Tech4101 1

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definition and history of DE

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Tech4101 1

  1. 1. Distance Education and the Internet TECH4101Sara Alqassmi& Amina Almanwari86416 & 86495Instructional & Learning Technologies Department
  2. 2. Distance Educationand the InternetTECH4101Lecture One (Week 2)DefiningDistance Education Interactive Presentation
  3. 3. Defining Distance EducationBackground:1.The Industrial Revolution in the 19th century (seeWikipedia) →2.Developments in various fields of technology (giveexamples) →3.Offered new solutions for delivering instruction →4.Learners’ interests (in what?) were enhanced →5.Increase in the subject areas offered by distanceeducation →6.Became one of the formal means of education.
  4. 4. Defining Distance EducationWhat is distance education or distance learning? Distance education is education which either does not imply thephysical presence of the teacher appointed to dispense it in the placewhere it is received or in which the teacher is present only on occasionor for selected tasks. (Loi 71.556 du 12 juillet 1971)The term ‘distance education’ covers the various forms of study at alllevels which are not under the continuous, immediate supervision oftutors present with their students in lecture rooms or on the samepremises, but which, nevertheless, benefit from the planning, guidanceand tuition of a tutorial organization. (Holmberg,1977:9)http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/0158791800010102#preview
  5. 5. Defining Distance EducationWhat is distance education or distance learning?innovative approach for delivering well-designed, learner-centered, interactive, and facilitated learning environmentto anyone, anyplace, anytime by utilizing the attributes andresources of various digital technologies along with otherforms of learning materials suited for open, flexible anddistributed learning environment.
  6. 6. Defining Distance Education The delivery of instruction over a distance toindividuals located in one or more venues. The National Education Association (NEA)definesdistance learning as "courses where more than halfof the instruction taking place is when students andfaculty are in different locations.http://mysite.du.edu/~kkeairns/de/Text/Lessons/Lesson1.pdf
  7. 7. Defining Distance EducationWhat is distance education or distance learning?Distance education or distance learning is a field of education thatfocuses on teaching methods and technology with the aim of deliveringteaching, often on an individual basis, to students who are notphysically present in a traditional educational setting such as aclassroom. It has been described as "a process to create and provideaccess to learning when the source of information and the learners areseparated by time and distance, or both." Distance education coursesthat require a physical on-site presence for any reason (includingtaking examinations) have been referred to as hybridor blendedcourses of study.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Distance_education
  8. 8. History of Distance Education1- The foundations of Distance Education can be tracedback to the late 1800s. One of the first forms of distanceeducation was correspondence course study. Sir IssacPittman founded Sir Isaac Pitmans CorrespondenceColleges in England in the mid 1840s. Correspondencecourses took advantage of the then new rural free deliveryof mail to deliver course material to students.
  9. 9. History of Distance Education 2- Students worked independently on course material and interaction between faculty and students was limited to one-way communications. Within a few decades, correspondence courses were developed in Germany, Canada, Australia, the Soviet Union, Japan, and the United States. 3- Early distance education courses employed First and SecondGeneration communication technologies. First generation (1850s to 1960) was predominately one technology and consisted of print, radio, and television. As new media emerged such asradio and television, these new technologies were integrated into distance education delivery methods.
  10. 10. History of Distance Education4- Second generation (1960-1985) distance learningcourses utilized multiple technologies without computers.The media used to deliver distance education within thesecond generation included audiocassettes, television,videocassettes, fax, and print.5- The establishment of the British Open University (1969)marked a significant development in the delivery ofdistance education by offering a mixed-media approach todistance learning technologies. Learning materials (text,audio & visuals) were sent to students by mail andsupplemented by broadcast radio and television.
  11. 11. History of Distance Education6- Multiple technologies including computers and computernetworking make up the third generation (1985-1995)technologies used for distance education delivery.7- Fourth generation technologies, the current generation,combines previous media but also incorporates high-bandwidth computer technologies including:• desktop videoconferencing• two-way interactive real-time audio and video• web-based media, etc.
  12. 12. History of Distance Education8- Each new generation of distance learning technologiesincreases opportunities for student-to-student and faculty-to-student contact and collaboration.http://mysite.du.edu/~kkeairns/de/Text/Lessons/Lesson1.pdf
  13. 13. Defining Distance EducationIn conclusion, many key features characterize distance education:1. The separation of teacher and learner;2. The separation among learners;3. The use of one medium to deliver instruction;and4. The use of a communication channel tofacilitate interaction and support learners.
  14. 14. The EndQuestions & Discussions
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