The French Revolution Liberty! Equality! Fraternity!
Absolute Rulers in Europe
Monarch rules by divine right and decides what is best for the state.
Dominates upper classes
Encourages industry and trade
Louis XVI of France
Reason should be used at all times
Freedom of religion, speech and the press are essential
Liberty and equality should be shared by all
What other Enlightenment ideas did you learn about in class? Who had those ideas?
All is not well in the state of France
Before the revolution, the French people were divided into three groups.
1 st Estate-Clergy
2 nd Estate-Wealthy Nobility
3 rd Estate- The Common People
Why is the 3 rd estate man on the bottom? What is the significance of this?
The Three Estates
The Third Estate
The 1 st and 2 nd estate had many privileges, such as exemption from most taxation. This was not true for the 3 rd estate.
The 3 rd estate was the largest and most diverse group.
Included people such as doctors, shopkeepers, and peasants.
Although the largest group, the 3 rd estate had almost no political power
The Third Estate The Bourgeoisie The Sans Culottes
“ Le Defecit” otherwise known as: “Where did all the money go???
The royal family lived the life of luxury at Versailles
However, the government was bankrupt.
The tax system placed a burden of the taxes on the 3 rd estate.
What do you see in this political cartoon from the time?
Third Estate demands more power
3 rd Estate was unhappy with their lack of power.
As a result they declared themselves the National Assembly.
King declared their activities illegal, but the 3 rd estate would not budge until a constitution was written.
Eventually, the King backed down and the 1 st and 2 nd estates joined the National Assembly.
Not much love in the city of love.
In Paris conditions were poor and there were food shortages.
Fearful of French troops sent by the King of France, mobs of people search for weapons.
The ammunition was stored in the Bastille, a medieval fortress located in Paris.
The Fall of the Bastille
July 17, 1789-Parisians stormed the Bastille.
This event was an important rallying point for the cause of revolution.
This symbolic event is still celebrated in France every year.
Declaration of the Rights of Man
Document created by the National Assembly
Stated that all men had equal rights under the law.
“The Great Fear”
That summer there were riots in the countryside
Peasants burned the homes of nobles and monasteries.
Consequences of “The Great Fear”.
The National Assembly passed reforms ending class privileges.
The nobility and clergy gave up their exemptions to taxes.
“What glory, what honor to be a Frenchmen!” Medallion celebrating the night of August 4 th . Night of August 4, 1789 in the National Assembly.
Beginning of the end for Louis XVI
The constitution created by the National Assembly limited the power of the monarchy.
Louis XVI did not like this, so he tried to leave the country.
King Louis was apprehended and met with jeers by angry crowds in Paris.
People will soon begin to demand an end the monarchy
Written during the French Revolution to encourage the soldiers.
The song became the anthem of the revolution and in 1795 it became the national anthem.
Roget de Lisle, composer of The Marseillaise
The Execution of Louis XVI
Louis XVI still disagreed with the demands of the new constitution.
Louis was put on trial for his crimes and the legislative body of the new government voted for his execution.
On January 23, 1792, Louis was sent to the guillotine.
The Reign of Terror
The Jacobins, the most radical of revolutionary parties, seize control of France. They create the Committee of Public Safety, a special branch of government that had the responsibility of keeping the Republic together. It quickly began arresting and executing all “dangerous” persons.
The Reign of Terror Con’t
17, 000 people, including priests, nobles, political opponents, and even former leaders of the Revolution were sentenced to death.
The tool of execution was the guillotine.
People eventually grew tired of the instability and bloodshed of the revolution.
The people accepted the coup d’etat of Napoleon Bonaparte in 1799.