FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF ADMINISTRATION AND SUPERVISION
FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF ADMINISTRATION AND SUPERVISIONIn the field of administration and supervision, PRINCIPLEis accepted as a fundamental truth.PRINCIPLE – is considered as a law, a doctrine, apolicy, or a deep-seated beliefs which governs theconduct of various types of human activities. ---- for the administrator and supervisor, it is veryimportant to have good principles, because these willserve as his guide in his reflective thinking and in hischoice of program of activities.
“IMPORTANT USES OF PRINCIPLES IN SCHOOL ADMINISTRATION AND SUPERVISION”1. Principles are means by which the administrator and supervisor proceed from one situation to another. ---- it means that in the operation or in administering/supervising functions, there is an organize step-by- step schedule or program of activities to be followed.2. Principles are instrumental in improving teaching-learning process. ---- since every administrator or supervisor as well as teachers want the best learning outcomes on the part of the learner, these principles will be of great help for the improvement of instruction and all other learning activities.3. Principles make for enormous economy of time and effort in choosing techniques to be used. ----- meaning principle directs us on what is the appropriate techniques/strategies to be used effectively in the operation of administrative and supervisory functions.
4. Principles eliminate much of the trial and error practices. ----- through it, we can avoid waste of time on what to do, but instead they give us direction or point of destination.5. Principles greatly aid in the discovery of new techniques. ----- they are the hypotheses that direct the search for new techniques in school administration and supervision.6. Principles are needed to guide the choice and sequence of the techniques at hand.7. Principles aid in the evaluation of techniques, for they furnish a broader basis by which to judge the techniques used in the school administration and supervision. ----- it is not only use to determine on what appropriate techniques to be used, but it can also serve as measurement / basis as to how effective is the technique or procedures.
8. Principles define the items, which must be scrutinized in evaluating the results. ----- this implies the better understanding of the fundamental principles and functions of school administration and supervision9. Principles are used to evaluate the success of administrative and supervisory programs. ------ administration and supervision are also directed and evaluated in terms of principles.10. Principles lead the administrators and supervisors to further activities for they are dynamic and not static. ------ being a teacher, we are also an administrator and supervisors in the real classroom situation, we must see to it that our principles and techniques used are open for any changes and improvement.
GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF ADMINISTRATION AND SUPERVISION School administrator ad supervisor must be democratic. ---- means we have to recognize individual differences, respect one’s personality, and extend consideration to all. It aimed to give the fullest measure of freedom to the individual to develop his maximum capacities, so long as the development does not interfere or create conflicts with the welfare rights of others. ---- there is a cooperative interaction so that the best minds among members will emerge.
Characteristics of Autocratic and Democratic Administrator / Supervisor presented by Koopman, Mial, and Minser: Autocratic Democratic 1. Thinks he can sit by himself and see 1. Realizes the potential power in thirty or all angles of problems. Fifty brains. 2. Does not know how to use the 2. Knows how to utilize that power. experience of others. 3. Cannot bear to let any of the strings 3. Knows how to delegates duties. of management slip duties from his fingers. 4. Is so tied to routine details that he 4. Free himself from routine details in seldom tackles his target job. order to run his energy to creative leadership. 5. Is jealous of ideas; reacts in one of 5. Is quick to recognize and praise an idea that several ways when someone comes from someone else or others. makes a proposal. 6. Makes decisions that should have 6. Refers to the group all matters that concern been made by the group. the group.
7. Adopts paternalistic attitude 7. Maintains the position of “I friendly, helpful towards the group. adviser both on personal and professional matters. 8. Expects hero-worship, giggles with 8. Wishes to be respected as a fair and just with delight at his attempts individual as he respect others. at humor and so forth. 9. Does not admit even to himself that 9. Consciously practices he is autocratic. democratic practices. 10. Sacrifices everything teachers, students10. Is more concerned with the involved than with freedom system. growth of progress to the end of a smooth-running individuals from annoyances.
11. Gives other to a few opportunities 11.Believes that as many for leadership as possible. individuals as possible should have opportunities to take responsibility and exercise leadership.12. Is greedy for publicity. 12. Pushes others into the foreground so that they taste success.
School Administration and Supervision must be cooperative. ----- this implies group action. There is strength in cooperation and progress results from combined efforts of all. (administrator, supervisor, teachers, parents, & pupils) ----- there is also a cooperative effort that encourages greater efficiency. ----- group productivity that is getting something done which could not be done by a single individual. ----- there is a realization that not only teachers, but administrators, supervisors and principals as well, are good listeners in the observation of classroom problems.
School Administration and Supervision to be effective, it must be scientific. ----- emphasizes that the use of the scientific principle and that the solution of problems should be based on facts. ----- the effort is to discover rather than to prove. ----- the best way to determine whether a thing is present or not, is to “look and see” but sometimes we see only those things we look for, so being an administrator and supervisor we must be fact- conscious. .
School Administration and Supervision must be based on accepted educational philosophy. ----- PHILOSOPHY – is a background of theory of knowledge and beliefs which explains and justifies a selected way of life. ----- educational philosophy affects the thinking and resultant actions of the leaders who control public school’s administration and supervision. ----- example is the Dewey’s educational philosophy that “education is life, growth a social process and a reconstruction of human experiences” which becomes now the guiding philosophy of the Phil. Educational System
----- the outstanding point here is, the integration of personality which possess a well-developed standard of values, giving consistency and unity to all thinking, feeling, and acting. ----- this guiding philosophy of our educational system is well-outlined in the Philippine Constitution in terms of objectives namely: development of moral and personal discipline civic conscience vocational efficiency citizenship training 5. School Administration and Supervision must be creative. ----- the term creative here means initiating, suggesting, devising, inventing, experimenting or producing something new. ----- creative administration and supervision encourages growth. This provides opportunity for the teachers and pupils to grow through the exercise of their talents and abilities under expert and professional guidance and encouragement.
6. Administration and Supervision must be evaluated in the lights of their results. ----- it has been pointed out that only by knowing as accurate as possible the results of instruction can the process of education be improved. ----- the effectiveness of administration or supervision for example may be determined either through application of criteria designed to judge the value of the activities performed or through the measurement of the immediate outcomes of the programs. Responsibility and control in matters of school administration and supervision must run parallel throughout the system. ----- this principle of parallelism of duties is the particular sphere to which the school administrator or supervisor is assigned and for which he is responsible. ----- in the distribution of functions between the School Principal and Division Superintendent for example this principle governs. The principal is the in charge of the school in all phases of activities as a school; such as class programs, student organization, promotion and supervision of instructions. However, it is also the duties of the superintendent to hire or appoint teachers, opening classes, or any other related function outside the school. -----more often, division and district supervisors come into conflicts with the boundary line of their respective functions. To avoid this, there be a deeper understanding and clear definition of duties.
School Administration must be distinguished from Supervision. ----- as we know that these two are not synonymous in meanings. Misconceptions regarding this, causes more misunderstanding and possibly more neglect of duties. There must be a clear and complete specifications of functions. School Administration and Supervision must be preventive and constructive. ---- any help that an administrator or supervisor can give to the teachers so that they may avoid mistakes is commendable. This kind of assistance is especially valuable to the beginners in the school or to the new comers to the teaching position. School Administration and Supervision must be centered on Child growth and development. -----this much concerned to the teachers being an administrator also in the classroom activities. We must aimed to provide conditions favorable to the growth and development of the children or learners. We should guide the children to determine their difficulties and potentialities, and the most suitable type of education which will make them possible to grow mentally, physically, morally, emotionally and socially.
School Administration and Supervision must be flexible. ----flexibility here is characterized by its being adopted and readily adjust to meet the requirement of changing conditions. This also covers the following: Flexibility of school building – the adaptability of the school subjects as to the needs and interest of the pupils . Flexibility of objectives and teaching procedures – the adaptability of aims and methods to meet the conditions of different schools, teaching personnel, student population and communities. Flexibility of instructional materials and devices – the adaptability differences of the pupils and varied training and experiences of the teaching personnel Flexibility of the school requirement and standard norm – the adaptability of procedures to fit the individualities of the pupils, teachers, supervisors and administrators.
LEGAL BASIS OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATION AND SUPERVISION Education as a State Function --the most important single factor in our education is the assignment of ultimate responsibility to the state. In our Constitution, education is considered as a state function. It states that “all educational institution in the Philippines shall be under the supervision of and subject to regulation by the state”. -- this means that the Philippine Congress has large powers in the organization, support, and control of our public and private schools. It can determine the types of schools to be established regulate the school organization prescribe the curriculum designate standards for buildings determine the ages of children to attend school fix the qualifications of teachers establish salary schedules provide tenure and set the age of retirement
--the state is therefore, the agency which regulates the administration, supervision, and instruction in public and private schools. The school administrators and supervisors should be fully informed of the school laws of the Philippines, since many of their duties responsibilities are set forth and define in these laws. The legal enactment in this country which bears the status of the school administration and supervision are the following: Laws Related to School Organization and Control: The Philippine Constitution – the most important legal basis of school administration and supervision. Section 8 of Article XV states that “all educational institutions shall be under the supervision of and subject to regulation by the state”. -- to comply this Constitutional mandate, the task of regulating and supervising all educational institution in the Philippines is delegated to the Department of Education, and through it, the two bureaus under its jurisdiction namely; Bureau of Public Schools – administers and supervises the public elementary, secondary, normal and technical schools of secondary and collegiate level. Bureau of Private Schools – regulates and supervises the private schools, colleges, and universities.
Act No. 74 of the Philippine Commission – the administration of Philippine Government during the early part of the American occupation was in the hands of the Philippine Commission whose members were appointed by the President of the United State. This Commission, on January 21, 1901, passed Act No. 47, Section 1 of which established a Department of Public Instructions, which have executive control and general supervision of all schools already established by the Military authorities. Act No. 477, passed on October 8, 1902, which amended Section 1 of Act No. 74, created the Bureau of Education, which assumed the general control, and supervision of public schools. This Bureau was changed to the Bureau of Public Schools by Executive Order No. 94 as authorized by the Reorganization Act of 1947.
The designations of Director and Assistant director were made on October 26, 1906 Act no. 1407 authorize the appointment of First Assistant Director and Second Assistant director of education. However the Reorganization Act of 1917, Act 2668, Section 1, abolished the position of the Second Assistant Director of Education leaving Director and Assistant Director of Education as heads of Bureau of Education which is now known as the Bureau of Public Schools. Section 3 of Act No. 74 – divided the entire archipelago into school divisions. The city of Manila considered as one division. Section 6 of Act No. 74 – made the Division Superintendent the executive officer of the public schools in the division. Section 3 of Act No. 74 – authorized the sub-division into school districts. Every municipality shall constitute a school district and it shall be the duty of the municipal council thereof to make as much as possible ample division, by local taxation for the support of all schools established within its jurisdiction (Passed on January 21, 1901.) 3. Commonwealth Act No. 586 – this act is known as the Educational Act of 1940 which provides the legal basis of the present six-year elementary course. According to the provision of this law, all children who enroll in the primary grades must remain in school until they shall have completed the primary grades. (Approved August 7, 1940.)
4. Republic No. 896 - this Act is known as the Elementary School Act of 1953. This provides for compulsory education of seven years and made it mandatory on the part of the parents to enroll their children in public schools upon attaining seven years of age. Executive Order NO. 94 – specially charges the Secretary of Education with administration of the public schools system and the supervision and regulation of private schools, colleges and universities in the country. The Bureau of Public Schools directly administers and supervises the public school system while the Bureau of Private Schools regulates and supervises all private schools in the country. (Issued on October 4, 1947) 5. Republic Act No. 1124 – this Act created the Board of Education. According to this law, the Board of Education is a policy-making body. The Board is charged with the duty “formulate, implement, and enforce general educational objectives and policies; coordinate the offerings, activities and functions of all educational institutions in the country with a view to accomplishing an integrated, nationalistic and democracy-inspired educational system in the Philippines.
Presidential Decree No. 1- made a thorough revamp of the executive branch of the government. This decree abolished the Bureau of Public Schools, Bureau of Private Schools and the Bureau of Vocational Education, and created the Bureau of Elementary Education, Bureau of Secondary Education, and the Bureau of Higher Education. A director heads each bureau. To facilitate administration and supervision of our educational system, the whole Philippines is divided into 11 regional offices. Regional Director and Assistant Regional Director head each region. All regional offices are under the direct control of Secretary of Education.
Laws Related to the Teaching Personnel Commonwealth Act No. 117 - this Act places the public school teachers under Civil Service Rules and Regulations as to their examination, appointment, transfer, separation, suspension, and reinstatement. This Act also protects the teachers tenure of office. (Approved, No. 13, 1936). Commonwealth Act No. 578 – this law recognizes supervisors, teachers, and professors of public and recognized private schools as persons in authority. Republic Act No. 660 – this Act amended Section 12 of the Commonwealth Act 186. This Act provides for automatic retirement at the age of sixty-five years, if the teacher has completed fifteen years of service, and if he is not, he shall be allowed to continue service until he has completed fifteen years unless he is otherwise eligible for disability retirement. Upon specific approval of the President of the Republic of the Philippines, an employee may be allowed to continue to serve after the age of 65 years if he possess special qualifications and his services are needed.
Republic Act No. 842 – (Amended Republic Act No. 312) – This Salary Act of 1953 (Republic Act No. 842) provides for a revised salary scale and automatic salary increases for public school officials, teachers, and other school personnel of the government. This law allocates the grades and salary scale for the various kinds of positions. (Approved, May 1, 1953). Republic Act No. 1079 – this law provides that civil service eligibility shall be permanent and shall be no limit. This Act modifies the present civil service rules and regulations. (Approved, June 15, 1954) Republic Act No. 1080 – this Act states that the bar examination and the board examination which require the candidates to have four years of college training and two experience are considered equivalent to the first grade regular examinations; and those requiring less than four years of preparations are equivalent to the second grade regular examination. (Approved, June 15, 1954).
Republic Act No. 4661 – this Act is known as Teacher’s Meeting Law. This law provides that the teacher’s meeting shall not be called on Saturdays. This concept is based on the contention of teachers that Saturdays is not a working day as observed by the government employees. (Approved in 1965) Republic Act No. 1080 – this Act amended Sections 562 and 564 of the Revised Administrative Code. It prescribes legal hours of labor to 8 hours a day, 5 days a week or 40 hours a week. It also states that government employees may be allowed five (5hrs) of service from April to June 15 inclusive upon the discretion of the President of the Republic. However, because of the nature of the services, teachers of vocational schools such as Agricultural Schools are not embraced by the provision of this Act. Since the teachers in this school render service throughout the year, they are placed on the vacation-sick leave basis. Memo of the Bureau of Vocational education No. 9, s, 1968 was issued to this effect. (Approved on June 22, 1967).
Republic Act No. 4670 – this Act is known as the “Magna Carta for Public School Teachers” and shall apply to all public school teachers except those on professional staff of state colleges and universities. Pursuant to the provisions of Section 30 of the same Act , the Secretary of Education issued “Rules and Regulations for the Magna Carta for Public School Teachers under Department Order No. 25, s 1966. (Approved on June 18, 1966).
Republic Act No. 4968 – this law increases the retirement benefit. Among the important provisions of this Act are: increase in the basic monthly annuity from P20 to 30.00 use of the average salary for the last three years instead of the last 5 years granting the lump sum of five year annuity payment to the retirees age 63 and a three year lump sum payment at the age of 60 authorized computation of accumulated vacation and sick leave based on the highest salary received retirement. Republic Act No. 5168 – this is known as the Public School Teachers Salary Standardization Act. This law upgrading of WAPCO salary ranges and fixed progressive rates of salary from existing salary rates to the maximum under the adjusted range. (Approved in 1967). Republic Act No. 6040 – this Act amended Section 24 of Civil Service Act of 1959. This Act states that no person shall be appointed to nor to hold two or more full-time positions in the government including the government owned or controlled corporations or offices whether in temporary or permanent capacity or with or without salary.
Republic Act No. 6110 – this Act is called the Omnibus Tax Law. Officials and employees of the government and those rendering services in religious, educational charitable institutions, hospitals and sanitariums. Those members of the judiciary who teach in law schools are required to pay professional tax. (Took effect since Sept. 1, 1969). Republic Act No. 6111 – this Act is otherwise known as Philippine Medical Care Act of 1969. Under this Act the Philippine Medical Care plan has been established to consist of two basic programs namely: Program I – for membership of the GSIS and SSS Program II – for those who are not qualified for benefits under Program I
Laws Related to the School Curriculum Department Order No. 5 s 1955 – Secretary of Education provides that religious instructions may be scheduled during the school session in such a way to enable the teacher in religion to teach in the public school building for more than thirty minute period a day. The law authorizes also the division superintendent to fix the time for such religious instruction. Republic Act No. 343 - this Act provides for the inclusion of Spanish as a course or subject in all high school private or public in the Philippines. (Approved February 26, 1949). Republic Act No. 1425 – otherwise known as Rizal Law. This requires that courses on the life and woks of Jose Rizal, particularly in his novels on NOLI ME TANGERE and EL FELIBUSTERISMO shall be included in the curricula of all private, public schools, colleges and universities. (Approved June 12, 1956).
Republic Act No. 1381 – states that all students enrolled in the course Law, Commerce, Liberal Arts, Foreign Service Education are required to complete at least 24 units of Spanish. (Approved June 22, 1957). Department Order No. 19, s 1970 – increased time allotment for language arts (English) from 30 to 40 minutes in Grades 1 and II, from 40 to 60 minutes in Grades III and IV and from 60 to 80 minutes in the intermediate grades. This Order approved also the changing of the terminology of “Arithmetic” into “Elementary Mathematics” with the aim of enabling Filipino child to achieve deeper understanding of the science of numbers and mathematical concepts. Presidential Decree No. 6-A - known as Educational Development Decree of 1972. Under this, education will aim to attain the national development goal particularly the acceleration of economic development and social progress to assure the maximum participation of all people in the attainment and enjoyment of the benefits of growth and to strengthen national consciousness and promote desirable values of the people.
Laws Related to Students or Pupils Republic Act No. 896 – this Act provides for compulsory education of seven years and made it mandatory on the part of the parents to enroll their children in public schools upon attaining seven years of age. (Approve June 20, 1953). Republic Act No. 4090 – providing for state scholarship in Science, Arts, and Letters for poor but deserving students creating a State Scholarship Council to Integrate Systematize Administrator and implement all Program of Scholarship, and Appropriate Funds thereof. Republic Act No. 6139 – this Act is known as the “Tuition Fees Law”. This Act regulates the increased of tuition fees in private schools, colleges and universities.
Presidential Decree No. 146 – this Decree is known as the National College Entrance Examination was promulgated with no other purpose but to regulate the admission of students to all four year or five year degree programs in the country so as to improve the quality of higher education and to distribute students among different courses, thus meeting the manpower needs of the country. Based on this Decree, only students who passed the entrance college test should be admitted in the professional course requiring at least four or five years of study.