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Sandra's presentation

  1. 1. Protecting Whose Forest? REDD and the ongoing contested land claims in Indonesia Sandra Moniaga Learning Centre HuMa, Indonesia
  2. 2. Content <ul><li>General Overview of latent “forestry” and “indigenous peoples” issues in Indonesia </li></ul><ul><li>Recent Development of “REDD” in Indonesia </li></ul><ul><li>Indigenous Peoples, “Forests” and REDD in Indonesia </li></ul><ul><li>Recommendations </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Population : 221,932,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Capital: Jakarta; 13,194,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Area: 1,922,570 square km (742,308 square miles) </li></ul><ul><li>Designated “ state forest areas ”: 1,368,600 square km ( = 71 %) </li></ul><ul><li>Corruption: ranked 143 th worst out of 180 countries (Transparancy International, 2007) </li></ul><ul><li>17,500 islands (changing) </li></ul><ul><li>Language: Bahasa Indonesia and more than 700 local dialects </li></ul><ul><li>Religion: Muslim, Protestant, Roman Catholic, Hindu, Buddhist and indigenous religions/beliefs </li></ul><ul><li>GDP per Capita: U.S. $3,100 </li></ul>
  4. 4. General Overview of latent “Forestry” issues in Indonesia <ul><li>Problems with definitions: forests, forest areas, deforestation, indigenous peoples </li></ul><ul><li>Contested land claims </li></ul>
  5. 5. Problems of definitions <ul><li>Ecological forest vs Political forest </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Forest Areas”, customary forest, village forest etc </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Natural forest degradation vs Political forest reduction? </li></ul><ul><li>Causes of natural forest degradation (policy, institutional and market failures) </li></ul><ul><li>Indigenous peoples, masyarakat adat, masyarakat hukum adat, pribumi etc. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Data Base HuMa dan Forest Watch Indonesia Forest and Prolonged Contested Land Claims
  7. 7. Recent REDD development in Indonesia <ul><li>Policy and Institutional Development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Policy development: substance and process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Various State Institutions perspectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>National Council for Climate Change, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ministry of Forestry </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>National Planning Boards) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ministry of Environment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Regional Governments (provincial and district) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Indicated REDD demonstration and or proposed demo areas </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Kuala Kampar Riau, area: 700,000 Ha - WWF </li></ul><ul><li>Tesso Nilo Riau, area: 50,000 Ha -- WWF </li></ul><ul><li>Kampar Project, area: 400,000 Ha -- Leaf Carbon Ltd. and APRIL/RAPP </li></ul><ul><li>Harapan Rainforest, Muara Jambi, area: 101,000 Ha -- Burung Indonesia, RSPB, Birdlife </li></ul><ul><li>Berbak, Jambi, area: 250,000 Ha -- ERM, ZSL, Berbak National Park </li></ul>Ulu Masen P roject in Aceh area: 750,000 h a -- Carbon Conservation Pty. Ltd , Flora Fauna International (FFI) <ul><li>KalimantanTengah , area: 50,000 Ha -- Infinite Earth </li></ul><ul><li>KFCP in Kalimantan Tengah , area: 340.000 Ha -- AUSAID </li></ul><ul><li>Katingan Central Kalimantan -- Starling Resources </li></ul><ul><li>Mawas PCAP in Central Kalimantan , area: 364.000 Ha -- BOS, Dutch Govt. , Shell Canada </li></ul><ul><li>Sebangau National Park in Central Kalimantan , area: 50.000 Ha -- WWF, BOS, Wetlands Internasional, Care International </li></ul>Poigar in North Sulawesi , area: 34,989 ha - Green Synergies Mamuju in West Sulawesi area: 30,000 ha -- Keep the Habitat, Inhutani I Mimika and Memberamo in Papua , area: 265,000 ha -- New Forest Asset Mgt, PT. Emerald Planet Jayapura in Papua , area: 217,634 ha -- WWF Merauke-Mappi- Asmat in Papua , -- WWF Malinau in East Kalimantan - Global Eco Rescue, INHUTANI II, Malinau District Government Berau in East Kali mantan area: 971,245 ha - TNC, ICRAF, Sekala, Universitas Mulawarman, WInrock Intl, Univ of Queensland Locations of REDD projects in Indonesa Kapuas Hulu and Ketapang, area: 157,000 Ha -- F lora F auna I nt’l , PT. Mcquirie Capital
  9. 9. Indigenous Peoples, “Forests” and REDD in Indonesia <ul><li>REDD </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There is not any final definition – negotiations still continuing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> Neo “SFM” (Sustainable Forest Management)? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Indicators of SFM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ecologically, economically and socially sustainable </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Problems of SFM in Indonesia <ul><ul><li>Ecologically: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Continuing ecological deforestation (1,8 mill/year) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Causes forest fires, flood, land slides etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Socially: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prolonged conflicts over land tenure and natural resource managements conflict (indigenous peoples and “state”) – unclearness of “ who own the forests ” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conflict/tensions of government authorities (central vs district government etc.) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Insufficient legal and judicial system (content of the law and regulations, enforcement mechanism and corrupt judiciary) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economically: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Declining forest quality and productivity, insecure rights for IPs and local communities become disincentive for develop sustainable programs </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Is REDD part of the solution or worsening the problematic situation? Are there rooms for developing REDD to become part of the solutions?
  12. 12. Recommendations: ways to develop REDD to become part of the solutions <ul><li>Process: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensure the inclusion of meaningful negotiations for resolving the prolonged land and resource tenure conflicts; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensure sufficient (and critical) understanding of IPs, peasants organizations and NGOs over the issue (forestry concept/terminologies, forest management in general and REDD); </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Recommendation ….. <ul><li>Process: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Full participation of IPs representatives, peasants organizations, their supporting NGOs and local governments in overall processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consolidation among the different IPs, Peasants organizations, NGOs and academics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify and recognize different problems and solutions (for forest management) for different regions </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Recommendation ….. <ul><li>Substantive: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensure revision of laws and regulations which constitute article/s which contradict to human rights principles (including indigenous and tribal peoples’ rights) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensure the establishment of mechanism for resolving the prolonged land and resource tenure conflicts (incl. customary land right restitution); </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adoption of Accra Caucus Key Messages Regarding REDD (contextually) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>+ Integrate “forest carbon” management into natural resources management plans </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>At community, district, regional (main islands), national and global policies and programs </li></ul></ul></ul>