Pattern by Amiina Bakunowicz
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Pattern by Amiina Bakunowicz

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Presentation on Pattern

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Pattern by Amiina Bakunowicz Pattern by Amiina Bakunowicz Presentation Transcript

  • Pattern CONTENTS: - Emergence of Patterns - Definition of Pattern - Lets get inspired: Patterns in nature - Why do we like them so much? - Design DIY: In a search for a pattern using scripts as a tooling device. - Fabrication technologies.The types of tools and technologies architects most frequently use for the digital fabrications of their designs. - Conclusion Amiina Bakunowicz: Pattern
  • "The world is not a collection of objects. It is a network of relationships" -- Paul Davies, Physicist Emergence of Patterns Agency and its agents, ABM, self-organisation, stigmergy and swarm contain patterns in their structure, behaviour and operation. They are all examples of how patterns emerge - from inseparable relationships between the context (environment) in which the pattern resides, its architecture (form), and its dynamics (function). For example, every stigmergic system has its functional pattern or in another words a "coordination of tasks". Without this pattern the system wouldn't be able to survive. One of the few features of the stigmergic system is that system's individuals need only a few elementary rules, which create a behavioural pattern of the members of the system. A self-organising system has a pattern that forms without a central control mechanism or external influence. Instead it is formed via interactions on a local scale, with each part of the system knowing nothing of the global effect of these interactions. Patterns develop as a result of a systematic interaction of its component parts. This "self-organization" is an emergent behavior caused by the actions of all individuals within the system acting upon a fixed set of rules without guidance of any leaders. Amiina Bakunowicz: Pattern
  • Definition of Pattern In both Nature and Architecture we mostly use the term Pattern to describe the following instances: ● ● ● ● a repeated decorative design an arrangement or design regularly found in comparable objects a regular and intelligible form or sequence discernible in the way in which something happens or is done a model or design used as a guide in a specific process The Variety of Patterns in Nature Amiina Bakunowicz: Pattern
  • Branches 1. Vascular patterns 2. Fractal branching 3. Winding and turning 4. Physiographical Configurations 5. Filices or fernlike formations 6. Squeeze patterns 7. Collocation of elements around center 4. Coastlines, snowlines rvier networks 1. A single brain neuron 2. A cauliflower curd 3. Section of brain 5. Frosty traceries 6. Hele-Shaw Cell experiments 7. Aggregation forms around a nuclear center, snowflakes, bacterial growth Amiina Bakunowicz: Pattern
  • 1. Surfaces of diamonds, cone shells of tropical seas Shapes 1. Triangular Formations 2. Spots, Speckles,Scrawls 3. Angulated Patterns 2. Magmatic rocks, eggs of most groundnesting birds, wing cases of insects 3. Crystalline forms of river ice, finely laminated structure of clay shales, acid crystals Bakunowicz: Pattern Amiina
  • 1. Marble Nets 2. Leaf 1. Breaking and separating 2. Vascular patterns 3. Cellular 4. Crackle, shrinking patterns 5. Polygonal, geometric quasi regularity 6. Colonies 3. Active layer of tree cells 4. Ceramic cracks, parched earth, dried out paints and gels 5. "3- connected" joint network of lava basalt, film of soap bubbles between the plates, spider web 6. section of the stalk of a dead nettle Amiina Bakunowicz: Pattern
  • Waves 1. Patterns of motion 2. Aggregation of elements 3. Release Patterns 4. Wormlike arrangements 5. Winding and turning forms 6. Propagation around centers 7. Labyrinthine or maze patters 8. Cloud-like formations 9. Ripples and dunes 10. Sediment erosion patterns 11. Spirals 12. Colonies 1. Flock of birds 3. Ink in water 2. clustering on the surface of the liquid 4. Marine vegetation 5. Meandering great river 6. Agate stone, Angelfish 8. "Mackerel sky", metal impurities in jaspar 7. Fingerprint 9. Water ripples and Mars dunes 12. Malachite stone 10. Sediment erosion 11. Shell of Nautilus Amiina Bakunowicz: Pattern
  • Complex 1. Shapes and Branching 2. Waves and Branching 3. Lichenlike growth and waves 4. Shapes and Branching 5. Branching and Angulated Shapes 6. Nets and Waves 2. Migrating Bacteria and many other..... 1. Nanocrystals 4. Crusts of gallium oxide 5. Frosty traceries 3. Lichenlike growth and waves 6. Ermine Moth web weaving Amiina Bakunowicz: Pattern
  • Why do we like patterns so much? There are certain cross-disciplinary principles of design, that explain partly what we feel intuitively and cannot fully understand when it comes to design considerations. I have applied these principles to the analysis of visual qualities of patterns trying to explain why the patterns are so attractive to us. Generally speaking, when the group of elements is perceived as apart of one whole united by various qualities then its unit is aesthetically pleasing. Below the list of such qualities that can unite a group of elements. However the question arises : do we like all nature-looking objects and patterns because of certain perceptual rules OR because these rules were originally derived from nature? Gestalt principles of perception: Closure - a tendency to perceive a set of individual elements as a single, recognizable pattern, rather than multiple, individual elements. Common Fate - elements that move or have a pattern of movement in the same direction are perceived to be more related than elements that move in different directions or stationary. Good Continuation - elements arranged in a straight line or a smooth curve are perceived as a group, and are interpreted as being more related than elements not on the line or curve. Law of Pragnanz - a tendency to interpret ambiguous images as simple and complete, versus complex and incomplete. Proximity - Elements that are close together are perceived to be more related than ones that are farther apart. Similarity - elements that are similar are perceived to be more related than elements that are dissimilar. Amiina Bakunowicz: Pattern
  • Other Universal Principles of Design: Affordance - a perceived property in which the physical characteristics of an object or environment influence its function. Alingment - the placement or elements such that edges line up along common rows or columns, or their bodies along common center. Anthropomorphic Form - a tendency to find forms that appear humanoid or exhibit human-like characteristics appealing. Chunking - a technique of combining many units of information into a limited number of units or chunks, so that the information is easier to process and remember. Classical Conditioning (Pavlov) - a technique used to associate a stimulus with a unconscious physical or emotional response. Color - Color is used in design to attract attention, group elements, indicate meaning, and enhance aesthetics. Consistency - the usability of a system is improved when similar parts are expressed in similar ways. Contour Bias - a tendency to favor objects with contours over with sharp angles or points. Perceptual constancy - the tendency to perceive objects as unchanging, despite changes in perspective, lighting, color, or size. Exposure Effect - Repeated exposure to stimuli for which people have neutral feelings will increase the likeability of the stimuli. Fibonacci Sequence - a sequence of numbers in which each number is the sum of the preceding two. Form Follows Function - a debatable concept that beauty in design results from purity of function as at the same time function follows form in nature (if it follows anything at all). Golden Ratio - a ratio within the elements of a form, such as height to width, approximating 0.618. Modularity - a method of managing system complexity that involves dividing large systems into multiple, smaller self-contained systems. Modularity is a structural principle used to manage complexity in systems. Ockhcam's razor - simplicity is preferred to complexity in design. Scaling Fallacy - a tendency to assume that a system that works at one scale will also work at a smaller or larger scale. Self-Similarity - a property in which a form is made up of parts similar to the whole or to one another. Uniform Connectedness - Elements that are connected by uniform visual properties, such as color, are perceived to be more related than elements that are not connected. Amiina Bakunowicz: Pattern
  • Design DIY: In search for a Pattern There are several algorithmic techniques to develop a pattern that later can be translated into an architectural piece. Each of these "can be used to describe and simulate certain natural phenomena in the world" (Tooloing byArand/Lasch) 1. Spiraling 2. Packing 3. Weaving 4. Blending 5. Cracking 6. Flocking 7. Tiling 4. 1. 2. 5. 3. 6. 7. Amiina Bakunowicz: Pattern
  • Variety of "Digital Fabrications" Amiina Bakunowicz: Pattern
  • Sectioning Method of taking numerous cross sections through a form at disegnated interval.. This method uses a series of profiles, the edges of which follow lines of surface geometry. Le Corbusier, the roof of chapel at Ronchamp, 1954 Frederick Kiesler, Endless House, 1960 GREg Lynn,Artists Space installation,1995 SHoP Architects, Dunescape, 2001 Berkeley/Lisa Iwamoto, Digital Weave, 2004 Martti Kalliala, Esa Ruskeepaa, Martin Lukasczyk, Mafoombey , 2005 Example of cutting sections using contour command in Rhino William Massie, Urban Beach, 2002 Alan Dempsey and Alvin Huang,(c)space, 2008 Amiina Bakunowicz: Pattern Greg Lynn, Transformation of Kleiburg Housing Block, 2007 J. MAYER H. Architects, Seville Parasol building, 2011 BIG, natural history museum,submitted for competition 2012
  • Buckminster Fuller and Shoji Sadao,U.S. Pavilion, 1967 Tesselating - method of collection of pieces that fit together without gaps to form a plane or surface. Huyghe + Le Corbusier, Puppet theatre, 2004 Fabio Gramazio & Matthias, "The programmed Wall", 2007 Thom Faulders Architecture, Airspace Tokyo, 2007 Peter Macapia/labDORA, Urban Pavilion, 2007 Peter Macapia/labDORA, Swarm Architecture, 2009 Amiina Bakunowicz: Pattern
  • Folding turns a flat surface into a three-dimensional one. This technique is used not only for making form but also for creating structure with geometry. Walter Netsch/Skidmore, Owings & Merrill. Air Force Academy Cadet Chapel, 1962 Office dA, Fabricating Coincidences,1998 FOA, Yokohama International Port Terminal, 2002 Haresh Lalvani/AlgoRhythm Technologies. InterRipples Ceiling System IwamotoScott, InOut Curtain, 2005 Atelier Hitoshi Abe, Aoba-tei, 2004 Chris Bosse, Digital Origami, 2007 Amiina Bakunowicz: Pattern AEDS/Ammar Eloueini, Nubik, 2005 Tom Wiscombe/EMERGENT, Dragonfly, 2007 Chris Bosse/PTW Architects,Watercube, 2008
  • Contouring is a subtractive process that reshapes this surface and creates a three-dimensional relief by removing successive layers of material. Golden Fort, Jaisalmer, India, 1156 The contemporary carving tools: CNC routers and mills Greg Lynn, Showroom, Stockholm, Sweden, 2000 WILLIAMSON Chong, Door with Peephole, 2004 Urban A&O, Bone Wall, 2006 Wall Panel Systems Amiina Bakunowicz: Pattern
  • Forming is a technique that generates multiple parts from a small number of molds or forms. Harrison & Abramovitz the Alcoa Building, 1953 KDL/MAC, Ost/Kuttner Apartment, 1997 Hans Scharoun, the Berliner Philharmonie, 1963 Andrew Kudless/Matsys, PJWall, 2006 GNUFORM, NGTV, the private bar ,2005 PATTERNS, with Kreysler & Associates, UniBodies, 2006 Heather Roberge, Satin Sheet, 2007 Heather Roberge, Shiatsu, 2007 Florencia Pita, Alice, 2007 Amiina Bakunowicz: Pattern
  • "Textile Computing" Jeremy Magner, Bespoke House is a technique based on creating computing designs through materail systems based on continuity, where everything is interrelated through interlacing patterns of various figures (brading, chrochet, macrame, knitting, weaving, etc.) Erasmus Ikpemgbe, Balloon House Youngjin Yoon, Bubble Stitch House Amiina Bakunowicz: Pattern
  • Contour Crafting Machine, 2008 3D Printing or Contour Crafting is a process of making 3D solid objects from a digital model. 3D printing is achieved using additive processes, where an object is created by laying down successive layers of material. Andrea Morgante, Radiolaria Pavillion, 2011 François Roche of R&Sie;(n), Museum of Ice, in design stage Jenny Sabin, greenhouse the “Cabinet of Future Fossils” , 2011 R&Sie(n), New installation at the Musee d’Art Moderne, Paris Amiina Bakunowicz: Pattern
  • "Architectural patterns have a broad and deep lineage, and one should not expect them to have any welldefined, unitary function. As patterns evolve they acquire new functions and lose their prior functions, or new functions are superimposed upon older ones. Patterns might serve purposes of decorative enhancement, feature accentuation, camouflaging, totemic identification, semiotic differentiation, or any combination of these." Patrik Schumacher 2009, p.30 Patterns in nature are a series of connected relationships, therefore they tend to be highly complex. The reasons for this complexity, according to Geoffrey West, are: ● ● Patterns are highly complex systems, based on historical contingencies, that can usually be described only as "course grain" behavior. There is a huge number of sub-agents exhibiting self-organization that produce emergent properties at a system level. However, Can the use of Technology and Patterns in architectural design lead more easily to "Lazy Architecture" VS Unknown Peter Macapia, Performa Pavilion Amiina Bakunowicz: Pattern
  • References: Anonymous. (). Pattern Concept – Various. Available: http://oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/pattern. Last accessed 25th November 2012 Ball P., The Self-Made Tapestry: Pattern Formation in Nature, Center "Leo Apostel", 2001, OUP Oxford Wade, D. Li: Dynamic Form in Nature, 2007, Wooden Books Lisa Iwamoto, Digital Fabrications: Architectural and Material Techniques , 2009, Princeton Architectural Press William Lidwell, Kritina Holden, Jill Butler, Universal Principles of Design, 2010, Rockport Lars Spuybroek, Research & Design: The Architecture of Variation, 2009, Thames & Hudson Tracy B. Henley , B.Michael Thorne , Connections in the History and Systems of Psychology, 2004, Houghton Mifflin Benjamin Aranda, Christopher Lasch, Tooling, 2006, Princeton Architectural Press Schumacher, P. 2009, Parametric Patterns. Architectural Design 79(6), p.30 Bill Graham. - Available: http://www.patternsinnature.org/Book/UnderstandingPatternsInNature.html. Last accessed 10th December 2012