A Brief History of Haiti<br /><ul><li>Columbus landed on Hispanola in 1492
In the 17th century, the western portion was occupied by the French who introduced African slave labor to grow sugar and coffee throughout the 18th century.
In 1804, Haiti was declared independent from France and became the second republic in the Western hemisphere.
Slavery was outlawed but the U.S. would not recognize the new republic.
In 1806, first of MANY Coup d’etats…complicated shifts of power on the island until new constitution in 1874 which resulted in a “Hatian Renaissance”
1915: U.S. occupies Haiti after several years of instability because Haiti owed money to American banks.
U.S. dissolved the National Assembly, replaced the Haitian Constitution, and essentially reinstituted slavery.
U.S. officially pulled out in 1934 but left behind a ruling class to protect its interests and controlled external finances until 1947.</li></li></ul><li>A Brief History of Haiti<br /><ul><li>Several dictatorships followed until the election of Dr. Francois Duvalier (“Papa Doc”) in 1957…he soon established another dictatorship.
In 1961, Kennedy froze aid to Haiti because Papa Doc was believed to be pocketing aid money.
In 1971, Papa Doc died and his 19-year-old son “Baby Doc” took control and led Haiti further into ruin while enriching himself.
In the 1980s, AIDS broke out in Haiti, resulting in further stigmatism.
In 1986, due to widespread unrest, Baby Doc was exiled and several provisional governments ruled until 1990.
In 1990, a charismatic Catholic Priest, Jean-Bertrand Aristide was elected in a landslide vote which was believed to be one of the few truly free elections in Haitian history.
Less than a year later he was overthrown by a military coup, only to be returned to power by a US-led invasion in 1994.
He was succeeded by his ally Preval in 1996 but then started a new party and was re-elected in 2000.
In 2004, he was once again overthrown and taken out of the country on a US plane. A UN force was introduced to keep the peace.</li></li></ul><li>Haiti Trip Goals<br /><ul><li>Medical education exchanges
Presentations between Haitian and American residents and attendings
Clinical experiences in hospital/clinic settings
Vitamin A Deficiency (VAD)<br /><ul><li>Most common cause of blindness in developing countries
WHO estimates 13.8 million children have some visual loss due to VAD
Public health problem in more than 50% of countries
250,000-500,000 malnourished children go blind each year from VAD
Approximately half of which will die within a year of going blind
Prevalence of night blindness due to VAD is also high among pregnanet women in many developing countries</li></li></ul><li>Complete blindness with VAD<br /><ul><li>Night blindness is an early manifestation
Goal: “to eradicate childhood blindness due to Vitamin A deficiency on the planet by the year 2020. Operation 20/20 was launched in 2007 and will cover 18 countries. The program gives children two high dose vitamin A and anti-parasitic supplements (twice a year for four years), which provides children with enough of the nutrient during their most vulnerable years in order to prevent them from going blind and suffering from other life-threatening diseases caused by Vitamin A Deficiency”</li></li></ul><li>
Your Future as a Global Health Physician<br />Every pediatric physician has something to offer<br />Global Health does not mean International Health<br />Global Health does not mean traveling<br />Global Health in 10 years may be very different than what it is now<br />But you are not trained nessesarily for resource poor health<br />But the AAP & ACGME say you must be<br />So what are YOU going to do?<br />