Since it was the first outbreak of swine flu a few
days ago until now, things have worsened
considerably. Find and answer 16 questions
developed by the Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention (Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention, CDC), with everything you need to know
about the swine flu.
FROM : http://www.univision.com/content/content.jhtml?cid=1921847
How many swine influenza viruses are
Like all influenza viruses, influenza viruses
are constantly changing swine. Pigs can be
infected by avian influenza viruses and
human, as well as the swine influenza virus.
When the influenza virus to infect other
species of pigs, the viruses can be grouped
(ie change your genes) and new viruses may
arise from the mixing of influenza viruses
from pigs with human or avian influenza.
Over the years there have been various
changes in swine influenza virus. At present,
there are four main subtypes of influenza
virus type A isolates from pigs: H1N1, H1N2,
H3N2 and H3N1. However, most influenza
viruses isolated recently from pigs have been
the H1N1 virus.
What and how often attacks the
What is the swine flu?
Swine influenza (swine flu) is a respiratory
disease of pigs caused by the influenza
virus type A, which causes common
influenza outbreaks among animals. The
swine influenza virus to pigs seriously ill,
but death rates are low. These viruses can
be spread among pigs throughout the year,
but most of the outbreaks occur during late
autumn and winter, like the outbreak in
people. The virus of classical swine
influenza (H1N1 influenza virus type A) was
first isolated from a pig in 1930.
Do humans can become infected by swine influenza?
The swine influenza virus does not usually infect humans.
However, there have been sporadic cases of swine influenza
infections in humans. Usually, these cases occur in people
who have direct exposure to pigs (ie, children who come to
fairs or pigs in the swine industry workers). In addition,
there have been some documented cases of people who
have infected the swine influenza virus to others. For
example, in 1988, a suspected outbreak of infectious swine
influenza in pigs in Wisconsin caused multiple infections in
humans and, if not there was an outbreak in the community,
we identified antibodies that tested HIV transmission from
patient to patient care staff care that had close contact with
How often are swine influenza
infections in humans?
In the past, the CDC received reports of
about one case of infection with swine
influenza virus in humans or each two
years in the United States, but in
December 2005 to February 2009 have
reported 12 cases Swine influenza
infections in humans.
What are the symptoms of swine influenza
The symptoms of swine influenza in people are
similar to those of seasonal influenza in humans
and common among these include fever,
lethargy, lack of appetite and cough. Some
people with swine influenza have also reported
runny nose, sore throat, nausea, vomiting and
Do people can get influenza from eating pork or pork products?
No. The swine influenza virus is not transmitted by food. You can not get influenza
from eating pork or pork products. There aren’t risks if you eat pork and its derivatives
have been handled and cooked properly. If you cook pork to an internal temperature of
about 71 ° C (160 ° F), eliminating swine influenza virus, as well as other bacteria and
How is the swine flu?
The influenza virus can be transmitted directly from pigs to people and people to pigs.
Infections in humans by the influenza virus from pigs are more likely to occur in people
who are in close contact with infected pigs, such as working in pig farms and those
involved in the booths of pigs fair exhibits of farm animals. The transmission of swine
influenza from person to person can also occur. It is believed that this transfer is equal
to that of seasonal influenza in people, ie mainly from person to person when people
infected with influenza cough or sneeze. People can become infected by touching
something with virus influenza and then put their hands in their mouth or nose.
What information we have on the
transmission of swine influenza from
person to person?
In September 1988, a healthy pregnant
woman aged 32 was hospitalized for
pneumonia and died 8 days later. The swine
influenza virus H1N1 was detected. Four days
before becoming ill, the patient had visited an
exhibition of pigs at a county fair where he
was a seudogripal widespread disease among
In follow-up studies, 76 percent of exhibitors
from pigs which were tested had antibodies to
swine influenza infection found, although in
this group there was no serious illness.
Further studies indicated that one of three
employees, healthcare personnel who had
contact with seudogripal patient had mild
disease and antibodies against swine
How are diagnosed swine
influenza infections in
To diagnose an infection with
swine influenza type A, usually
is due to collect a sample of
respiratory secretions between
the first 4 to 5 days of the
disease appeared (when an
infected person is most likely to
spread the virus). However,
some people, especially
children, can spread the virus
for 10 days or more. For the
identification of swine influenza
virus type A is necessary to
send the sample to the CDC for
What medications exist to treat people infected with swine influenza?
Four different antiviral drugs that are approved in the United States for the treatment of influenza:
amantadine, rimantadine, oseltamivir and zanamivir. Although most of the swine influenza
viruses have been sensitive to the four types of drugs, the seven most recent viruses of swine
influenza Asylees people are resistant to amantadine and rimantadine. Currently, the CDC
recommends the use oseltamivir or zanamivir for the prevention and treatment of infection by the
virus of swine influenza. You can find more information on recommendations for treatment on
site www.cdc.gov / flu / swine / recommendations.htm.
What other cases of swine influenza outbreaks are there?
Probably the best known case is the outbreak of swine flu among soldiers at Fort Dix, New
Jersey, in 1976. This virus caused pneumonia, proven by x-rays, at least 4 soldiers and 1 death,
all these patients previously enjoyed good health. The virus is transmitted to close contacts in an
environment of basic training, and no transmission occurred outside the group of basic training.
It is believed that the virus remained there one month and gone. Unknown source of the virus, the
exact date of admission to Fort Dix, the factors that limited its transmission and duration. The
Fort Dix outbreak may have been caused by the entry of a virus from one animal to a human
population under stress in close contact with people with overcrowded facilities and during the
winter. The swine influenza virus type A contained a soldier at Fort Dix was named A / New
The swine influenza virus H1N1 is equal to the H1N1 influenza virus in humans?
No. The influenza virus H1N1 swine are antigenically very different from the H1N1 virus in
humans, therefore the seasonal influenza vaccines for people they do not provide protection
against swine influenza virus H1N1.
How is the swine influenza in pigs?
It is believed that the swine influenza virus is transmitted
mainly through close contact between pigs and possibly
contaminated objects that are moving between infected and
healthy pigs. Herds of pigs with swine influenza infections
continued and that the flocks are vaccinated against this
disease can be sporadic disease may be asymptomatic or only
mild symptoms of infection.
What are the signs of swine influenza
The signs of swine influenza may be the
sudden onset of fever, depression, cough
(grunt), secretions from the nose and eyes,
sneezing, difficulty breathing, swelling or
redness of eyes and loss of interest in food.
How often is the swine influenza in pigs?
The swine influenza virus H1N1 and H3N2 are endemic among pig populations in the United
States and is an industry that deals on a regular basis. Outbreaks among pigs normally
present in the cold months (late autumn and winter) and sometimes with the addition of a
new pig herds vulnerable. Studies have shown that the H1N1 swine influenza is common
among populations of pigs around the world and that 25 percent of the animals have antibody
evidence of infection. Studies in the United States have shown that 30 percent of the
population of pigs tested have evidence of antibodies for H1N1 infection. To be more precise,
has established the presence of antibodies to H1N1 infection in 51 percent of pigs in the
north of the central region of the United States. Infections in people by the virus of the H1N1
swine influenza are rare. At present, there is no way to differentiate in pigs produced
antibodies in reaction to the vaccination of antibodies generated by infection with swine
Although swine influenza virus H1N1 have been found in pig populations since at least 1930,
swine influenza virus H3N2 began to appear among the pigs in the United States until 1998.
The H3N2 virus first entered the pig populations by humans. The current influenza virus
H3N2 swine are closely associated with the H3N2 virus in humans.
Is there a vaccine for swine flu?
There are vaccines that are administered to pigs for prevention of swine influenza. However,
there is no vaccine to protect people against swine influenza. It is possible that the seasonal
influenza vaccine provides partial protection against H3N2 virus but not against the H1N1
virus of swine influenza.
Oseltamivir (INN) (pronounced /ɒsəlˈtæmɨvɪr/) is an antiviral drug that is used in the treatment and
prophylaxis of both Influenzavirus A and Influenzavirus B infection. Like zanamivir, oseltamivir is a
neuraminidase inhibitor. It acts as a transition-state analogue inhibitor of influenza neuraminidase,
preventing progeny virions from emerging from infected cells.
Oseltamivir was the first orally active neuraminidase inhibitor commercially developed. It is a prodrug,
which is hydrolysed hepatically to the active metabolite, the free carboxylate of oseltamivir (GS4071). It was
developed by US-based Gilead Sciences and is currently marketed by Hoffmann-La Roche (Roche) under
the trade name Tamiflu. In Japan, it is marketed by Chugai Pharmaceutical Co., which is more than 50%
owned by Roche. Oseltamivir is generally available by prescription only.
Roche estimates that 50 million people have been treated with oseltamivir.
The majority of these have been
in Japan, where an estimated 35 million have been treated.
With increasing fears about the potential for a new influenza pandemic, oseltamivir has received substantial
media attention. Governments, corporations, and even some private individuals are stockpiling the drug.
Production is currently sufficient to meet the demand for seasonal influenza and for government stockpiling.
It is possible that shortages could recur in the event of an actual influenza pandemic.
1.^ "Roche update on Tamiflu for pandemic influenza preparedness". Roche Media News. 2007-04-26.
http://www.roche.com/med-cor-2007-04-26. Retrieved on 2008-02-01. "Tamiflu has now been used in over 50 million influenza
2.^ Tomoko Otake (2007-03-20). "Tragedy swirls around Tamiflu". The Japan Times Online. http://search.japantimes.co.jp/cgi-
bin/fs20070320a3.html. Retrieved on 2008-02-01. "oseltamivir phosphate ... is enormously popular in Japan, where a total of 35
million people have taken it"
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