• Like
W W1
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
Uploaded on

 

  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
8,973
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1

Actions

Shares
Downloads
675
Comments
0
Likes
9

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. 1914-1918: The World at War Susan Pojer
  • 2. Differing Viewpoints
    • “ Family Feud”
    • “ Fall of the Eagles”
    • “ The War to End All Wars”
    • “ The War to ‘Make the World Safe for Democracy’”
  • 3. Causes of the War
  • 4.
    • There had been relative peace in Europe for 100 years prior to WWI.
    • But……..
  • 5. CAUSES
    • Alliances
      • Like the nation’s buddy system
      • When one country goes to war then many countries become involved.
      • **Triple Alliance/Central Powers – Germany, Austria Hungary, Italy (Changes sides)
      • **Triple Entente/Allied Powers – France, Russia, Britain, Serbia, Belgium and USA
  • 6. 1. The Alliance System Triple Entente : Triple Alliance :
  • 7. Two Armed Camps! Allied Powers : Central Powers :
  • 8. The Major Players: 1914-17 Nicholas II [Rus] George V [Br] Pres. Poincare [Fr] Allied Powers : Franz Josef [A-H] Wilhelm II [Ger] Victor Emmanuel II [It] Central Powers : Enver Pasha [Turkey]
  • 9. Europe in 1914
  • 10. CAUSES
    • Militerism
      • Rivalry between Britian and Germany – both sides build up military
      • Russia doubles size of army
      • ***When countries build up their militaries war is inevitable!!!
  • 11. 2. Militarism & Arms Race Total Defense Expenditures for the Great Powers [Ger., A-H, It., Fr., Br., Rus.] in millions of £s. 398 289 268 154 130 94 1914 1910 1900 1890 1880 1870 1910-1914 Increase in Defense Expenditures 73% Germany 39% Russia 13% Britain 10% France
  • 12. CAUSES
    • Imperialism
      • Nations competed with one another for colonies and raw materials
      • Britain and France VS Germany
      • ***This constant competeing caused tension and unrest.
  • 13. 3. Economic & Imperial Rivalries
  • 14. CAUSES
    • Nationalism
      • Intense feelings of pride for one’s country/nationality
      • Some wanted lands back where they had a lot of people living
      • Some wanted independence from countries that engulfed their culture
  • 15. 4. Aggressive Nationalism
  • 16. BALKANS
    • Powder Keg of Europe
    • Austria-Hungary annexed Bosnia
      • This infuriated the Serbs
    • Archduke Francis Ferdinand (Austria-Hungary) is assassinated and Serbia is held responsible.
  • 17. Pan-Slavism: The Balkans, 1914 The “Powder Keg” of Europe
  • 18. The “Spark”
  • 19. Archduke Franz Ferdinand & His Family
  • 20. The Assassination: Sarajevo
  • 21. The Assassin: Gavrilo Princip
  • 22. WWI BEGINS
    • Austria-Hungary and Serbia go to war
    • Russia declares war on Austria-Hungary because they are allied with Serbia (Czar Nicholas does not believe that Germany – Kaiser Wilhelm (cousin of the Czarina) will declare war on Russia.
  • 23. Who’s To Blame?
  • 24. WWI BEGINS
    • Germany – supporting Austria Hungary declares war on Russia and France because France is allied with Russia.
    • In order to get to France Germany invades Belgium which causes Britain to declare war on Germany
  • 25. SCHLIEFFEN PLAN
    • Germany’s grand plan to avoid a 2 front war.
      • Attack France fast before Russia has time to mobalize
  • 26. The Schlieffen Plan
  • 27. German Atrocities in Belgium
  • 28. Mobilization It's a long way to Tipperary, It's a long way to go; It's a long way to Tipperary, To the sweetest girl I know! Goodbye, Piccadilly, Farewell, Leicester Square, It's a long, long way to Tipperary, But my heart's right there!
    • Home by Christmas!
    • No major war in 50 years!
    • Nationalism!
  • 29. Recruitment Posters
  • 30. A Young Australian Recruit
  • 31. Recruits of the Central Powers Austro-Hungarians A German Soldier Says Farewell to His Mother
  • 32. New French Recruits
  • 33. A German Boy Pretends to Be a Soldier
  • 34.  
  • 35. Women and the War Effort
  • 36. Financing the War
  • 37. For Recruitment
  • 38. Munitions Workers
  • 39. French Women Factory Workers
  • 40. German Women Factory Workers
  • 41. Working in the Fields
  • 42. A Woman Ambulance Driver
  • 43. Red Cross Nurses
  • 44. Women in the Army Auxiliary
  • 45. Russian Women Soldiers
  • 46. Spies
    • “ Mata Hari”
    • Real Name: Margareetha Geertruide Zelle
    • German Spy!
  • 47. Posters: Wartime Propaganda
  • 48. Australian Poster
  • 49. American Poster
  • 50. Financing the War
  • 51. German Poster
  • 52. A Multi-Front War
  • 53. The Western Front: A “War of Attrition ”
  • 54. WESTERN FRONT
    • 3 year stalemate
    • Trench warfare
      • Huge casualities
      • Example – Battle of Verdun – Germans lost 330,000 – took 11 months
      • By 1916 there were 2 million casualities
  • 55. The Western Front
  • 56. Trench Warfare
  • 57. Trench Warfare “ No Man’s Land”
  • 58. Verdun – February, 1916
    • German offensive.
    • Each side had 500,000 casualties.
  • 59. The Somme – July, 1916
    • 60,000 British soldiers killed in one day.
    • Over 1,000,000 killed in 5 months.
  • 60. War Is HELL !!
  • 61. Sacrifices in War
  • 62. Krupp’s “Big Bertha” Gun
  • 63. The Eastern Front
  • 64. EASTERN FRONT
    • Russians and Serbs VS Germans, Austrians and Turks
    • Millions died
    • Germans had to fight on 2 fronts but they began to freeze to death in Russia.
    • Russia Pulls out because of Revolution
  • 65. The Gallipoli Disaster, 1915
  • 66. Turkish Cavalry in Palestine
  • 67. T. E. Lawrence & the “Arab Revolt”, 1916-18
  • 68. T. E. Lawrence & Prince Faisal at Versailles, 1918-19
  • 69. The Tsar with General Brusilov
  • 70. The “Colonial” Fronts
  • 71. Sikh British Soldiers in India
  • 72. Fighting in Africa British Sikh Mountain Gunners Black Soldiers in the German Schutztruppen [German E. Africa]
  • 73. Fighting in Africa 3 rd British Battalion, Nigerian Brigade
  • 74. Fighting in Salonika, Greece French colonial marine infantry from Cochin, China - 1916
  • 75. COLLAPSE OF EASTERN FRONT
    • With Russia out the Central Powers put all of their resources into western front.
    • Situation looks grave until Italy and the US join forces with the allies.
  • 76. America Joins the Allies
  • 77. US NUETRALITY
    • Woodrow Wilson want to reamain neutral
      • Wilson secrectly gives aide to Brits
  • 78. LUSITANNIA
    • Germans had declared unrestricted sub warfare
    • Lusitania is sunk – carrying 128 Americans – 1000 dead
      • Germans say the passenger ship is carrying munitions – Brits deny
      • Ship sinks in under 20 minutes
      • Germans also sink the Sussex
  • 79. The Sinking of the Lusitania
  • 80. ZIMMERMAN TELEGRAM
    • Secret message from Germany to Mexico
      • If Mexico allies with the Central Powers it could gain New Mexico, Arizona and Texas
        • Land lost in 1848
        • **Telegram intercepted – Wilson asks Congress to declare war on Germany to “Make the World Safe for Democracy”
  • 81. The Zimmerman Telegram
  • 82. The Yanks Are Coming!
  • 83. Americans in the Trenches
  • 84. The War of the Industrial Revolution: New Technology
  • 85. French Renault Tank
  • 86. British Tank at Ypres
  • 87. U-Boats
  • 88. Allied Ships Sunk by U-Boats
  • 89. The Airplane “ Squadron Over the Brenta” Max Edler von Poosch, 1917
  • 90. The Flying Aces of World War I Eddie Rickenbacher, US Francesco Barraco, It. Rene Pauk Fonck, Fr. Manfred von Richtoffen, Ger. [The “ Red Baron ”] Willy Coppens de Holthust, Belg. Eddie “Mick” Mannoch, Br.
  • 91. Curtis-Martin U. S. Aircraft Plant
  • 92. Looking for the “Red Baron?”
  • 93. The Zeppelin
  • 94. Flame Throwers Grenade Launchers
  • 95. Poison Gas Machine Gun
  • 96. “ Art” of World War I
  • 97. “ A Street in Arras” John Singer Sargent, 1918
  • 98. “ Oppy Wood” – John Nash, 1917
  • 99. “ Those Who Have Lost Their Names” Albin Eggar-Linz, 1914
  • 100. “ Gassed and Wounded” Eric Kennington, 1918
  • 101. “ Paths of Glory” C. R. W. Nevinson, 1917
  • 102. German Cartoon: “Fit for active service!”, 1918
  • 103. 1918 Flu Pandemic: Depletes All Armies 50,000,000 – 100,000,000 died
  • 104. END OF WAR
    • Germans lost millions of soldiers – running out of reserves
    • With the help of Americans – allies have many reserves
  • 105. END OF WAR
    • 1918 – Arabs fight against the Turks/Ottoman Empire
    • Italy changes sides and defeats Austria-Hungary
    • November 1918 – Germany signs armistice (agreement to end fighting)
  • 106. 11 a.m., November 11, 1918
  • 107. 9,000,000 Dead
  • 108. The Somme American Cemetary, France 116,516 Americans Died
  • 109. World War I Casualties
  • 110. Turkish Genocide Against Armenians A Portent of Future Horrors to Come!
  • 111. Turkish Genocide Against Armenians Turkish Genocide of Armenians (1914 - 1922) 387,800 2,133,190 Total 15,000 73,390 Trapizond District 163,000 194,000 European Turkey 70,000 309,000 Cilicia and Northern Syria 27,000 371,800 Western Anatolia     Other Armenian-populated Sites in Turkey       16,800 225,000 Sivas 56,000 220,000 Bitlis 3,000 124,000 Diarbekir 35,000 204,000 Kharbert 500 197,000 Van 1,500 215,000 Erzerum 1922 1914 Districts & Vilayets of Western Armenia in Turkey
  • 112. AFTERMATH AND PEACE
    • Wilson comes up with plan called 14 points
      • No secret treaties
      • Freedom of the seas
      • Countries need to reduce arms
      • Colonial powers should consider feelings of the people living there
      • ***League of Nations
  • 113. AFTERMATH AND PEACE
    • Europe accepts but the US denies and does not join the League of Nations
  • 114. VERSAILLES TREATY
  • 115. VERSILLE TREATY
    • Conference of leaders – Big four
      • US, Britain, France and Italy
    • Central Powers not invited
  • 116. TREATY OF VERSAILLES
    • Reduce size of German army
    • Germany to return Alsace Lorraine to France
  • 117. TREATY OF VERSAILLES
    • Troops would occupy Rhineland (German border) for 15 years
    • Poland became independent
    • War guilt clause – Germany had to pay reparations (war damages) to the allies
    • Other Boundry changes
      • Austria-Hungary broke apart
  • 118. TREATY OF VERSAILLES
    • Became countries
      • Czechoslovakia
      • Yugoslavia
      • Romania
      • Poland
      • Lithuania
      • Latvia
      • Estonia
      • Ottoman Empire broke apart – Iraq, Palestine, Syria, Lebanon
  • 119. TREATY OF VERSAILLES
    • **Huge problems with treaty – no one truly happy
    • **Germany could not pay
    • **World wide depression
    • **Treaty of Versailles leads to WWII