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W W1

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  • 1. 1914-1918: The World at War Susan Pojer
  • 2. Differing Viewpoints <ul><li>“ Family Feud” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Fall of the Eagles” </li></ul><ul><li>“ The War to End All Wars” </li></ul><ul><li>“ The War to ‘Make the World Safe for Democracy’” </li></ul>
  • 3. Causes of the War
  • 4. <ul><li>There had been relative peace in Europe for 100 years prior to WWI. </li></ul><ul><li>But…….. </li></ul>
  • 5. CAUSES <ul><li>Alliances </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Like the nation’s buddy system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When one country goes to war then many countries become involved. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>**Triple Alliance/Central Powers – Germany, Austria Hungary, Italy (Changes sides) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>**Triple Entente/Allied Powers – France, Russia, Britain, Serbia, Belgium and USA </li></ul></ul>
  • 6. 1. The Alliance System Triple Entente : Triple Alliance :
  • 7. Two Armed Camps! Allied Powers : Central Powers :
  • 8. The Major Players: 1914-17 Nicholas II [Rus] George V [Br] Pres. Poincare [Fr] Allied Powers : Franz Josef [A-H] Wilhelm II [Ger] Victor Emmanuel II [It] Central Powers : Enver Pasha [Turkey]
  • 9. Europe in 1914
  • 10. CAUSES <ul><li>Militerism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rivalry between Britian and Germany – both sides build up military </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Russia doubles size of army </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>***When countries build up their militaries war is inevitable!!! </li></ul></ul>
  • 11. 2. Militarism & Arms Race Total Defense Expenditures for the Great Powers [Ger., A-H, It., Fr., Br., Rus.] in millions of £s. 398 289 268 154 130 94 1914 1910 1900 1890 1880 1870 1910-1914 Increase in Defense Expenditures 73% Germany 39% Russia 13% Britain 10% France
  • 12. CAUSES <ul><li>Imperialism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nations competed with one another for colonies and raw materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Britain and France VS Germany </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>***This constant competeing caused tension and unrest. </li></ul></ul>
  • 13. 3. Economic & Imperial Rivalries
  • 14. CAUSES <ul><li>Nationalism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intense feelings of pride for one’s country/nationality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some wanted lands back where they had a lot of people living </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some wanted independence from countries that engulfed their culture </li></ul></ul>
  • 15. 4. Aggressive Nationalism
  • 16. BALKANS <ul><li>Powder Keg of Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Austria-Hungary annexed Bosnia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This infuriated the Serbs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Archduke Francis Ferdinand (Austria-Hungary) is assassinated and Serbia is held responsible. </li></ul>
  • 17. Pan-Slavism: The Balkans, 1914 The “Powder Keg” of Europe
  • 18. The “Spark”
  • 19. Archduke Franz Ferdinand & His Family
  • 20. The Assassination: Sarajevo
  • 21. The Assassin: Gavrilo Princip
  • 22. WWI BEGINS <ul><li>Austria-Hungary and Serbia go to war </li></ul><ul><li>Russia declares war on Austria-Hungary because they are allied with Serbia (Czar Nicholas does not believe that Germany – Kaiser Wilhelm (cousin of the Czarina) will declare war on Russia. </li></ul>
  • 23. Who’s To Blame?
  • 24. WWI BEGINS <ul><li>Germany – supporting Austria Hungary declares war on Russia and France because France is allied with Russia. </li></ul><ul><li>In order to get to France Germany invades Belgium which causes Britain to declare war on Germany </li></ul>
  • 25. SCHLIEFFEN PLAN <ul><li>Germany’s grand plan to avoid a 2 front war. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attack France fast before Russia has time to mobalize </li></ul></ul>
  • 26. The Schlieffen Plan
  • 27. German Atrocities in Belgium
  • 28. Mobilization It's a long way to Tipperary, It's a long way to go; It's a long way to Tipperary, To the sweetest girl I know! Goodbye, Piccadilly, Farewell, Leicester Square, It's a long, long way to Tipperary, But my heart's right there! <ul><li>Home by Christmas! </li></ul><ul><li>No major war in 50 years! </li></ul><ul><li>Nationalism! </li></ul>
  • 29. Recruitment Posters
  • 30. A Young Australian Recruit
  • 31. Recruits of the Central Powers Austro-Hungarians A German Soldier Says Farewell to His Mother
  • 32. New French Recruits
  • 33. A German Boy Pretends to Be a Soldier
  • 34.  
  • 35. Women and the War Effort
  • 36. Financing the War
  • 37. For Recruitment
  • 38. Munitions Workers
  • 39. French Women Factory Workers
  • 40. German Women Factory Workers
  • 41. Working in the Fields
  • 42. A Woman Ambulance Driver
  • 43. Red Cross Nurses
  • 44. Women in the Army Auxiliary
  • 45. Russian Women Soldiers
  • 46. Spies <ul><li>“ Mata Hari” </li></ul><ul><li>Real Name: Margareetha Geertruide Zelle </li></ul><ul><li>German Spy! </li></ul>
  • 47. Posters: Wartime Propaganda
  • 48. Australian Poster
  • 49. American Poster
  • 50. Financing the War
  • 51. German Poster
  • 52. A Multi-Front War
  • 53. The Western Front: A “War of Attrition ”
  • 54. WESTERN FRONT <ul><li>3 year stalemate </li></ul><ul><li>Trench warfare </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Huge casualities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example – Battle of Verdun – Germans lost 330,000 – took 11 months </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By 1916 there were 2 million casualities </li></ul></ul>
  • 55. The Western Front
  • 56. Trench Warfare
  • 57. Trench Warfare “ No Man’s Land”
  • 58. Verdun – February, 1916 <ul><li>German offensive. </li></ul><ul><li>Each side had 500,000 casualties. </li></ul>
  • 59. The Somme – July, 1916 <ul><li>60,000 British soldiers killed in one day. </li></ul><ul><li>Over 1,000,000 killed in 5 months. </li></ul>
  • 60. War Is HELL !!
  • 61. Sacrifices in War
  • 62. Krupp’s “Big Bertha” Gun
  • 63. The Eastern Front
  • 64. EASTERN FRONT <ul><li>Russians and Serbs VS Germans, Austrians and Turks </li></ul><ul><li>Millions died </li></ul><ul><li>Germans had to fight on 2 fronts but they began to freeze to death in Russia. </li></ul><ul><li>Russia Pulls out because of Revolution </li></ul>
  • 65. The Gallipoli Disaster, 1915
  • 66. Turkish Cavalry in Palestine
  • 67. T. E. Lawrence & the “Arab Revolt”, 1916-18
  • 68. T. E. Lawrence & Prince Faisal at Versailles, 1918-19
  • 69. The Tsar with General Brusilov
  • 70. The “Colonial” Fronts
  • 71. Sikh British Soldiers in India
  • 72. Fighting in Africa British Sikh Mountain Gunners Black Soldiers in the German Schutztruppen [German E. Africa]
  • 73. Fighting in Africa 3 rd British Battalion, Nigerian Brigade
  • 74. Fighting in Salonika, Greece French colonial marine infantry from Cochin, China - 1916
  • 75. COLLAPSE OF EASTERN FRONT <ul><li>With Russia out the Central Powers put all of their resources into western front. </li></ul><ul><li>Situation looks grave until Italy and the US join forces with the allies. </li></ul>
  • 76. America Joins the Allies
  • 77. US NUETRALITY <ul><li>Woodrow Wilson want to reamain neutral </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wilson secrectly gives aide to Brits </li></ul></ul>
  • 78. LUSITANNIA <ul><li>Germans had declared unrestricted sub warfare </li></ul><ul><li>Lusitania is sunk – carrying 128 Americans – 1000 dead </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Germans say the passenger ship is carrying munitions – Brits deny </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ship sinks in under 20 minutes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Germans also sink the Sussex </li></ul></ul>
  • 79. The Sinking of the Lusitania
  • 80. ZIMMERMAN TELEGRAM <ul><li>Secret message from Germany to Mexico </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If Mexico allies with the Central Powers it could gain New Mexico, Arizona and Texas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Land lost in 1848 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>**Telegram intercepted – Wilson asks Congress to declare war on Germany to “Make the World Safe for Democracy” </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 81. The Zimmerman Telegram
  • 82. The Yanks Are Coming!
  • 83. Americans in the Trenches
  • 84. The War of the Industrial Revolution: New Technology
  • 85. French Renault Tank
  • 86. British Tank at Ypres
  • 87. U-Boats
  • 88. Allied Ships Sunk by U-Boats
  • 89. The Airplane “ Squadron Over the Brenta” Max Edler von Poosch, 1917
  • 90. The Flying Aces of World War I Eddie Rickenbacher, US Francesco Barraco, It. Rene Pauk Fonck, Fr. Manfred von Richtoffen, Ger. [The “ Red Baron ”] Willy Coppens de Holthust, Belg. Eddie “Mick” Mannoch, Br.
  • 91. Curtis-Martin U. S. Aircraft Plant
  • 92. Looking for the “Red Baron?”
  • 93. The Zeppelin
  • 94. Flame Throwers Grenade Launchers
  • 95. Poison Gas Machine Gun
  • 96. “ Art” of World War I
  • 97. “ A Street in Arras” John Singer Sargent, 1918
  • 98. “ Oppy Wood” – John Nash, 1917
  • 99. “ Those Who Have Lost Their Names” Albin Eggar-Linz, 1914
  • 100. “ Gassed and Wounded” Eric Kennington, 1918
  • 101. “ Paths of Glory” C. R. W. Nevinson, 1917
  • 102. German Cartoon: “Fit for active service!”, 1918
  • 103. 1918 Flu Pandemic: Depletes All Armies 50,000,000 – 100,000,000 died
  • 104. END OF WAR <ul><li>Germans lost millions of soldiers – running out of reserves </li></ul><ul><li>With the help of Americans – allies have many reserves </li></ul>
  • 105. END OF WAR <ul><li>1918 – Arabs fight against the Turks/Ottoman Empire </li></ul><ul><li>Italy changes sides and defeats Austria-Hungary </li></ul><ul><li>November 1918 – Germany signs armistice (agreement to end fighting) </li></ul>
  • 106. 11 a.m., November 11, 1918
  • 107. 9,000,000 Dead
  • 108. The Somme American Cemetary, France 116,516 Americans Died
  • 109. World War I Casualties
  • 110. Turkish Genocide Against Armenians A Portent of Future Horrors to Come!
  • 111. Turkish Genocide Against Armenians Turkish Genocide of Armenians (1914 - 1922) 387,800 2,133,190 Total 15,000 73,390 Trapizond District 163,000 194,000 European Turkey 70,000 309,000 Cilicia and Northern Syria 27,000 371,800 Western Anatolia     Other Armenian-populated Sites in Turkey       16,800 225,000 Sivas 56,000 220,000 Bitlis 3,000 124,000 Diarbekir 35,000 204,000 Kharbert 500 197,000 Van 1,500 215,000 Erzerum 1922 1914 Districts & Vilayets of Western Armenia in Turkey
  • 112. AFTERMATH AND PEACE <ul><li>Wilson comes up with plan called 14 points </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No secret treaties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Freedom of the seas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Countries need to reduce arms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Colonial powers should consider feelings of the people living there </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>***League of Nations </li></ul></ul>
  • 113. AFTERMATH AND PEACE <ul><li>Europe accepts but the US denies and does not join the League of Nations </li></ul>
  • 114. VERSAILLES TREATY
  • 115. VERSILLE TREATY <ul><li>Conference of leaders – Big four </li></ul><ul><ul><li>US, Britain, France and Italy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Central Powers not invited </li></ul>
  • 116. TREATY OF VERSAILLES <ul><li>Reduce size of German army </li></ul><ul><li>Germany to return Alsace Lorraine to France </li></ul>
  • 117. TREATY OF VERSAILLES <ul><li>Troops would occupy Rhineland (German border) for 15 years </li></ul><ul><li>Poland became independent </li></ul><ul><li>War guilt clause – Germany had to pay reparations (war damages) to the allies </li></ul><ul><li>Other Boundry changes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Austria-Hungary broke apart </li></ul></ul>
  • 118. TREATY OF VERSAILLES <ul><li>Became countries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Czechoslovakia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Yugoslavia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Romania </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lithuania </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Latvia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Estonia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ottoman Empire broke apart – Iraq, Palestine, Syria, Lebanon </li></ul></ul>
  • 119. TREATY OF VERSAILLES <ul><li>**Huge problems with treaty – no one truly happy </li></ul><ul><li>**Germany could not pay </li></ul><ul><li>**World wide depression </li></ul><ul><li>**Treaty of Versailles leads to WWII </li></ul>

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