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Closing The Western Frontier
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Closing The Western Frontier

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  • 1. The Closing of the Western Frontier Susan Pojer
  • 2. Essential Questions
    • What national issues emerged in the process of closing the western frontier?
    • Why does the West hold such an important place in the American imagination?
    • In what ways is the West romanticized in American culture?
  • 3. WESTWARD MOVEMENT After government was stable people in the east began to Move west even more than before. Manifest Destiny, Railroads, Adventure, free land and profit all lead to the growing need of Americans to migrate to the frontier. ***Why would the government offer free land to people out west?
  • 4. the Railroad builders
  • 5. RAILROADS
    • Transcontinental – East to West
    • Easier to get people out west – more willing to come.
    • Many came out west working on the railroads (Irish, Chinese, blacks, etc.)
  • 6. Railroad Construction
  • 7. Promontory Point, UT (May 10, 1869)
  • 8. the cowboys
  • 9. COWBOYS
    • Huge cattle population out west.
    • Government land could be used for grazing
    • Cattle had to be herded over long distances – hard life for cowboys.
  • 10. The Bronc Buster Frederick Remington
  • 11. Black Cowboys
  • 12. the GUNSLINGERS
  • 13. Colt .45 Revolver God didn’t make men equal. Colonel Colt did!
  • 14. Legendary Gunslingers & Train Robbers Jesse James Billy the Kid
  • 15. Dodge City Peace Commission, 1890
  • 16. the MINERS
  • 17. Prospecting
  • 18. Mining Centers: 1900
  • 19. Anaconda Copper Mining Co. (MT)
  • 20. Mining (“Boom”) Towns-- Now Ghost Towns Calico, CA
  • 21. The Cattlemen & the Sheep herders
  • 22. RANCHERS
    • Free land for cattle
      • Homestead Act – 160 acres free – must farm for 5 years and build a structure with a window and a door.
      • People would race for land – Oklahoma Land Rush (Boomers and Sooners)
  • 23. Homesteads From Public Lands
  • 24. RANCHERS CONT.
    • Ranchers – wealthy could use free government land
    • Issues between farmers and ranchers
    • Hard life
  • 25. The Cattle Trails
  • 26. Land Use: 1880s
  • 27. New Agricultural Technology “ Prairie Fan” Water Pump Steel Plow [“Sod Buster”]
  • 28. Barbed Wire Joseph Glidden
  • 29. The Range Wars Sheep Herders Cattle Ranchers
  • 30. The Farmers
  • 31. FARMERS
    • Homestead Act
    • Built fences to keep cattle out
  • 32. What is the Message of this Picture?
  • 33. The Realty--A Pioneer’s Sod House, SD
  • 34. Frontier Settlements: 1870-1890
  • 35. Minority groups in the West
  • 36. Black “Exoduster” Homesteaders
  • 37. Blacks Moving West
  • 38. The Buffalo Soldiers on the Great Plains
  • 39. A Romantic View
  • 40. The Buffalo Soldiers & the Indian Wars
  • 41. The “Chinese Question”
    • Exclusion Act (1882) - Oriental Exclusion Act - Chinese Exclusion Act
  • 42. the plains indians
  • 43. NATIVE AMERICANS DOWNFALL
    • LAND
      • Loss of land to westward movement
    • BUFFALO
      • Land blocked – killed for sport
    • DISEASE
      • Small Pox - #1 cause of death
    • OPINION
      • Fear – seen as uncivilized - “Only good Indian is a dead Indian”
  • 44. Treaty of Ft. Laramie (1851) Colorado Gold Rush (1859)
  • 45. INDIAN WARS
    • SAND CREEK MASSACRE
      • Col. John Chivington
      • Killed 450 Cheyenne (mostly women and children)
      • Chief Black Kettle tried to hold up white flag – it was ignored. “Kill and scalp all”
  • 46. Colonel John Chivington Kill and scalp all, big and little! Sandy Creek, CO Massacre November 29, 1864
  • 47. Capt. William J. Fetterman 80 soldiers massacred December 21, 1866
  • 48. Treaty of Medicine Lodge Creek (1867) 2 nd Treaty of Ft. Laramie (1868) Reservation Policy
  • 49. Gold Found in the Black Hills of the Dakota Territory! 1874
  • 50. BATTLE OF LITTLE BIG HORN
    • George Custer
    • 1876 – he lead a troop of 264 men toward a Sioux Camp
      • Sitting Bull waiting for him – Custer was surrounded and he and all the men were killed
      • **Greatest Indian Victory
  • 51. The Battle of Little Big Horn 1876 Chief Sitting Bull Gen. George Armstrong Custer
  • 52. CHIEF JOSEPH
    • Believed Black Hills could not be sold
    • Wanted Peace
    • Forced to run with people to Canada – many died
    • Eventually captured and forced to a reservation
  • 53. Chief Joseph I will fight no more forever! Nez Percé tribal retreat (1877)
  • 54. Geronimo, Apache Chief: Hopeless Cause
  • 55. Dawes Severalty Act (1887): Assimilation Policy Carlisle Indian School, PA
  • 56. DAWES ACT
    • Broke up Indian land – 160 acre units
    • Not allowed to sell land for 25 years
    • Schools set up to “civilize” – English, Christianity, etc.
  • 57. GHOST DANCE
    • Celebration – not a call to war
    • Vision that chief would drive white man away
    • Military concerned – Chief Sitting Bull killed
  • 58. Arapahoe “Ghost Dance”, 1890
  • 59. WOUNDED KNEE
    • Chief Big Foot led the Sioux away
    • Military rounded up 350 freezing and starving Sioux – taken to Wounded Knee SD.
      • Shot fired – 300 unarmed Indians killed and left to freeze. Many children butchered.
      • Ended Indian Wars.
  • 60. Chief Big Foot’s Lifeless Body Wounded Knee, SD, 1890
  • 61. Indian Reservations Today
  • 62. Crazy Horse Monument: Black Hills, SD Lakota Chief
  • 63. Korczak Ziolkowski, Sculptor Crazy Horse Monument His vision of the finished memorial.
  • 64. Mt. Rushmore: Black Hills, SD
  • 65. the myth & legend of the west
  • 66. The Traditional View of the West
  • 67. William “Buffalo Bill” Cody’s Wild West Show
  • 68. “ Buffalo Bill” Cody & Sitting Bull
  • 69. Legendary Female Western Characters Calamity Jane Annie Oakley
  • 70. The Fall of the Cowboy Frederick Remington
  • 71. what were the long-term effects of the westward experience?
  • 72. Destruction of the Buffalo Herds The near extinction of the buffalo.
  • 73. Yellowstone National Park First national park established in 1872.
  • 74. National Parks
  • 75. Conservation Movement John Muir With President Theodore Roosevelt
  • 76. Sierra Club Founded in 1892