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Daniel's presentation

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  • 1. Forests in the Balance: Forests as Providers of Ecosystem Services vs. Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation Daniel Nepstad Chief Program Officer, Environmental Conservation Program June 18, 2009
  • 2. 2
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  • 4. Forests inhale and exhale on an annual cycle 4
  • 5. Forest carbon stocks leaking into the 5 atmosphere: deforestation Houghton et al. 2007; Page et al. 2003; Alencar et al. 2006
  • 6. 6
  • 7. 7 ~half of Amazon forests depend upon deep root systems (>8 m) to remain physiologically active during seasonal drought, supplying the atmosphere with water vapor Nepstad et al. 1994 Nature
  • 8. A drought threshold experiment: 2000-2005 8 Nepstad, et al. 2007 Ecology
  • 9. 9 The drought threshold: •Large canopy trees are most vulnerable to drought •Lianas and trees more vulnerable than palms
  • 10. 10 Nepstad et al. 2007
  • 11. 11
  • 12. 12
  • 13. Value of forests to nearby coffee farms 13 Coffee near forest (within 1 km): • 2x more bee visits $ • 5x more bee species • 20% higher yields $ Lowerbound value of forest: • $60,000/year (7% of farm revenue) • Equivalent to competing land uses Ricketts et al. 2004. PNAS 13
  • 14. 14
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  • 16. 16 Forest dieback has begun
  • 17. 17
  • 18. 18 Amazon 2030: 55% cleared or degraded; 15-25 B tons C emitted Nepstad et al. 2008 Phil Trans Roy Soc
  • 19. 19 Nepstad et al. 2006 Cons Biol
  • 20. REDD alone is not enough. The world needs 20 more food Area of Cattle & Sugar Cane, Brazil 200 180 160 140 Millions of Hectares 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 Cattle Pasture 2006 Sugar Cane 2006 Sugar Cane 2020
  • 21. A 20-year land agenda 21 Could we reduce carbon emissions from land by 3 B tons per year in two decades? 2.5 Carbon emissions from the land 2 3 B ton reduction by 2020 (Billions of Tons per Year) 1.5 1 Deforestation New Forests 0.5 Soil Carbon 0 Net Flux -0.5 -1 -1.5 2010 2020 2030 2040 2050 Year