). Greek. Education. 2) Boyd, William (1966). The History of Western Education. London: Adams & Charles Black. 3) Curtis, S.J. & Boultwood, M.A. (1966). A Short History of Educational Ideas. London: University Tutorial Press. 4) Jarmal, J. L. (196 6). Land mark in the History of Education. 5) Lobo, A.T. (1974). Educational ideas and their impact.Karachi: Rotti Press. 6) Tanveer, K. (2005).An Introduction to Educational Philosophy and History. Islamabad: National Book Foundation. History of Education Page 13

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