There had been relative peace in Europe for 100 years prior to WWI.
Like the nation’s buddy system
When one country goes to war then many countries become involved.
**Triple Alliance/Central Powers – Germany, Austria Hungary, Italy (Changes sides)
**Triple Entente/Allied Powers – France, Russia, Britain, Serbia, Belgium and USA
1. The Alliance System Triple Entente : Triple Alliance :
Two Armed Camps! Allied Powers : Central Powers :
The Major Players: 1914-17 Nicholas II [Rus] George V [Br] Pres. Poincare [Fr] Allied Powers : Franz Josef [A-H] Wilhelm II [Ger] Victor Emmanuel II [It] Central Powers : Enver Pasha [Turkey]
Europe in 1914
Rivalry between Britian and Germany – both sides build up military
Russia doubles size of army
***When countries build up their militaries war is inevitable!!!
2. Militarism & Arms Race Total Defense Expenditures for the Great Powers [Ger., A-H, It., Fr., Br., Rus.] in millions of £s. 398 289 268 154 130 94 1914 1910 1900 1890 1880 1870 1910-1914 Increase in Defense Expenditures 73% Germany 39% Russia 13% Britain 10% France
Nations competed with one another for colonies and raw materials
Britain and France VS Germany
***This constant competeing caused tension and unrest.
3. Economic & Imperial Rivalries
Intense feelings of pride for one’s country/nationality
Some wanted lands back where they had a lot of people living
Some wanted independence from countries that engulfed their culture
4. Aggressive Nationalism
Powder Keg of Europe
Austria-Hungary annexed Bosnia
This infuriated the Serbs
Archduke Francis Ferdinand (Austria-Hungary) is assassinated and Serbia is held responsible.
Pan-Slavism: The Balkans, 1914 The “Powder Keg” of Europe
Archduke Franz Ferdinand & His Family
The Assassination: Sarajevo
The Assassin: Gavrilo Princip
Austria-Hungary and Serbia go to war
Russia declares war on Austria-Hungary because they are allied with Serbia (Czar Nicholas does not believe that Germany – Kaiser Wilhelm (cousin of the Czarina) will declare war on Russia.
Who’s To Blame?
Germany – supporting Austria Hungary declares war on Russia and France because France is allied with Russia.
In order to get to France Germany invades Belgium which causes Britain to declare war on Germany
Germany’s grand plan to avoid a 2 front war.
Attack France fast before Russia has time to mobalize
The Schlieffen Plan
German Atrocities in Belgium
Mobilization It's a long way to Tipperary, It's a long way to go; It's a long way to Tipperary, To the sweetest girl I know! Goodbye, Piccadilly, Farewell, Leicester Square, It's a long, long way to Tipperary, But my heart's right there!
Home by Christmas!
No major war in 50 years!
A Young Australian Recruit
Recruits of the Central Powers Austro-Hungarians A German Soldier Says Farewell to His Mother
New French Recruits
A German Boy Pretends to Be a Soldier
Women and the War Effort
Financing the War
French Women Factory Workers
German Women Factory Workers
Working in the Fields
A Woman Ambulance Driver
Red Cross Nurses
Women in the Army Auxiliary
Russian Women Soldiers
“ Mata Hari”
Real Name: Margareetha Geertruide Zelle
Posters: Wartime Propaganda
Financing the War
A Multi-Front War
The Western Front: A “War of Attrition ”
3 year stalemate
Example – Battle of Verdun – Germans lost 330,000 – took 11 months
By 1916 there were 2 million casualities
The Western Front
Trench Warfare “ No Man’s Land”
Verdun – February, 1916
Each side had 500,000 casualties.
The Somme – July, 1916
60,000 British soldiers killed in one day.
Over 1,000,000 killed in 5 months.
War Is HELL !!
Sacrifices in War
Krupp’s “Big Bertha” Gun
The Eastern Front
Russians and Serbs VS Germans, Austrians and Turks
Germans had to fight on 2 fronts but they began to freeze to death in Russia.
Russia Pulls out because of Revolution
The Gallipoli Disaster, 1915
Turkish Cavalry in Palestine
T. E. Lawrence & the “Arab Revolt”, 1916-18
T. E. Lawrence & Prince Faisal at Versailles, 1918-19
The Tsar with General Brusilov
The “Colonial” Fronts
Sikh British Soldiers in India
Fighting in Africa British Sikh Mountain Gunners Black Soldiers in the German Schutztruppen [German E. Africa]
Fighting in Africa 3 rd British Battalion, Nigerian Brigade
Fighting in Salonika, Greece French colonial marine infantry from Cochin, China - 1916
COLLAPSE OF EASTERN FRONT
With Russia out the Central Powers put all of their resources into western front.
Situation looks grave until Italy and the US join forces with the allies.
America Joins the Allies
Woodrow Wilson want to reamain neutral
Wilson secrectly gives aide to Brits
Germans had declared unrestricted sub warfare
Lusitania is sunk – carrying 128 Americans – 1000 dead
Germans say the passenger ship is carrying munitions – Brits deny
Ship sinks in under 20 minutes
Germans also sink the Sussex
The Sinking of the Lusitania
Secret message from Germany to Mexico
If Mexico allies with the Central Powers it could gain New Mexico, Arizona and Texas
Land lost in 1848
**Telegram intercepted – Wilson asks Congress to declare war on Germany to “Make the World Safe for Democracy”
The Zimmerman Telegram
The Yanks Are Coming!
Americans in the Trenches
The War of the Industrial Revolution: New Technology
French Renault Tank
British Tank at Ypres
Allied Ships Sunk by U-Boats
The Airplane “ Squadron Over the Brenta” Max Edler von Poosch, 1917
The Flying Aces of World War I Eddie Rickenbacher, US Francesco Barraco, It. Rene Pauk Fonck, Fr. Manfred von Richtoffen, Ger. [The “ Red Baron ”] Willy Coppens de Holthust, Belg. Eddie “Mick” Mannoch, Br.
Curtis-Martin U. S. Aircraft Plant
Looking for the “Red Baron?”
Flame Throwers Grenade Launchers
Poison Gas Machine Gun
“ Art” of World War I
“ A Street in Arras” John Singer Sargent, 1918
“ Oppy Wood” – John Nash, 1917
“ Those Who Have Lost Their Names” Albin Eggar-Linz, 1914
“ Gassed and Wounded” Eric Kennington, 1918
“ Paths of Glory” C. R. W. Nevinson, 1917
German Cartoon: “Fit for active service!”, 1918
1918 Flu Pandemic: Depletes All Armies 50,000,000 – 100,000,000 died
END OF WAR
Germans lost millions of soldiers – running out of reserves
With the help of Americans – allies have many reserves
END OF WAR
1918 – Arabs fight against the Turks/Ottoman Empire
Italy changes sides and defeats Austria-Hungary
November 1918 – Germany signs armistice (agreement to end fighting)
11 a.m., November 11, 1918
The Somme American Cemetary, France 116,516 Americans Died
World War I Casualties
Turkish Genocide Against Armenians A Portent of Future Horrors to Come!
Turkish Genocide Against Armenians Turkish Genocide of Armenians (1914 - 1922) 387,800 2,133,190 Total 15,000 73,390 Trapizond District 163,000 194,000 European Turkey 70,000 309,000 Cilicia and Northern Syria 27,000 371,800 Western Anatolia Other Armenian-populated Sites in Turkey 16,800 225,000 Sivas 56,000 220,000 Bitlis 3,000 124,000 Diarbekir 35,000 204,000 Kharbert 500 197,000 Van 1,500 215,000 Erzerum 1922 1914 Districts & Vilayets of Western Armenia in Turkey
AFTERMATH AND PEACE
Wilson comes up with plan called 14 points
No secret treaties
Freedom of the seas
Countries need to reduce arms
Colonial powers should consider feelings of the people living there
***League of Nations
AFTERMATH AND PEACE
Europe accepts but the US denies and does not join the League of Nations
Conference of leaders – Big four
US, Britain, France and Italy
Central Powers not invited
TREATY OF VERSAILLES
Reduce size of German army
Germany to return Alsace Lorraine to France
TREATY OF VERSAILLES
Troops would occupy Rhineland (German border) for 15 years
Poland became independent
War guilt clause – Germany had to pay reparations (war damages) to the allies