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  • 1. AZURAWATI BINTI WOK ZAKI 2011313879EDU702: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY EDU7701A2TEACHERS AND STUDENTS’ PERCEPTIONS TOWARDS PARAPHRASTIC APPROACH TO TEACH LITERATURE IN ESL CLASSROOM AZURAWATI BINTI WOK ZAKI M.Ed. (Teaching English as a Second Language) A Proposal Submitted to Prof Madya Dr. Teoh Sian Hoon In Fulfillment of the Requirement of EDU 702 Research Methodology course Universiti Teknologi MARA 20th June 2012
  • 2. AZURAWATI BINTI WOK ZAKI 2011313879EDU702: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY EDU7701A2 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION1.0 INTRODUCTION In Malaysia Education or Curriculum, literature is one of the most important parts inlanguage learning either in Malay Language or in English. Since ten years of the introductionof English Literature, students are exposed with different types of reading genre in order forthem to learn better. Literature should be already a part of students’ life. Literature wasinitially the main source of input for teaching in language classes in the era of GrammarTranslation Method but since then it has been dropped down the pedestal. In fact with theadvent of structuralism and audiolingual method, literature was downplayed and ergodiscarded to the periphery (Khatib, 2011; Collie & Slater, 1987, p.2). The Ministry ofEducation has explains the reason of putting the literature component in KBSM Englishlanguage Curriculum Specifications, (2003). The syllabus specification is as follows,“Language for aesthetic purposes enables learners to enjoy literary texts at a level suited totheir language proficiency and develops in them the ability to express themselves creatively”. English literature benefits students very well. This is because English literature canintroduce students to a range of aspects, not only of the English language but also ofEnglish culture. Widdowson (1975) further defines literature as a subject which has theprincipal aim of developing the capacity for individual response to language use. Whenstudying Literature, students can explore not only the language aspects such as vocabularyitems but also that language can also be used for specific and aesthetic purposes. Studentswill be familiar with the concepts of beat, meter and rhythm of the poems. In fact, they could
  • 3. AZURAWATI BINTI WOK ZAKI 2011313879EDU702: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY EDU7701A2learn various themes in literature that they can relate to themselves or their ownsurrounding. The familiarity with those concepts can improve students writing as they areable to appreciate and apply these ideas. The four main skills in learning language can alsobe improved with learning literature which is the reading, listening, speaking and writingskills. The oral work based on literary texts may help improve students’ speaking skills(Mario Saraceni, 2003). At the same time, the study of Literature can provide students with a fresh andcreative angle with which to approach their studies in particular and their lives in general.The themes of the literary texts to which learners can bring powerful response from their ownexperience (Brumfit & Carter, 1989). Students learn to be more independent in theirliterature learning as literature could make them eager to know about the authors or thedetails of the stories or poems. According to Khatib (2011) stated that there are nine benefitsthat learners can gain while learning literature such as a) Authenticity; the writing in drama, novels, short story stimulate learners imagination and the language used is related to learners themselves. b) Motivation; learners gain motivation from the stories and dramas that they have learnt as moral values will be inculcated too. c) Cultural/Intercultural Awareness and Globalization; learners could add more knowledge about other cultures and be more aware of variety in other cultures. Literature could promote learners to explore on others politics, sociology and economy. d) Intensive/Extensive Reading Practice; learners can improve their reading skills and promote reading habits among themselves.
  • 4. AZURAWATI BINTI WOK ZAKI 2011313879EDU702: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY EDU7701A2 e) Sociolinguistic/Pragmatics Knowledge; Sociolinguistic and Pragmatic competence are two of the main components of the communicative competence models. Hence, special attention is needed to be directed to this component. Literature due to its authenticity is equipped with sociolinguistic and pragmatic information (Khatib, 2011). f) Grammar and Vocabulary Knowledge; reading short stories, drama, novel as well as poem could help learners to improve their grammar and enlarge their vocabulary. g) Language Skills; at the same time learners could also improve their language skills especially in English. Literature can promote learners to write their own short stories or poems based on what they have read and learnt. h) Emotional Intelligence; learners will be exposed with different genre of stories. Feelings and emotions are involved that help to nurture learners Emotional Intelligence. i) Critical Thinking; learning literature is not only reading the texts given, but learners need to share their ideas and opinions towards what they have read and learnt. Therefore, it promotes critical thinking among learners in order to analysis the story for example better. However some students meet difficulty in learning English Literature. Sometimesstudents are faced with a cultural reference that is totally alien to them, which has no parallelin their own culture, such as the notion of autumn to the Malaysian students, as found inRobert Frost’s poem, The Road Not Taken (Siti Norliana, Roszainora & Chittra, n.d).Students have to deal with the complexity of the content and style of literary texts; they are
  • 5. AZURAWATI BINTI WOK ZAKI 2011313879EDU702: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY EDU7701A2also confronted with linguistics and aesthetic unfamiliarity. Some students they refuse toexplore on their own, therefore the learning process take more time and become harder forthem. Van de Berg (1990) emphasizes the value of literary reading passages as the basisfor second language learning. For high proficiency level of students, literature is anadvantage for them to learn the second language better and dig the knowledge throughliterature. Literature becomes a barrier for the low proficiency students to learn the secondlanguage better. According to Radzuwan, Malachi, & Shireena Basree (2010), even withoutthe incorporation of the literature component into the syllabus, these students were alreadystruggling learning the language and the incorporation of the literature component was seenas adding another burden. Students already have difficulty to comprehend the Englisharticle, therefore, literature is another high English level for them. Literature could demotivatethelow proficiency students since they need to handle extra component of the language.Lack of vocabulary contributes to the difficulty as the language used for Literaturecomponent must be higher. According to Smita (2010) stated that there are few problemsencounter in teaching literature in non-native context such as: a) British or English cultural references are not known or familiar to the learners. They have problems to understand better what the author is trying to convey. b) Racial prejudices about the writer or about his country. The learners may have difference assumptions towards the writer; therefore they hardly understand the writer’s intentions of writing. c) The past ideas and references in literature may create misunderstanding in the mind of the learners. The topic is outdated to the learners. d) Unfamiliar with history or social upheavals of the country make learners lose interest in study literature.
  • 6. AZURAWATI BINTI WOK ZAKI 2011313879EDU702: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY EDU7701A2 On the other hand, the complexity of the subject matter is harder if teachers who areteaching literature are unwilling to prepare their lessons as it should be; and this planningprocess should include considerations for students’ need and interest as well as their level ofproficiency. Therefore, how teachers improve their literature lesson and present it to theclassroom can seriously affect the students’ learning process. Teaching literature needsmore creative ideas from teachers. Teachers can not rush in teaching literature too. Theobjectives of learning must suit students’ level of proficiency. However, the obstacle inlearning literature actually can be encountered effectively with the assist of the suitableapproach of teaching Literature by the teachers. An effective teaching process and a veryconducive learning environment of the classroom are undeniably teachers’ responsibility(Fauziah & Jamaluddin, 2009). If teachers are aware with the responsibility that they need touphold, they should always find ways to reduce the burden that students’ carry in learningliterature. Students’ perception and observation can work in practice and become a part ofexploratory studies (Eken 1999; Sidhu 2003) Meanwhile Murat (2005) stated teachers can consider few steps in order to helpstudents learning literature better. First, he should determine the aim of language teaching inrelation to the needs and expectations of the students. Teachers can set the aim by askingthe students orally, interviewing or even giving them questionnaires. Teachers can alwaysask the students in order to get their opinion in learning literature. From the opinion given,teachers can adjust and adapt with the class. Second, he should select the appropriatelanguage teaching method, teaching techniques, and classroom activities. The problem withteachers nowadays, they do not investigate students’ preferences in learning literature.Different approaches should be considered in teaching literature. Different students will havedifferent way of learning. Teachers can always try different style of teaching to attractstudents’ attention.
  • 7. AZURAWATI BINTI WOK ZAKI 2011313879EDU702: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY EDU7701A2 Then, the teacher should select the literary texts relevant to the aim and theobjectives of his teaching. Teachers should not just depend on the literature text providentby the Ministry of Education but they can sometimes use different texts which have similarobjectives of teaching to vary the lesson. If the text introduced by the Ministry of Education istoo difficult for students, teachers can come out with simple text first which similar to thecompulsory text. Therefore, students can slowly learn literature. At the same time, Murat (2005) also stated that at elementary levels, for example,students should be given simplified or specially written stories. Simplified text will help weakstudents to understand the literature text better. Teachers may work together with studentsin comprehending the literature text better. According to Fauziah and Jamaluddin (2009)stated that one important aspect of teaching literature is the teacher’s creativity inapproaching certain texts or themes. Teachers should aware of their responsibility to try outthe best approach as well as the best methods to attract students’ attention in learningliterature. Teachers as the expert one in literature should play their roles in helping studentsto learn literature better in ESL classroom.1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY Day by day, there are many efforts have been done by the Ministry of Education inorder to help students. The latest one is the new selection of literature texts. One of thepanels to choose the current texts for literature learning is a student. This is to giveopportunity to students to choose the texts that they favour most in learning literature.Literature text is important as a motivation for students to learn literature.Literary texts are very motivating due to its authenticity and the meaningful context itprovides (Khatib, 2011; Ghosn, 2002, Van, 2009). Literature deals with things which areinteresting in nature and includes little if any uninteresting things (Khatib, 2011; Maley,
  • 8. AZURAWATI BINTI WOK ZAKI 2011313879EDU702: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY EDU7701A21989a). Motivation is especially achieved when students are exposed to what they reallyenjoy. Experience shows that students are highly motivated when they are exposed toliterary texts for language learning purposes (Khatib, 2011). Therefore, in order for studentsto engage better with literature, the best texts should be considered based on students’preferences. At the same time, it is undeniably that teachers also crack their head in order to makeliterature no longer becomes one of the boring lessons in English classroom. Many materialsare provided to help students to understand the literature texts better. Many books arebought in order to get the best references. At the same time, many websites and blogs canhelp teachers to prepare for suitable teaching materials. However, students nowadays whomostly rely on teachers always wait for their teachers to tell the stories or poems inclassroom. Especially for weak students, they have the difficulty to read and understand thetexts on their own. They also refuse to find the difficult words in dictionary. Student centeredlearning is hardly to be practiced. Again, as teacher centered learning is always the suitableone especially for low proficiency level of students, teachers need to make more preparation. Therefore, obviously teachers play important role to help students in learningliterature as students always need guide from teachers. Teachers need to take promptaction first. Teaching should reflect and cater to students’ need, both individually andcollectively. Therefore when teachers teach, they always have to refer to the nature of thestudents they have and the level of their students’ ability and receptivity (Fauziah &Jamaluddin, 2009). Different approaches could help students to engage with literature.According to Maley (1989a) in Khatib (2011) noted few approaches that can be consideredby teachers in teaching literature such as: a) The critical literary approach; focus on the literariness of the texts including such features as the plot, characterization, motivation, value, psychology, background, etc.
  • 9. AZURAWATI BINTI WOK ZAKI 2011313879EDU702: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY EDU7701A2 b) The stylistic approach; focus on literature as ‘text’.Then, Amer (2003) in Khatib (2011) stated the other two possible approaches in teachingliterature such as: a) The Story Grammar Approach (SGA); there is an interaction between the reader and the text. b) Reader Response Approach (RRA); based on a premise of teaching literature for literature’s sake not for language learning and development purposes. However, According to Radzuwan, Malachi, & Shireena Basree (2010), paraphrasticapproach is the most favourable approach employed by teachers in teaching literature insecondary school. Teachers paraphrase the text in order to ensure students are able tounderstand what they are learning that day. This study will focus on the paraphrasticapproach and strategies employed in the teaching of the literature component in English tothe less proficient group to examine if the approach help to meet the aims of incorporatingthe literature component into the English language paper.1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM As Literature has been introduced since ten years ago, the achievement of studentsin Literature is still not like what is expected such as express their critical thinking creatively.Experience and observation show that students do not understand what they are learningand what they have learned in classroom regarding to Literature. At the same time, they donot know how to appreciate the beauty of literature accordingly. In literature text such asshort story, novel and poem, there are lots of new culture, political, historical perspective.Unfortunately, students do not take those as extra knowledge as they only learn literature forthe sake of the examination. They tend to memorize all the answers but hardly understand
  • 10. AZURAWATI BINTI WOK ZAKI 2011313879EDU702: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY EDU7701A2what they have learnt. Plus, they only see literature as an ordinary reading text and do notreally explore the fundamental gist of learning literature. Students might learn newvocabulary, grammar of English language and so on but they hardly understand what isliterature is. One of the reasons that students are not able to discover the underlying principle ofliterature is because of the teachers’ style of teaching. This is because some of the teachersmay just focus on the grammar, vocabulary and skill. They may ask students to memorizecertain part of the story in order for them to answer the examination questions better.Teachers might neglect the elements in the literature itself. The elements that include in theliterary texts make literature interesting to be explored. With the introduction of literature,teachers should be more creative in order to attract the students’ attention to learn Literatureas well as appreciate the literature works. Teaching literature should enable the teachers tobe more creative in their teaching style. For example, if the theme of the poem is related tonature, teachers could bring students outside the classroom to be closer to the environment.More group work can be done in literature learning. There are many approaches that can be employed to teaching Literature. Nowadaysinformation and technology communication (ICT) could become one of the main concerns toteaching Literature. Teachers should aware of the importance of lCT in teaching andlearning process. Power point presentation could give clear picture regarding the literaturetexts or the poems that need to be taught. As the Literature might be difficult for students,teachers play an important role to help the students to understand and appreciate literaturebetter. In reality, teachers are too obsessed with examination; therefore the teaching andlearning process are more to exam oriented. There is no fun, no creativity and also noexploration of the Literature. Students cannot savor the honey taste of literature. The mainconcern is always to ensure that students are able to answer the examination questions welland pass the examination with flying colours. Students totally depend on the teachers when
  • 11. AZURAWATI BINTI WOK ZAKI 2011313879EDU702: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY EDU7701A2it comes to learning second language. Teachers only focus on finishing the syllabus andcause them to become boring and stereotype. At the same time, some teachers do not know what is the best approach to teachLiterature in ESL classroom. The problem affects the teaching and learning process inclassroom. Therefore, students could not gain both language and appreciation of theLiterature well. Teachers tend to use the first language in order for students to understandthe literary text better. It is the famous option that teachers choose to teach Literature in ESLclassroom. Therefore, this situation shows that teachers do not motivate the students toappreciate Literature and they lack of methods in teaching Literature. Teaching Literature byusing the first language will not help the students much in order to understand it in depth.1.3 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES This study aims to investigate teachers and students’ perceptions towards the approachused by the teachers used to teach literature in ESL classroom. The two objectives are asfollows: 1. To investigate students’ perception to the paraphrastic approach employed to teach literature in the ESL classroom. 2. To investigate teachers’ perception to the paraphrastic approach employed to teach literature in the ESL classroom.
  • 12. AZURAWATI BINTI WOK ZAKI 2011313879EDU702: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY EDU7701A21.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS This study aims to gain a general overview of the approaches and strategies employedby teachers in teaching literature to Form 4 students in secondary schools. The researchquestions for this study are as follows: 1. Why do teachers prefer to use Paraphrastic Approach in teaching literature? 2. How students accept Paraphrastic Approach in learning literature? 3. What are the strengths and weaknesses of using the implemented approach?1.5 OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONLITERATURE: Literature is pieces of writing that are valued as works of art, especiallynovels, plays and poems (in contrast to technical books and newspapers, magazines, etc.)ESL: ESL is English as a Second Language.PARAPHRASTIC APPROACH: Paraphrastic approach deals with the surface meaning ofthe text. Teachers whose using this approach may paraphrase or re-word the story in similarlanguage or translating it into other languages.1.6 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY Although this research was carefully prepared, there are still limitations andshortcomings for this research. First of all, the research will be conducted to Form 4 students which have differentlevels of proficiency. They may have difficulty to understand the Paraphrastic Approach thatteachers used in teaching literature.
  • 13. AZURAWATI BINTI WOK ZAKI 2011313879EDU702: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY EDU7701A2 Second, the population of the experimental group is small, only 5 schools involvedthat might not represent the majority of the students in the state. Third, since the questionnaire designed to measure the students’ attitude towards theteaching of Literature might give useful information about the approach used and thebenefits to them; it seems not to provide enough evidence of the students’ actual behavingtowards the learning of Literature in ESL classroom.1.7 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY Every party plays an important role in order to achieve the goal in teaching andlearning Literature. The changes and development of curriculum has brought a newdimension to education as well as to Literature learning. Therefore, the findings of this studycould benefits the teachers as well as other professionals in the education field in seekingsolution of the problem faced by English teachers in teaching Literature as well as thestudents. Then, the curriculum development centre can use the result of findings in order toimprove the syllabus. Most important thing, teachers could consider certain approacheschosen that could help them in teaching literature based on the strengths and weaknessesdiscussed. Therefore, teachers could improve their teaching strategies and students will gainthe benefits from the teaching and learning process. At the same time, the findings could also be as the guideline for the trainee teachersor fresh graduate teachers to prepare themselves with the suitable approaches in teachingand learning process later. Then, the Faculty of education in universities could use thefindings in order to modify the course outline for the future teachers. Finally, this study couldproduce teachers who are aware of the strengths and weaknesses of approaches used inteaching literature in future.
  • 14. AZURAWATI BINTI WOK ZAKI 2011313879EDU702: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY EDU7701A21.8 CONCLUSION This first chapter highlights the main topics that related to the study. It introduces therole of literature in ESL classroom as implemented in English subject in Malaysiansecondary schools. This chapter will also be described in details the background of study,problem statement, research objectives, research questions, significance of study, limitationsand the operational definition.
  • 15. AZURAWATI BINTI WOK ZAKI 2011313879EDU702: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY EDU7701A2 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW2.0 INTRODUCTION The aim of this research is to obtain information on teachers and students’ perceptionon the use of paraphrastic approach in teaching literature as well as the strengths andweaknesses of paraphrastic approach. In this chapter two, there includes the idea of paraphrastic approach and theimplementation involved in educational field as well as some other researchers andprofessionals overall opinion regarding paraphrastic approach in teaching and learningliterature.2.1 PARAPHRASTIC APPROACH Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary defines it as “to express what sb has said orwritten using different words, especially in order to make it easier to understand”. Animportant process of rewriting source texts is paraphrasing or restating a source text in one’sown words with a credit to the original author (Shi, 2012). According to Cambridge Learner’sDictionary paraphrase is “to express something that has been said or written in a differentway, usually so that it is clearer”. Paraphrasing can be defined as paraphrastic approach asaccording to Diana and Mohamed Amin (2007), the paraphrastic approach deals with thesurface meaning of the text. Teachers whose using this approach may paraphrase or re-word the story in a simpler language or even translating it into other languages. Therefore, inother words paraphrase approach is simplifying the text with simple language or translatesthe text to other language that audience can understand better. As long as paraphrase is
  • 16. AZURAWATI BINTI WOK ZAKI 2011313879EDU702: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY EDU7701A2used to re-tell the story and translate is also considered during the lesson, those can beparaphrastic approach in language learning. A paraphrase is an indirect quotation (Larson, 2004). Then, Bazerman (2010) hadcome out with the definition of paraphrase which is putting the meaning of the text into newwords makes you pay close attention to the authors ideas and thereby improves your levelof understanding. In other words, when paraphrasing one will keep the author’s idea in mindbut may tell it in different way which makes the idea is simpler to be understood. MeanwhileHigher Score (2007) defined “Paraphrase” is a verb which means to re-write a phrase orsentence with the same meaning but using different words. Paraphrase approach is also used for listening, speaking, reading and writing. One ofthe most commonly recommended pedagogical interventions is the teaching of paraphrasing(Keck, 2006; Campbell, 1990; Currie, 1998; Howard, 1996; Hyland, 2001; Johns & Mayes,1990). Keck (2006) also stated that paraphrasing is considered by many to be an importantskill for academic writing, and some have argued that the teaching of paraphrasing mighthelp students avoid copying from source texts. Vacca and Vacca (1999) stated, "Studentswho experience the integration of writing and reading are likely to learn more content, tounderstand it better, and to remember it longer" (p. 262). Obviously paraphrasing isimportant in other high level examinations. In TOEFL iBT, for instance, paraphrasing is animportant skill in the reading section, in the listening and above all in the speaking andwriting section of the test (Higher Score, 2007). Paraphrasing can also be taught to students in order for them to familiar with theparaphrastic approach especially when teachers use it in teaching other skills too. Forexample in learning literature, students tend to memorize the summary from the literaturetext or reference books, it is not impossible that the one whole class will come out with thesame kind of answer for summary of one short story. Instead of students memorizing thesummary, it is better to teach them paraphrase the summary into the useful and simpler
  • 17. AZURAWATI BINTI WOK ZAKI 2011313879EDU702: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY EDU7701A2words. At the same time, paraphrasing could help them to understand and write the storybetter. Other than that, paraprastic approach is also used in interview with children. Thisshows that paraphrasing could help children to understand what is being said or what istrying to convey effectively. According to Evans and Roberts (2009) in Evans, Roberts, Priceand Stefek (2010) stated that previous research has experimentally assessed the influenceof different types of paraphrasing on children’s event reports and found that some styles ofparaphrasing are indeed more beneficial than others. Then, paraphrasing may motivatechildren to expand their responses with two main ways proposed (Evans, Roberts, Price &Stefek, 2010; Evans & Roberts, 2009). Firstly, paraphrasing may encourage rapportbetween the child and interviewer. Therefore, in ESL classroom, paraphrasing mayencourage rapport between students and teachers. Secondly, paraphrasing may transfercontrol to the child as in ESL classroom students have the power to use their own words toconvey what they understand from one story.2.2 IMPORTANCE OF PARAPHRASING Paraphrastic approach as well as paraphrasing that is used especially beneficial tothe students. As Evans and Roberts (2009) promoted two main ways to promote the use ofparaphrasing that give benefits to students. First and foremost, paraphrasing may encouragerapport. Good rapport can be built in ESL classroom. For example, when students giverespond to teacher in telling the short story in their own words, then teacher restates orparaphrase what the students have been said, students feel motivated as what the teacherrestates highlight that the teacher is listening to the students well. Students will feelappreciated and supported by the teacher. Thus, students feel comfortable in class andrespond more during the lesson. Another benefit of paraphrasing is transferring control to
  • 18. AZURAWATI BINTI WOK ZAKI 2011313879EDU702: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY EDU7701A2children or students. For example, students have the power to use their own words and re-word what they understand from the text given. Student centered learning can be achievablewhere students will be able to share their ideas with others in class by using the words thatthey know or paraphrase from the source that they have read. Meanwhile according to Bronshteyn and Baladad (2006) emphasised that the use ofparapharasing as add-ons to information literacy instruction in order for students to gainproficiency in thinking critically about a source and expressing their own voice with theconvention of parenthetical citation. In ESL/EFL classroom, when teachers use paraphrasticapproach, it helps students to gain information better and think critically to any instructionsgiven. Teaching paraphrasing as a means of learning how to write a research paperBronshteyn and Baladad (2006). Paraphrasing can also be beneficial for students in writingespecially in academic writing. For ESL/EFL classroom paraphrasing writing could help themto use simple words with simple phrases that can be understood better in writing. Therefore,students will be more confident to use the language as well as to practice it in classroom. Other than that paraphrasing is also a mean to understand Bronshteyn and Baladad(2006). The ability to paraphrase help students in their writing work as well as it can providethe writer with a wide range of stylistic alternatives. Harris and Sipay (1990) stated that"being able to restate anothers thoughts in ones own language clearly and unambiguouslyis a crucial test of whether the thoughts were understood" (p. 537). Therefore, any difficultideas or unclear thoughts become easier to understand. As paraphrasing uses simplerwords and using students own words, it helps students in future to understand what theyhave read and written. Others may also get the benefits and understand one idea clearer.Then, students also can learn to borrow from a source without plagiarising (Bronshteyn &Baladad, 2006). Campbell (1990) clearly stated that the teaching of paraphrasing, amongother techniques, is essential to help students avoid committing cases of plagiarism.Plagiarism is always the main problem especially in academic writing. Currie (1998) claimed
  • 19. AZURAWATI BINTI WOK ZAKI 2011313879EDU702: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY EDU7701A2that students often fall back on copying as what they might see as a safe strategy when theyare attempting to fit into the academic world. This is because students hardly understandhow to rephrase what the source written in their own words according to their understanding.However, paraphrasing skill can help students to vary their sentences based on other sourcebut with their own ideas. Students can be creative and critical in playing with choice of wordsthat at the same time to convey the author’s meaning wisely. Therefore, plagiarism can beavoided in academic writing. Larson (2004) stated three important reasons of paraphrasing. First and foremost,paraphrase can be the way to restate a difficult passage the reader may not understand. Thekey word is ‘restate’ or ‘re-word’ the passage into a simpler passage where other people canget the idea better and grab the gist of the passage. This is to support the reader to read andunderstand rather than read without understanding what the passage is all about. Then,paraphrase can be the way to explain or interpret concepts or unfamiliar terms. There arecertain concepts that are explained in difficult or complex sentences that make the reader orlistener hardly understand. This obviously happens when students who are reading a storybook or novel such as in Shakespeare’s works, students hardly understand certain conceptor terms used in the story. Therefore, paraphrasing could be one of the best way toelaborate the concepts or unfamiliar terms in simpler words based on the level of thestudents. The third reason proposed by Larson (2004) is to make abstract facts and ideasconcrete. Some ideas proposed by some authors might be too vague and hardly to beunderstood. Paraphrasing again helps to identify the main points and explain the ideasclearly.
  • 20. AZURAWATI BINTI WOK ZAKI 2011313879EDU702: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY EDU7701A2 2.2.1 THE IMPORTANCE OF PARAPHRASING FOR ELL English language learner (ELL) always needs method to help them to understand the target language better. According to Perles (2009), it is important to use paraphrase to help English language learners because paraphrasing is one of the main methods that ELLs will be able to use to clarify that they have understood something correctly. Munro (2008) has identified paraphrasing as a useful strategy for students with reading difficulties. Paraphrasing can be one of the ways to measure students’ understanding especially for literature text. The example given by Perles (2009), if a bank teller explains to an ELL the terms of a loan, the ELL should learn to clarify by saying, “So what I understand from what you’ve said is... ” and to paraphrase what was heard. The same applies in many areas of life, including academic work, social settings, and professional situations. Therefore in literature learning in ESL/EFL classroom, students may tell the story by telling the summary by using their own words. Students may clarify what they have read into simplest words and sentences that later become their own interpretations of the story. At the same time, Perles (2009) also suggested that students write down their paraphrasing sentences. This is to prepare the students in order to convey what they have read into their words effectively. Perles (2009) also proposed that if the students are not able to paraphrase well, teacher may help the students by providing them a backward web graphic organizer. Thus, students may fill in the graphic with the main information that they got from their reading as a guideline then explaining on their own words.
  • 21. AZURAWATI BINTI WOK ZAKI 2011313879EDU702: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY EDU7701A22.3 SKILLS AND TECHNIQUES TO PARAPHRASE In order to use the paraphrastic approach, one must know the skills to paraphrase.According to Bronshteyn and Baladad (2006), there are three skills which are needed inorder to paraphrase. Firstly, one must have the knowledge of parenthetical citation format.According to Aage Hansen (1957) in Foget (2002) stated that parenthetical phrases (andasides) may be characterized as ”words, phrases, or sentences which are ’on another level’compared to the surroundings (sentence, utterance) in which they are inserted. Theseparenthetical phrases are spoken in a lower tone and/or with pauses preceding and followingthem.” Therefore, in ESL/EFL classroom teacher may use appropriate intonation withdifferent phrases that can be understood by students. At the same time, students will alsolearn the language which suit their level and might be simpler as what paraphrasing is. Secondly, one who wants to paraphrase must have the experience and ability inrestating ideas with synonyms in one’s own voice. In order to paraphrase, it is so importantthat the meaning of the idea used based on others’ must be clear or synonym. This isbecause when people paraphrase the idea is still the same but the way they write or tellmust be differently. Thirdly, experience introducing concepts, or knowledge of stocktransitional phrases. One must be able to use some concepts in paraphrasing. Then the useof transitional phrases is also important so that one can write or use the words effectively. Atthe same time, transitional phrases will make the paraphrasing becomes more authentic andnot only copy from others’. Once the students or teachers master these three skills, they are able to paraphrasebetter. At the same time, they will be able to come out with a good piece of writing and evenit is easier for them to understand what they are trying to tell. Therefore the recipients canalso get the benefit where the paraphrasing should ease them to understand one’s ideabetter. The closer they get to what the speaker is saying, the more a real interchange ofideas takes place (Bazerman, 2010). For example, in learning short story or drama, teacher
  • 22. AZURAWATI BINTI WOK ZAKI 2011313879EDU702: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY EDU7701A2might paraphrase the summary of the story first in their own words. This will benefit thestudents to grab the idea better from the teacher instead of cracking their head on their ownwith high level of English for certain students. Bazerman (2010) mentioned that paraphrasing will help you to communicate themeaning of a difficult passage. When you go on to make your own argument, it will allow youto refer to another writers thoughts while you maintain control of the focus and tone of theargument. In other words, people can convey the difficult meaning to the easiestunderstanding when paraphrasing and make reference to the author’s idea to focus on thebasic idea of the author. We have to recognize the writers way of thinking and his or herspecial interests (Bazerman, 2010). This is to ensure that we are conveying the correct ideathat the author presented. Paraphrasing is useful in the application of rules and proceduresbecause it presents the information in a different and more simplified way (Maryam &Hossein, 2012). At the same time, Bazerman (2010) also came out with two techniques that can beused in doing paraphrasing. Firstly, substituting synonyms can be the first draft ofparaphrasing. One may use the synonym words to replace certain words from the author’swriting. Therefore, again, plagiarism can be avoided. Then, restructuring the sentence mightlead to a more total paraphrase. After drafting with synonym words replacement, thearrangement of sentences can be done effectively to make the sentence structures differthan the author’s. The ideas still maintain but the way of conveying differs. Without thatcontrol of core meaning, a rewritten sentence can easily turn into gibberish (Bazerman,2010). Pecorari (2008) claimed, ‘‘the problem may not be that one group has a mistakenperception, but that two groups have different perceptions’’ (p. 10). The final touch afterthose two techniques is checking the meaning either it fits what the ideas conveyed by theauthors or not. This is so important to avoid any other misunderstanding from the main idea.
  • 23. AZURAWATI BINTI WOK ZAKI 2011313879EDU702: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY EDU7701A2 Then, Higher Score (2007) stated few of paraphrasing methods that can beconsidered in paraphrasing effectively. The first method is use different vocabulary with thesame meaning. It is as what the earlier techniques that one can use the synonyms to replacethe word. However, one should be careful with the overall meaning and the sentences mightbe unnatural English sentences. Thus, other people might not get what the person is tryingto tell with the new paraphrasing sentences. At the end of the day, paraphrasing mightcontribute to misunderstanding problem. For example, if students want to rephrase whatthey have read in the book regarding one short story, if they paraphrase wrongly, surely theymight lead to factual error of the story. Then, the second method of paraphrasing proposed by Higher Score (2007) ischange the words of order. It is like restructuring the sentences after replacing the wordswith the synonym words. The meaning must be the same with the idea proposed by theauthor. However, the problem that may occur is grammatical problems. This is because onemust know what should be added and what should be omitted when changing the words oforder. Students might face this kind of problem, as they may neglect certain words or unsurewith the correct words of order. Meanwhile the third method of paraphrasing is use differentgrammar. According to Higher Score (2007), if you change the grammar and make an error,usually the reader will understand what you mean. However, if you change the vocabularyand make an error, often the reader will not understand what you mean. In this method, onemust familiar with parts of speech. All the skills and methods proposed are interrelated. Paraphrasing can be done withthe use of the basic techniques such as replacing the words, arranging the sentences andchecking the grammatical error. Teachers may have no problems in paraphrasing especiallyin teaching literature in ESL/EFL classroom to make students understand the literaturecomponent better. However, students need to be taught those few skills to avoidmisunderstanding of ideas.
  • 24. AZURAWATI BINTI WOK ZAKI 2011313879EDU702: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY EDU7701A22.4 PARAPHRASING ANDSIMPLIFIED LITERATURE TEXT Literature text is known with the complex sentences and different kind of writing.Some students have difficulties to read and understand the literary text better especially thelow proficiency students. As paraphrasing is also defined as re-word the ideas in simplewords, it is can be considered as simplified words. Therefore, simplified text has beenintroduced in order to help the students to understand literature text better for instance, ‘ThePrisoner of Zenda’ which has thinner text for students to read as well as ‘Catch If You Can’Novel. The majority of L2 learning texts at the beginning and intermediate levels still dependon simplified input, and many material writers and L2 specialists continue to emphasize thepractical value of simplified texts, especially for beginning and intermediate L2 learners (e.g.,Johnson, 1981, 1982; Shook, 1997; Young, 1999; Croosly, Louwerse, McNamara,McCarthy, 2007). The use of simplified text is not only famous in Malaysian Education forliterature but it has been used widely for L2 learners especially the beginner. At the same time according to Croosly, Louwerse, McNamara, McCarthy (2007)stated that simplified text consists of the cognitive mechanisms which mimic the languagefound in caretaker talk and teacher talk and help the language learner acquire a language ina relatively structured way. Therefore, obviously the words and sentences used in simplifiedtext are much easier and more to the beginner (students) level. As simplified text is more toteacher talk, it is more to what teacher paraphrase in classroom when explaining about astory in ESL/EFL classroom. The simplified texts benefit L2 learners because they excludeunnecessary and distracting idiosyncratic style without suffering a loss of the valuablecommunication features and concepts that are found in real texts (Croosly, Louwerse,McNamara & McCarthy, 2007). In simplified text, the difficult words have been replaced withsimpler words and sentences have been paraphrase to the simplest one. The distractingidiosyncratic (personal) style has been decreased. For example, in Shakespeare’s works,the old English text might be replaced with the modern one. The purpose is to make the
  • 25. AZURAWATI BINTI WOK ZAKI 2011313879EDU702: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY EDU7701A2reader understand the words better. Thus, students have no problem to understand the storyor drama on their own with the help of dictionary. Then, simplified texts are often seen as valuable aids to learning because theyaccurately reflect what the reader already knows about language and have the capacity toextend this knowledge (Davies & Widdowson, 1974; Croosly, Louwerse, McNamara &McCarthy, 2007). In the making of simplified text, the author must paraphrase the story forinstance based on the familiar words used by students as well as based on students’ level.They are not expected to learn too many difficult words that may not motivate them to readand study the literature text better. The aim of simplified text is to encourage students toread better. At the same time simplified text is used to attract students to love learningliterature in ESL/EFL classroom. Therefore, the paraphrasing plays important role to comeout with a good understandable text for students. Simplified texts also contain increased redundancy and amplified explanation (Kuo,1993; Croosly, Louwerse, McNamara & McCarthy, 2007). Usually students or the L2 readershave problem in understanding the literature text is because the text is too long withredundancy or repetition of the idea. Some of the vivid explanation about the characters orthe plot and setting might trouble and confused the students. However, this problem can beovercome with the use of simplified text. Simplified text usually emphasises on the main ideaof the story and the important information needed by the readers. For instance, if studentsare given ‘East of Eden’ to read and learn, they may hardly finish the novel with hundreds ofpage. Plus, they may have difficulty to understand the flashback that could lead to repetitionfor them and make them confused regarding the timeline of the story. Therefore, simplified text can help students to understand better and get the mainidea of the related story better. The paraphrasing technique used in simplifying the text helpto promote the new way of learning literature to students.
  • 26. AZURAWATI BINTI WOK ZAKI 2011313879EDU702: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY EDU7701A2 2.5 CONCLUSION The review stated by the researchers, authors and journalist give more ideas in theused of Paraphrastic Approach in teaching Literature in ESL/EFL classroom. Theimportance, ideas, benefits as well as techniques used could help the learners in order touse the approach in writing and at the same time to use in understanding the literature textbetter. Plus, this approach is also help teachers in conveying their lesson better to achievethe objective of teaching literature.
  • 27. AZURAWATI BINTI WOK ZAKI 2011313879EDU702: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY EDU7701A2 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY3.1 INTRODUCTIONThis study is to investigate the perception of teachers and students towards paraphrasticapproach used in teaching literature. Therefore, this study focuses on finding the strengthsand weaknesses of the approach used in teaching literature in ESL classroom. This chapterwill discuss the research design, the method of data collection and also the method(s) ofdata processing or the analysis of the data in greater detail.3.2 RESEARCH DESIGN The research design focuses on combination of quantitative and qualitative methods.Hence, it involves triangulation designs to find agreement and validation of thequestionnaires. Triangulation is an approach to research that uses a mixture of more thanone research strategy in a single investigation. Triangulation is chosen as a researchstrategy to assure completeness of findings or to confirm findings. The research design canbe summarized as in Figure 3.1
  • 28. AZURAWATI BINTI WOK ZAKI 2011313879 EDU702: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY EDU7701A2 A specific topic will be chosen based on the related literatures and a conceptual framework will be developed for the study.. Research Question 1: Why do teachers prefer to use Paraphrastic Approach in teaching literature? Research Question 2: How students accept Paraphrastic Approach in learning literature? Research Question 3: What are the strengths and weaknesses of using the implemented approach? Adapt and adopt questionnaires from related literature. Meetings with core-person in the area of study to obtain the validity of questionnaire Conductiong pilot study to check reliability of questionnaire Distributing validated questionnaires to respective samples, classroom observation and interviews. Conducting data analyses a) Descriptive Analyses b) Pearson-Correlation Findings and discussions in final report Figure 3.1 Research design of the survey research
  • 29. AZURAWATI BINTI WOK ZAKI 2011313879EDU702: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY EDU7701A23.3 DATA INSTRUMENTATION The instruments consist of survey questions, interviews as well as classroomobservation. Qualitative approach used in this study will be the main approach. Likert Scalewill be used for the questionnaires that the questionnaire was adapted from two previousstudies on using literature in the language classrooms by Zubaidan and Shaidatul Akma(2010) and Diana and Mohamed Amin (2007). It is the suitable method to investigate therespondent attitudes and opinions. Likert scaling presumes the existence of an underlying(or latent or natural) continuous variable whose value characterizes the respondents’attitudes and opinions (Clason & Dormody, n.d). The research results will be descriptively presented students and teachers’perception towards paraphrastic approach will be revealed. Besides that, this research alsoconsist of the respondents views based the interviews on the strengths and weaknesses ofparaprastic approach in teaching literature in ESL classroom.3.3 METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION The study involves quantitative and qualitative data analysis. Descriptive statisticalanalysis, inferential statistics such as Pearson Correlation and the Independent Samples T-Test, will be used for the quantitative data. Classroom observation field notes will becompiled. Meanwhile each observation will be summarized and interpreted accurately. Theinterview transcripts later will be grouped and will be nicely quoted to strengthen the basis ofargument. The data collection will be done based on the four steps: a) a set of questionnaires will be given to the students and teachers as the prior to the study in order to investigate teachers and students’ perception towards the paraphrastic approach in teaching literature.
  • 30. AZURAWATI BINTI WOK ZAKI 2011313879EDU702: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY EDU7701A2 b) classroom observation will be done in order to look at the strengths and weaknesses of the paraphrastic approach used in teaching literature. c) Interview will be done with the teachers in order to get their opinion or perception towards the paraphrastic approach that has been used in teaching literature. At the same time, the interview will also cover the strengths and weaknesses of the approach used. The summary of data collection is shown in Figure 3.2 Distributing Questionnaires to Students Classroom Observation Interview with Teachers concern Figure 3.2 Summary of data collection procedure
  • 31. AZURAWATI BINTI WOK ZAKI 2011313879EDU702: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY EDU7701A23.4 THE METHOD(S) OF DATA PROCESSING/ ANALYSIS The quantitative and qualitative data will be examined by using different kind of mode ofanalysis. The questionnaires will be analysed by using the statistical analysis software(SPSS). The qualitative data for the observation and interview will be grouped, coded andverbatim based on thematic analysis according to Aronson (1994) with four steps: a) collect the data will be collected from the talk session. From the transcribed conversations, patterns of experiences can be listed. This can come from direct quotes or paraphrasing common ideas, (Aronson, 1994). b) identify all data that relate to the already classified patterns. The talk that can be fits under precise pattern is acknowledged and placed with the corresponding pattern. c) combine and catalogue related patterns into sub-themes. Themes are identified by "bringing together components or fragments of ideas or experiences, which often are meaningless when viewed alone" (Aronson, 1994; Leininger, 1985) d) build a valid argument for choosing the themes. Related literature will help in choosing the best themes. Inferences can be made from the interview or therapy session as information gained by referring back to the literature. The findings will be discussed in order to identify and report as accurately as possible the perceptions of students and teachers towards the use of paraphrastic approach in teaching literature in ESL classroom.
  • 32. AZURAWATI BINTI WOK ZAKI 2011313879EDU702: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY EDU7701A23.5 LOCATION OF THE STUDY The study will be conducted in 3 secondary schools from the sub-urban district ofBera, Pahang.3.6 SAMPLE The targeted groups are the Form 4 students and English Language teachers. Thesample will be selected according to the convenience method sampling (Fraenkel andWallen, 2008). Meanwhile, the teachers chosen will be the English teacher optionist andnon-optionist. They will be interviewed in order to get their respond (perception) towards theuse of paraphrastic approach in teaching literature in ESL/EFL classroom.3.7 PILOTING AND IMPROVEMENT OF INSTRUMENT A pilot study will be conducted before the actual research. Pilot study is known as theexercise of a mini study to carry out the instrument to see how they work and get respondout of the instrument. The respondents for the pilot study will not be the actual respondents.The purpose of doing the pilot study for the questionnaire is toi. determine validity and reliability as the questions are created by the researcher and adaptand adopt from other researchers.ii. ensure the wordings and item structure are clear so that it can be easily understood bythe respondents and interpreted as hoped by the researcheriii. improve the questions so the results will be validiv. determine the length of time needed to answer the questionnaire
  • 33. AZURAWATI BINTI WOK ZAKI 2011313879EDU702: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY EDU7701A2After the pilot study was done, the piloted instruments will be collected and improvementswill be made to the questionnaire. Some adaptations were also made where possibleprovided that it was relevant with the objectives.3.8 CONCLUSION In this chapter, the careful selection of research design will contribute to the reliabilityand validity of the findings. The result is hoped to give to the meaningful interpretation of theperceptions of using paraphrastic approach in teaching literature in ESL/EFL classroom byteachers and students. The method will be well-planned in order to get and analysis the data. If therespondents give good cooperation, then all the data collections for this research are validand reliable.
  • 34. AZURAWATI BINTI WOK ZAKI 2011313879EDU702: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY EDU7701A2 REFERENCESBooks:Brumfit, C.J., & Carter, R. A. (Eds.). (1989).Literature and language teaching. Oxford: Oxford UP.Campbell, C. (1990). Writing with others’ words: Using background reading text in academic compositions. In B. Kroll (Ed.), Second language writing: Research insights for the classroom (pp. 211-230). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Currie, P. (1998). Staying out of trouble: Apparent plagiarism and academic survival. Journal of Second Language Writing, 7(1), 1–18.Eken, D. K. 1999. Through the eyes of the learner: Learner observations of teaching and learning. ELT Journal, 53(4): 66-80Fraenkel, J. R. & Wallen, N. E. (2008). How to design and evaluate research in education (7th ed). Boston: McGrawHillHarris, A.J., & Sipay, E.R. (1990). How to increase reading ability: A guide to developmental and remedial methods (9th ed.). White Plains, NY: Longman.Munro, J. (2008). Literacy Intervention Strategies – Course Notes. University ofMelbourne.Pecorari,D. (2008). Academic writing and plagiarism. London: Continuum.Rosli Talif. (1995). Teaching literature in ESL the Malaysian context. Kuala Lumpur: Penerbit Universiti Pertanian Malaysia.Sarceni, M. (2003). “Literature in the EFL Classroom: Roses or Thorns?”. In Subramaniam, G. and Vethamani M.E. (Eds.) Teaching Literature in ESL/EFL Contexts. Petaling Jaya: Sasbadi Sdn. Bhd.
  • 35. AZURAWATI BINTI WOK ZAKI 2011313879EDU702: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY EDU7701A2Sidhu, Gurnam Kaur, 2003. Literature in the language classrooms: Seeing through the eyes of learners. In: Ganakumaran & Edwin Malachi (eds.). Teaching of literature in ESL/EFL contexts. pp. 88-110. Petaling Jaya: Sasbadi-Melta ELT Series.Van de Berg, Camille (1990). Conversation activities based on literary readings. French Review, 63(4), 664-667.Vacca, R., & Vacca, J. (1999). Content area reading. New York: Longman.Widdowson, H. G. (1975). Stylistics and the teaching of Literature. London: LongmanJournals:Angela D. Evansa, Kim P. Robertsb, Heather L. Pricec, Candyce P. Stefek. (2010). The use of paraphrasing in investigative interviews. Retrieved on April 21, 2012 from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0145213410001420?via=ihubBronshteyn, K; Baladad, R. (2006). Librarians as Writing Instructors: Using Paraphrasing Exercises to Teach Beginning Information Literacy Students. Retrieved on April 21, 2012 from http://connection.ebscohost.com/c/articles/23842329/librarians-as-writing- instructors-using-paraphrasing-exercises-teach-beginning-information-literacy-studentsBazerman, C. (2010). Paraphrasing: The Authors Thoughts in Your Words. Retrieved on April 3, 2012 from http://writing.colostate.edu/textbooks/informedwriter/chapter3.pdfCrossley, S.A , Louwerse, M.M, McCarthy, P, McNamara, D. (2007). A Linguistic Analysis of Simplified and Authentic Texts. Retrieved on June 2, 2012 from http://www2.gsu.edu/~wwwesl/Files/ALSL/Cross__linguistic_analysis_of_simplifi ed_and_authentic_texts.pdfClason, D. L. & Dormody, T. J. (n.d). Analyzing Data Measured by Individual Likert-Type Items. Retrieved on June 2, 2012 from citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.113.2197...pdf
  • 36. AZURAWATI BINTI WOK ZAKI 2011313879EDU702: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY EDU7701A2Diana Hwang & Mohamed Amin Embi .(2007). Approaches Employed by Secondary School Teachers to Teaching the Literature Component in English. Retrieved on March 29, 2012 from web.usm.my/education/.../jpp%20aminukm%20art%201%20(1-23).pdfFauziah Ahmad & Jamaluddin Aziz. (2009). Students’ Perception of the Teachers’ Teaching of Literature Communicating and Understanding Through the Eyes of the Audience. Retrieved on March 29, 2012 from www.eurojournals.com/ejss_7_3_02.pdfHigher Score. (2007). How to Paraphrase Effectively. Retrieved on March 28, 2012 from http://www.higherscore.ca/downloads/Higher%20Score%20Free%20Advice%202%20- %20Paraphrasing.pdfKeck, C. (2006). The use of paraphrase in summary writing: A comparison of L1 and L2 writers. Retrieved on April 21, 2012 from www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S106037430600066XLarson, K.A. (2004) Using Quotation. Retrieved on April 13, 2012 from http://leo.stcloudstate.edu/research/usingquotes.htmlMaryam Pakzadian & Hossein Barati. (2012). The Effects of L1 Translation vs. Paraphrasing the Literary Texts on Female and Male Students Reading Comprehension ojs.academypublisher.com/index.php/tpls/article/download/.../4928Mohammad Khatib. (2011). Literature in EFL/ESL Classroom. Retrieved on April 4, 2012 from http://atuir.academia.edu/SaeedRezaei/Papers/319078/Literature_in_EFL_ESL_Classro omMurat Hişmanoğlu. (2005). Teaching English Through Literature. Retrieved on March 30, 2012 from http://jlls.org/Issues/Volume1/No.1/murathismanoglu.pdfRadzuwan Ab. Rashid, Malachi Edwin Vethamani & Shireena Basree Abdul Rahman. (2010). Approaches Employed by Teachers in Teaching Literature to Less Proficient Students in Form 1 and Form 2. Retrieved on April 7, 2012 from ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/elt/article/download/8379/6189Siti Norliana Ghazali, Roszainora Setia & Chittra, M. (n.d). ESL Students’ Attitude towards Texts and Teaching Methods used in Literature Classes. Retrieved on May 5, 2012 from www2.tganu.uitm.edu.my/upena/dokumen/ELTNorlianaKJ1revd.doc
  • 37. AZURAWATI BINTI WOK ZAKI 2011313879EDU702: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY EDU7701A2Smita. (2010). Language in India. Retrieved on March 29, 2012 from http://www.languageinindia.com/june2010/v10i6june2010.pdfPerles, K. (2009). Tips for English Language Learners: Paraphrasing. Retrieved on April 6, 2012 from http://www.brighthub.com/education/languages/articles/59249.aspxZubaidah Awang & Shaidatul Akma Binti Adi Kasuma. (2010). A Study On Secondary School Students’ Perceptions Of Their Motivation And Attitude Towards Learning The English Literature Component. Retrieved on June 3, 2012 from http://eprints.utm.my/10716/
  • 38. AZURAWATI BINTI WOK ZAKI 2011313879EDU702: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY EDU7701A2TEACHERS AND STUDENTS’ PERCEPTIONS TOWARDS PARAPHRASTIC APPROACH TO TEACH LITERATURE IN ESL CLASSROOM AZURAWATI BINTI WOK ZAKI M.Ed. (Teaching English as a Second Language) A Proposal Submitted to Prof Madya Dr. Teoh Sian Hoon In Fulfillment of the Requirement of EDU 702 Research Methodology course Universiti Teknologi MARA 20th June 2012
  • 39. AZURAWATI BINTI WOK ZAKI 2011313879EDU702: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY EDU7701A2 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION1.0 INTRODUCTION In Malaysia Education or Curriculum, literature is one of the most important parts inlanguage learning either in Malay Language or in English. Since ten years of the introductionof English Literature, students are exposed with different types of reading genre in order forthem to learn better. Literature should be already a part of students’ life. Literature wasinitially the main source of input for teaching in language classes in the era of GrammarTranslation Method but since then it has been dropped down the pedestal. In fact with theadvent of structuralism and audiolingual method, literature was downplayed and ergodiscarded to the periphery (Khatib, 2011; Collie & Slater, 1987, p.2). The Ministry ofEducation has explains the reason of putting the literature component in KBSM Englishlanguage Curriculum Specifications, (2003). The syllabus specification is as follows,“Language for aesthetic purposes enables learners to enjoy literary texts at a level suited totheir language proficiency and develops in them the ability to express themselves creatively”. English literature benefits students very well. This is because English literature canintroduce students to a range of aspects, not only of the English language but also ofEnglish culture. Widdowson (1975) further defines literature as a subject which has theprincipal aim of developing the capacity for individual response to language use. Whenstudying Literature, students can explore not only the language aspects such as vocabularyitems but also that language can also be used for specific and aesthetic purposes. Studentswill be familiar with the concepts of beat, meter and rhythm of the poems. In fact, they could
  • 40. AZURAWATI BINTI WOK ZAKI 2011313879EDU702: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY EDU7701A2learn various themes in literature that they can relate to themselves or their ownsurrounding. The familiarity with those concepts can improve students writing as they areable to appreciate and apply these ideas. The four main skills in learning language can alsobe improved with learning literature which is the reading, listening, speaking and writingskills. The oral work based on literary texts may help improve students’ speaking skills(Mario Saraceni, 2003). At the same time, the study of Literature can provide students with a fresh andcreative angle with which to approach their studies in particular and their lives in general.The themes of the literary texts to which learners can bring powerful response from their ownexperience (Brumfit & Carter, 1989). Students learn to be more independent in theirliterature learning as literature could make them eager to know about the authors or thedetails of the stories or poems. According to Khatib (2011) stated that there are nine benefitsthat learners can gain while learning literature such as a) Authenticity; the writing in drama, novels, short story stimulate learners imagination and the language used is related to learners themselves. b) Motivation; learners gain motivation from the stories and dramas that they have learnt as moral values will be inculcated too. c) Cultural/Intercultural Awareness and Globalization; learners could add more knowledge about other cultures and be more aware of variety in other cultures. Literature could promote learners to explore on others politics, sociology and economy. d) Intensive/Extensive Reading Practice; learners can improve their reading skills and promote reading habits among themselves.
  • 41. AZURAWATI BINTI WOK ZAKI 2011313879EDU702: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY EDU7701A2 e) Sociolinguistic/Pragmatics Knowledge; Sociolinguistic and Pragmatic competence are two of the main components of the communicative competence models. Hence, special attention is needed to be directed to this component. Literature due to its authenticity is equipped with sociolinguistic and pragmatic information (Khatib, 2011). f) Grammar and Vocabulary Knowledge; reading short stories, drama, novel as well as poem could help learners to improve their grammar and enlarge their vocabulary. g) Language Skills; at the same time learners could also improve their language skills especially in English. Literature can promote learners to write their own short stories or poems based on what they have read and learnt. h) Emotional Intelligence; learners will be exposed with different genre of stories. Feelings and emotions are involved that help to nurture learners Emotional Intelligence. i) Critical Thinking; learning literature is not only reading the texts given, but learners need to share their ideas and opinions towards what they have read and learnt. Therefore, it promotes critical thinking among learners in order to analysis the story for example better. However some students meet difficulty in learning English Literature. Sometimesstudents are faced with a cultural reference that is totally alien to them, which has no parallelin their own culture, such as the notion of autumn to the Malaysian students, as found inRobert Frost’s poem, The Road Not Taken (Siti Norliana, Roszainora & Chittra, n.d).Students have to deal with the complexity of the content and style of literary texts; they are
  • 42. AZURAWATI BINTI WOK ZAKI 2011313879EDU702: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY EDU7701A2also confronted with linguistics and aesthetic unfamiliarity. Some students they refuse toexplore on their own, therefore the learning process take more time and become harder forthem. Van de Berg (1990) emphasizes the value of literary reading passages as the basisfor second language learning. For high proficiency level of students, literature is anadvantage for them to learn the second language better and dig the knowledge throughliterature. Literature becomes a barrier for the low proficiency students to learn the secondlanguage better. According to Radzuwan, Malachi, & Shireena Basree (2010), even withoutthe incorporation of the literature component into the syllabus, these students were alreadystruggling learning the language and the incorporation of the literature component was seenas adding another burden. Students already have difficulty to comprehend the Englisharticle, therefore, literature is another high English level for them. Literature could demotivatethelow proficiency students since they need to handle extra component of the language.Lack of vocabulary contributes to the difficulty as the language used for Literaturecomponent must be higher. According to Smita (2010) stated that there are few problemsencounter in teaching literature in non-native context such as: a) British or English cultural references are not known or familiar to the learners. They have problems to understand better what the author is trying to convey. b) Racial prejudices about the writer or about his country. The learners may have difference assumptions towards the writer; therefore they hardly understand the writer’s intentions of writing. c) The past ideas and references in literature may create misunderstanding in the mind of the learners. The topic is outdated to the learners. d) Unfamiliar with history or social upheavals of the country make learners lose interest in study literature.
  • 43. AZURAWATI BINTI WOK ZAKI 2011313879EDU702: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY EDU7701A2 On the other hand, the complexity of the subject matter is harder if teachers who areteaching literature are unwilling to prepare their lessons as it should be; and this planningprocess should include considerations for students’ need and interest as well as their level ofproficiency. Therefore, how teachers improve their literature lesson and present it to theclassroom can seriously affect the students’ learning process. Teaching literature needsmore creative ideas from teachers. Teachers can not rush in teaching literature too. Theobjectives of learning must suit students’ level of proficiency. However, the obstacle inlearning literature actually can be encountered effectively with the assist of the suitableapproach of teaching Literature by the teachers. An effective teaching process and a veryconducive learning environment of the classroom are undeniably teachers’ responsibility(Fauziah & Jamaluddin, 2009). If teachers are aware with the responsibility that they need touphold, they should always find ways to reduce the burden that students’ carry in learningliterature. Students’ perception and observation can work in practice and become a part ofexploratory studies (Eken 1999; Sidhu 2003) Meanwhile Murat (2005) stated teachers can consider few steps in order to helpstudents learning literature better. First, he should determine the aim of language teaching inrelation to the needs and expectations of the students. Teachers can set the aim by askingthe students orally, interviewing or even giving them questionnaires. Teachers can alwaysask the students in order to get their opinion in learning literature. From the opinion given,teachers can adjust and adapt with the class. Second, he should select the appropriatelanguage teaching method, teaching techniques, and classroom activities. The problem withteachers nowadays, they do not investigate students’ preferences in learning literature.Different approaches should be considered in teaching literature. Different students will havedifferent way of learning. Teachers can always try different style of teaching to attractstudents’ attention.
  • 44. AZURAWATI BINTI WOK ZAKI 2011313879EDU702: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY EDU7701A2 Then, the teacher should select the literary texts relevant to the aim and theobjectives of his teaching. Teachers should not just depend on the literature text providentby the Ministry of Education but they can sometimes use different texts which have similarobjectives of teaching to vary the lesson. If the text introduced by the Ministry of Education istoo difficult for students, teachers can come out with simple text first which similar to thecompulsory text. Therefore, students can slowly learn literature. At the same time, Murat (2005) also stated that at elementary levels, for example,students should be given simplified or specially written stories. Simplified text will help weakstudents to understand the literature text better. Teachers may work together with studentsin comprehending the literature text better. According to Fauziah and Jamaluddin (2009)stated that one important aspect of teaching literature is the teacher’s creativity inapproaching certain texts or themes. Teachers should aware of their responsibility to try outthe best approach as well as the best methods to attract students’ attention in learningliterature. Teachers as the expert one in literature should play their roles in helping studentsto learn literature better in ESL classroom.1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY Day by day, there are many efforts have been done by the Ministry of Education inorder to help students. The latest one is the new selection of literature texts. One of thepanels to choose the current texts for literature learning is a student. This is to giveopportunity to students to choose the texts that they favour most in learning literature.Literature text is important as a motivation for students to learn literature.Literary texts are very motivating due to its authenticity and the meaningful context itprovides (Khatib, 2011; Ghosn, 2002, Van, 2009). Literature deals with things which areinteresting in nature and includes little if any uninteresting things (Khatib, 2011; Maley,
  • 45. AZURAWATI BINTI WOK ZAKI 2011313879EDU702: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY EDU7701A21989a). Motivation is especially achieved when students are exposed to what they reallyenjoy. Experience shows that students are highly motivated when they are exposed toliterary texts for language learning purposes (Khatib, 2011). Therefore, in order for studentsto engage better with literature, the best texts should be considered based on students’preferences. At the same time, it is undeniably that teachers also crack their head in order to makeliterature no longer becomes one of the boring lessons in English classroom. Many materialsare provided to help students to understand the literature texts better. Many books arebought in order to get the best references. At the same time, many websites and blogs canhelp teachers to prepare for suitable teaching materials. However, students nowadays whomostly rely on teachers always wait for their teachers to tell the stories or poems inclassroom. Especially for weak students, they have the difficulty to read and understand thetexts on their own. They also refuse to find the difficult words in dictionary. Student centeredlearning is hardly to be practiced. Again, as teacher centered learning is always the suitableone especially for low proficiency level of students, teachers need to make more preparation. Therefore, obviously teachers play important role to help students in learningliterature as students always need guide from teachers. Teachers need to take promptaction first. Teaching should reflect and cater to students’ need, both individually andcollectively. Therefore when teachers teach, they always have to refer to the nature of thestudents they have and the level of their students’ ability and receptivity (Fauziah &Jamaluddin, 2009). Different approaches could help students to engage with literature.According to Maley (1989a) in Khatib (2011) noted few approaches that can be consideredby teachers in teaching literature such as: a) The critical literary approach; focus on the literariness of the texts including such features as the plot, characterization, motivation, value, psychology, background, etc.
  • 46. AZURAWATI BINTI WOK ZAKI 2011313879EDU702: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY EDU7701A2 b) The stylistic approach; focus on literature as ‘text’.Then, Amer (2003) in Khatib (2011) stated the other two possible approaches in teachingliterature such as: a) The Story Grammar Approach (SGA); there is an interaction between the reader and the text. b) Reader Response Approach (RRA); based on a premise of teaching literature for literature’s sake not for language learning and development purposes. However, According to Radzuwan, Malachi, & Shireena Basree (2010), paraphrasticapproach is the most favourable approach employed by teachers in teaching literature insecondary school. Teachers paraphrase the text in order to ensure students are able tounderstand what they are learning that day. This study will focus on the paraphrasticapproach and strategies employed in the teaching of the literature component in English tothe less proficient group to examine if the approach help to meet the aims of incorporatingthe literature component into the English language paper.1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM As Literature has been introduced since ten years ago, the achievement of studentsin Literature is still not like what is expected such as express their critical thinking creatively.Experience and observation show that students do not understand what they are learningand what they have learned in classroom regarding to Literature. At the same time, they donot know how to appreciate the beauty of literature accordingly. In literature text such asshort story, novel and poem, there are lots of new culture, political, historical perspective.Unfortunately, students do not take those as extra knowledge as they only learn literature forthe sake of the examination. They tend to memorize all the answers but hardly understand
  • 47. AZURAWATI BINTI WOK ZAKI 2011313879EDU702: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY EDU7701A2what they have learnt. Plus, they only see literature as an ordinary reading text and do notreally explore the fundamental gist of learning literature. Students might learn newvocabulary, grammar of English language and so on but they hardly understand what isliterature is. One of the reasons that students are not able to discover the underlying principle ofliterature is because of the teachers’ style of teaching. This is because some of the teachersmay just focus on the grammar, vocabulary and skill. They may ask students to memorizecertain part of the story in order for them to answer the examination questions better.Teachers might neglect the elements in the literature itself. The elements that include in theliterary texts make literature interesting to be explored. With the introduction of literature,teachers should be more creative in order to attract the students’ attention to learn Literatureas well as appreciate the literature works. Teaching literature should enable the teachers tobe more creative in their teaching style. For example, if the theme of the poem is related tonature, teachers could bring students outside the classroom to be closer to the environment.More group work can be done in literature learning. There are many approaches that can be employed to teaching Literature. Nowadaysinformation and technology communication (ICT) could become one of the main concerns toteaching Literature. Teachers should aware of the importance of lCT in teaching andlearning process. Power point presentation could give clear picture regarding the literaturetexts or the poems that need to be taught. As the Literature might be difficult for students,teachers play an important role to help the students to understand and appreciate literaturebetter. In reality, teachers are too obsessed with examination; therefore the teaching andlearning process are more to exam oriented. There is no fun, no creativity and also noexploration of the Literature. Students cannot savor the honey taste of literature. The mainconcern is always to ensure that students are able to answer the examination questions welland pass the examination with flying colours. Students totally depend on the teachers when
  • 48. AZURAWATI BINTI WOK ZAKI 2011313879EDU702: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY EDU7701A2it comes to learning second language. Teachers only focus on finishing the syllabus andcause them to become boring and stereotype. At the same time, some teachers do not know what is the best approach to teachLiterature in ESL classroom. The problem affects the teaching and learning process inclassroom. Therefore, students could not gain both language and appreciation of theLiterature well. Teachers tend to use the first language in order for students to understandthe literary text better. It is the famous option that teachers choose to teach Literature in ESLclassroom. Therefore, this situation shows that teachers do not motivate the students toappreciate Literature and they lack of methods in teaching Literature. Teaching Literature byusing the first language will not help the students much in order to understand it in depth.1.3 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES This study aims to investigate teachers and students’ perceptions towards the approachused by the teachers used to teach literature in ESL classroom. The two objectives are asfollows: 1. To investigate students’ perception to the paraphrastic approach employed to teach literature in the ESL classroom. 2. To investigate teachers’ perception to the paraphrastic approach employed to teach literature in the ESL classroom.
  • 49. AZURAWATI BINTI WOK ZAKI 2011313879EDU702: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY EDU7701A21.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS This study aims to gain a general overview of the approaches and strategies employedby teachers in teaching literature to Form 4 students in secondary schools. The researchquestions for this study are as follows: 1. Why do teachers prefer to use Paraphrastic Approach in teaching literature? 2. How students accept Paraphrastic Approach in learning literature? 3. What are the strengths and weaknesses of using the implemented approach?1.5 OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONLITERATURE: Literature is pieces of writing that are valued as works of art, especiallynovels, plays and poems (in contrast to technical books and newspapers, magazines, etc.)ESL: ESL is English as a Second Language.PARAPHRASTIC APPROACH: Paraphrastic approach deals with the surface meaning ofthe text. Teachers whose using this approach may paraphrase or re-word the story in similarlanguage or translating it into other languages.1.6 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY Although this research was carefully prepared, there are still limitations andshortcomings for this research. First of all, the research will be conducted to Form 4 students which have differentlevels of proficiency. They may have difficulty to understand the Paraphrastic Approach thatteachers used in teaching literature.
  • 50. AZURAWATI BINTI WOK ZAKI 2011313879EDU702: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY EDU7701A2 Second, the population of the experimental group is small, only 5 schools involvedthat might not represent the majority of the students in the state. Third, since the questionnaire designed to measure the students’ attitude towards theteaching of Literature might give useful information about the approach used and thebenefits to them; it seems not to provide enough evidence of the students’ actual behavingtowards the learning of Literature in ESL classroom.1.7 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY Every party plays an important role in order to achieve the goal in teaching andlearning Literature. The changes and development of curriculum has brought a newdimension to education as well as to Literature learning. Therefore, the findings of this studycould benefits the teachers as well as other professionals in the education field in seekingsolution of the problem faced by English teachers in teaching Literature as well as thestudents. Then, the curriculum development centre can use the result of findings in order toimprove the syllabus. Most important thing, teachers could consider certain approacheschosen that could help them in teaching literature based on the strengths and weaknessesdiscussed. Therefore, teachers could improve their teaching strategies and students will gainthe benefits from the teaching and learning process. At the same time, the findings could also be as the guideline for the trainee teachersor fresh graduate teachers to prepare themselves with the suitable approaches in teachingand learning process later. Then, the Faculty of education in universities could use thefindings in order to modify the course outline for the future teachers. Finally, this study couldproduce teachers who are aware of the strengths and weaknesses of approaches used inteaching literature in future.
  • 51. AZURAWATI BINTI WOK ZAKI 2011313879EDU702: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY EDU7701A21.8 CONCLUSION This first chapter highlights the main topics that related to the study. It introduces therole of literature in ESL classroom as implemented in English subject in Malaysiansecondary schools. This chapter will also be described in details the background of study,problem statement, research objectives, research questions, significance of study, limitationsand the operational definition.
  • 52. AZURAWATI BINTI WOK ZAKI 2011313879EDU702: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY EDU7701A2 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW2.0 INTRODUCTION The aim of this research is to obtain information on teachers and students’ perceptionon the use of paraphrastic approach in teaching literature as well as the strengths andweaknesses of paraphrastic approach. In this chapter two, there includes the idea of paraphrastic approach and theimplementation involved in educational field as well as some other researchers andprofessionals overall opinion regarding paraphrastic approach in teaching and learningliterature.2.1 PARAPHRASTIC APPROACH Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary defines it as “to express what sb has said orwritten using different words, especially in order to make it easier to understand”. Animportant process of rewriting source texts is paraphrasing or restating a source text in one’sown words with a credit to the original author (Shi, 2012). According to Cambridge Learner’sDictionary paraphrase is “to express something that has been said or written in a differentway, usually so that it is clearer”. Paraphrasing can be defined as paraphrastic approach asaccording to Diana and Mohamed Amin (2007), the paraphrastic approach deals with thesurface meaning of the text. Teachers whose using this approach may paraphrase or re-word the story in a simpler language or even translating it into other languages. Therefore, inother words paraphrase approach is simplifying the text with simple language or translatesthe text to other language that audience can understand better. As long as paraphrase is
  • 53. AZURAWATI BINTI WOK ZAKI 2011313879EDU702: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY EDU7701A2used to re-tell the story and translate is also considered during the lesson, those can beparaphrastic approach in language learning. A paraphrase is an indirect quotation (Larson, 2004). Then, Bazerman (2010) hadcome out with the definition of paraphrase which is putting the meaning of the text into newwords makes you pay close attention to the authors ideas and thereby improves your levelof understanding. In other words, when paraphrasing one will keep the author’s idea in mindbut may tell it in different way which makes the idea is simpler to be understood. MeanwhileHigher Score (2007) defined “Paraphrase” is a verb which means to re-write a phrase orsentence with the same meaning but using different words. Paraphrase approach is also used for listening, speaking, reading and writing. One ofthe most commonly recommended pedagogical interventions is the teaching of paraphrasing(Keck, 2006; Campbell, 1990; Currie, 1998; Howard, 1996; Hyland, 2001; Johns & Mayes,1990). Keck (2006) also stated that paraphrasing is considered by many to be an importantskill for academic writing, and some have argued that the teaching of paraphrasing mighthelp students avoid copying from source texts. Vacca and Vacca (1999) stated, "Studentswho experience the integration of writing and reading are likely to learn more content, tounderstand it better, and to remember it longer" (p. 262). Obviously paraphrasing isimportant in other high level examinations. In TOEFL iBT, for instance, paraphrasing is animportant skill in the reading section, in the listening and above all in the speaking andwriting section of the test (Higher Score, 2007). Paraphrasing can also be taught to students in order for them to familiar with theparaphrastic approach especially when teachers use it in teaching other skills too. Forexample in learning literature, students tend to memorize the summary from the literaturetext or reference books, it is not impossible that the one whole class will come out with thesame kind of answer for summary of one short story. Instead of students memorizing thesummary, it is better to teach them paraphrase the summary into the useful and simpler
  • 54. AZURAWATI BINTI WOK ZAKI 2011313879EDU702: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY EDU7701A2words. At the same time, paraphrasing could help them to understand and write the storybetter. Other than that, paraprastic approach is also used in interview with children. Thisshows that paraphrasing could help children to understand what is being said or what istrying to convey effectively. According to Evans and Roberts (2009) in Evans, Roberts, Priceand Stefek (2010) stated that previous research has experimentally assessed the influenceof different types of paraphrasing on children’s event reports and found that some styles ofparaphrasing are indeed more beneficial than others. Then, paraphrasing may motivatechildren to expand their responses with two main ways proposed (Evans, Roberts, Price &Stefek, 2010; Evans & Roberts, 2009). Firstly, paraphrasing may encourage rapportbetween the child and interviewer. Therefore, in ESL classroom, paraphrasing mayencourage rapport between students and teachers. Secondly, paraphrasing may transfercontrol to the child as in ESL classroom students have the power to use their own words toconvey what they understand from one story.2.2 IMPORTANCE OF PARAPHRASING Paraphrastic approach as well as paraphrasing that is used especially beneficial tothe students. As Evans and Roberts (2009) promoted two main ways to promote the use ofparaphrasing that give benefits to students. First and foremost, paraphrasing may encouragerapport. Good rapport can be built in ESL classroom. For example, when students giverespond to teacher in telling the short story in their own words, then teacher restates orparaphrase what the students have been said, students feel motivated as what the teacherrestates highlight that the teacher is listening to the students well. Students will feelappreciated and supported by the teacher. Thus, students feel comfortable in class andrespond more during the lesson. Another benefit of paraphrasing is transferring control to
  • 55. AZURAWATI BINTI WOK ZAKI 2011313879EDU702: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY EDU7701A2children or students. For example, students have the power to use their own words and re-word what they understand from the text given. Student centered learning can be achievablewhere students will be able to share their ideas with others in class by using the words thatthey know or paraphrase from the source that they have read. Meanwhile according to Bronshteyn and Baladad (2006) emphasised that the use ofparapharasing as add-ons to information literacy instruction in order for students to gainproficiency in thinking critically about a source and expressing their own voice with theconvention of parenthetical citation. In ESL/EFL classroom, when teachers use paraphrasticapproach, it helps students to gain information better and think critically to any instructionsgiven. Teaching paraphrasing as a means of learning how to write a research paperBronshteyn and Baladad (2006). Paraphrasing can also be beneficial for students in writingespecially in academic writing. For ESL/EFL classroom paraphrasing writing could help themto use simple words with simple phrases that can be understood better in writing. Therefore,students will be more confident to use the language as well as to practice it in classroom. Other than that paraphrasing is also a mean to understand Bronshteyn and Baladad(2006). The ability to paraphrase help students in their writing work as well as it can providethe writer with a wide range of stylistic alternatives. Harris and Sipay (1990) stated that"being able to restate anothers thoughts in ones own language clearly and unambiguouslyis a crucial test of whether the thoughts were understood" (p. 537). Therefore, any difficultideas or unclear thoughts become easier to understand. As paraphrasing uses simplerwords and using students own words, it helps students in future to understand what theyhave read and written. Others may also get the benefits and understand one idea clearer.Then, students also can learn to borrow from a source without plagiarising (Bronshteyn &Baladad, 2006). Campbell (1990) clearly stated that the teaching of paraphrasing, amongother techniques, is essential to help students avoid committing cases of plagiarism.Plagiarism is always the main problem especially in academic writing. Currie (1998) claimed
  • 56. AZURAWATI BINTI WOK ZAKI 2011313879EDU702: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY EDU7701A2that students often fall back on copying as what they might see as a safe strategy when theyare attempting to fit into the academic world. This is because students hardly understandhow to rephrase what the source written in their own words according to their understanding.However, paraphrasing skill can help students to vary their sentences based on other sourcebut with their own ideas. Students can be creative and critical in playing with choice of wordsthat at the same time to convey the author’s meaning wisely. Therefore, plagiarism can beavoided in academic writing. Larson (2004) stated three important reasons of paraphrasing. First and foremost,paraphrase can be the way to restate a difficult passage the reader may not understand. Thekey word is ‘restate’ or ‘re-word’ the passage into a simpler passage where other people canget the idea better and grab the gist of the passage. This is to support the reader to read andunderstand rather than read without understanding what the passage is all about. Then,paraphrase can be the way to explain or interpret concepts or unfamiliar terms. There arecertain concepts that are explained in difficult or complex sentences that make the reader orlistener hardly understand. This obviously happens when students who are reading a storybook or novel such as in Shakespeare’s works, students hardly understand certain conceptor terms used in the story. Therefore, paraphrasing could be one of the best way toelaborate the concepts or unfamiliar terms in simpler words based on the level of thestudents. The third reason proposed by Larson (2004) is to make abstract facts and ideasconcrete. Some ideas proposed by some authors might be too vague and hardly to beunderstood. Paraphrasing again helps to identify the main points and explain the ideasclearly.
  • 57. AZURAWATI BINTI WOK ZAKI 2011313879EDU702: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY EDU7701A2 2.2.1 THE IMPORTANCE OF PARAPHRASING FOR ELL English language learner (ELL) always needs method to help them to understand the target language better. According to Perles (2009), it is important to use paraphrase to help English language learners because paraphrasing is one of the main methods that ELLs will be able to use to clarify that they have understood something correctly. Munro (2008) has identified paraphrasing as a useful strategy for students with reading difficulties. Paraphrasing can be one of the ways to measure students’ understanding especially for literature text. The example given by Perles (2009), if a bank teller explains to an ELL the terms of a loan, the ELL should learn to clarify by saying, “So what I understand from what you’ve said is... ” and to paraphrase what was heard. The same applies in many areas of life, including academic work, social settings, and professional situations. Therefore in literature learning in ESL/EFL classroom, students may tell the story by telling the summary by using their own words. Students may clarify what they have read into simplest words and sentences that later become their own interpretations of the story. At the same time, Perles (2009) also suggested that students write down their paraphrasing sentences. This is to prepare the students in order to convey what they have read into their words effectively. Perles (2009) also proposed that if the students are not able to paraphrase well, teacher may help the students by providing them a backward web graphic organizer. Thus, students may fill in the graphic with the main information that they got from their reading as a guideline then explaining on their own words.
  • 58. AZURAWATI BINTI WOK ZAKI 2011313879EDU702: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY EDU7701A22.3 SKILLS AND TECHNIQUES TO PARAPHRASE In order to use the paraphrastic approach, one must know the skills to paraphrase.According to Bronshteyn and Baladad (2006), there are three skills which are needed inorder to paraphrase. Firstly, one must have the knowledge of parenthetical citation format.According to Aage Hansen (1957) in Foget (2002) stated that parenthetical phrases (andasides) may be characterized as ”words, phrases, or sentences which are ’on another level’compared to the surroundings (sentence, utterance) in which they are inserted. Theseparenthetical phrases are spoken in a lower tone and/or with pauses preceding and followingthem.” Therefore, in ESL/EFL classroom teacher may use appropriate intonation withdifferent phrases that can be understood by students. At the same time, students will alsolearn the language which suit their level and might be simpler as what paraphrasing is. Secondly, one who wants to paraphrase must have the experience and ability inrestating ideas with synonyms in one’s own voice. In order to paraphrase, it is so importantthat the meaning of the idea used based on others’ must be clear or synonym. This isbecause when people paraphrase the idea is still the same but the way they write or tellmust be differently. Thirdly, experience introducing concepts, or knowledge of stocktransitional phrases. One must be able to use some concepts in paraphrasing. Then the useof transitional phrases is also important so that one can write or use the words effectively. Atthe same time, transitional phrases will make the paraphrasing becomes more authentic andnot only copy from others’. Once the students or teachers master these three skills, they are able to paraphrasebetter. At the same time, they will be able to come out with a good piece of writing and evenit is easier for them to understand what they are trying to tell. Therefore the recipients canalso get the benefit where the paraphrasing should ease them to understand one’s ideabetter. The closer they get to what the speaker is saying, the more a real interchange ofideas takes place (Bazerman, 2010). For example, in learning short story or drama, teacher
  • 59. AZURAWATI BINTI WOK ZAKI 2011313879EDU702: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY EDU7701A2might paraphrase the summary of the story first in their own words. This will benefit thestudents to grab the idea better from the teacher instead of cracking their head on their ownwith high level of English for certain students. Bazerman (2010) mentioned that paraphrasing will help you to communicate themeaning of a difficult passage. When you go on to make your own argument, it will allow youto refer to another writers thoughts while you maintain control of the focus and tone of theargument. In other words, people can convey the difficult meaning to the easiestunderstanding when paraphrasing and make reference to the author’s idea to focus on thebasic idea of the author. We have to recognize the writers way of thinking and his or herspecial interests (Bazerman, 2010). This is to ensure that we are conveying the correct ideathat the author presented. Paraphrasing is useful in the application of rules and proceduresbecause it presents the information in a different and more simplified way (Maryam &Hossein, 2012). At the same time, Bazerman (2010) also came out with two techniques that can beused in doing paraphrasing. Firstly, substituting synonyms can be the first draft ofparaphrasing. One may use the synonym words to replace certain words from the author’swriting. Therefore, again, plagiarism can be avoided. Then, restructuring the sentence mightlead to a more total paraphrase. After drafting with synonym words replacement, thearrangement of sentences can be done effectively to make the sentence structures differthan the author’s. The ideas still maintain but the way of conveying differs. Without thatcontrol of core meaning, a rewritten sentence can easily turn into gibberish (Bazerman,2010). Pecorari (2008) claimed, ‘‘the problem may not be that one group has a mistakenperception, but that two groups have different perceptions’’ (p. 10). The final touch afterthose two techniques is checking the meaning either it fits what the ideas conveyed by theauthors or not. This is so important to avoid any other misunderstanding from the main idea.
  • 60. AZURAWATI BINTI WOK ZAKI 2011313879EDU702: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY EDU7701A2 Then, Higher Score (2007) stated few of paraphrasing methods that can beconsidered in paraphrasing effectively. The first method is use different vocabulary with thesame meaning. It is as what the earlier techniques that one can use the synonyms to replacethe word. However, one should be careful with the overall meaning and the sentences mightbe unnatural English sentences. Thus, other people might not get what the person is tryingto tell with the new paraphrasing sentences. At the end of the day, paraphrasing mightcontribute to misunderstanding problem. For example, if students want to rephrase whatthey have read in the book regarding one short story, if they paraphrase wrongly, surely theymight lead to factual error of the story. Then, the second method of paraphrasing proposed by Higher Score (2007) ischange the words of order. It is like restructuring the sentences after replacing the wordswith the synonym words. The meaning must be the same with the idea proposed by theauthor. However, the problem that may occur is grammatical problems. This is because onemust know what should be added and what should be omitted when changing the words oforder. Students might face this kind of problem, as they may neglect certain words or unsurewith the correct words of order. Meanwhile the third method of paraphrasing is use differentgrammar. According to Higher Score (2007), if you change the grammar and make an error,usually the reader will understand what you mean. However, if you change the vocabularyand make an error, often the reader will not understand what you mean. In this method, onemust familiar with parts of speech. All the skills and methods proposed are interrelated. Paraphrasing can be done withthe use of the basic techniques such as replacing the words, arranging the sentences andchecking the grammatical error. Teachers may have no problems in paraphrasing especiallyin teaching literature in ESL/EFL classroom to make students understand the literaturecomponent better. However, students need to be taught those few skills to avoidmisunderstanding of ideas.
  • 61. AZURAWATI BINTI WOK ZAKI 2011313879EDU702: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY EDU7701A22.4 PARAPHRASING ANDSIMPLIFIED LITERATURE TEXT Literature text is known with the complex sentences and different kind of writing.Some students have difficulties to read and understand the literary text better especially thelow proficiency students. As paraphrasing is also defined as re-word the ideas in simplewords, it is can be considered as simplified words. Therefore, simplified text has beenintroduced in order to help the students to understand literature text better for instance, ‘ThePrisoner of Zenda’ which has thinner text for students to read as well as ‘Catch If You Can’Novel. The majority of L2 learning texts at the beginning and intermediate levels still dependon simplified input, and many material writers and L2 specialists continue to emphasize thepractical value of simplified texts, especially for beginning and intermediate L2 learners (e.g.,Johnson, 1981, 1982; Shook, 1997; Young, 1999; Croosly, Louwerse, McNamara,McCarthy, 2007). The use of simplified text is not only famous in Malaysian Education forliterature but it has been used widely for L2 learners especially the beginner. At the same time according to Croosly, Louwerse, McNamara, McCarthy (2007)stated that simplified text consists of the cognitive mechanisms which mimic the languagefound in caretaker talk and teacher talk and help the language learner acquire a language ina relatively structured way. Therefore, obviously the words and sentences used in simplifiedtext are much easier and more to the beginner (students) level. As simplified text is more toteacher talk, it is more to what teacher paraphrase in classroom when explaining about astory in ESL/EFL classroom. The simplified texts benefit L2 learners because they excludeunnecessary and distracting idiosyncratic style without suffering a loss of the valuablecommunication features and concepts that are found in real texts (Croosly, Louwerse,McNamara & McCarthy, 2007). In simplified text, the difficult words have been replaced withsimpler words and sentences have been paraphrase to the simplest one. The distractingidiosyncratic (personal) style has been decreased. For example, in Shakespeare’s works,the old English text might be replaced with the modern one. The purpose is to make the
  • 62. AZURAWATI BINTI WOK ZAKI 2011313879EDU702: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY EDU7701A2reader understand the words better. Thus, students have no problem to understand the storyor drama on their own with the help of dictionary. Then, simplified texts are often seen as valuable aids to learning because theyaccurately reflect what the reader already knows about language and have the capacity toextend this knowledge (Davies & Widdowson, 1974; Croosly, Louwerse, McNamara &McCarthy, 2007). In the making of simplified text, the author must paraphrase the story forinstance based on the familiar words used by students as well as based on students’ level.They are not expected to learn too many difficult words that may not motivate them to readand study the literature text better. The aim of simplified text is to encourage students toread better. At the same time simplified text is used to attract students to love learningliterature in ESL/EFL classroom. Therefore, the paraphrasing plays important role to comeout with a good understandable text for students. Simplified texts also contain increased redundancy and amplified explanation (Kuo,1993; Croosly, Louwerse, McNamara & McCarthy, 2007). Usually students or the L2 readershave problem in understanding the literature text is because the text is too long withredundancy or repetition of the idea. Some of the vivid explanation about the characters orthe plot and setting might trouble and confused the students. However, this problem can beovercome with the use of simplified text. Simplified text usually emphasises on the main ideaof the story and the important information needed by the readers. For instance, if studentsare given ‘East of Eden’ to read and learn, they may hardly finish the novel with hundreds ofpage. Plus, they may have difficulty to understand the flashback that could lead to repetitionfor them and make them confused regarding the timeline of the story. Therefore, simplified text can help students to understand better and get the mainidea of the related story better. The paraphrasing technique used in simplifying the text helpto promote the new way of learning literature to students.
  • 63. AZURAWATI BINTI WOK ZAKI 2011313879EDU702: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY EDU7701A2 2.5 CONCLUSION The review stated by the researchers, authors and journalist give more ideas in theused of Paraphrastic Approach in teaching Literature in ESL/EFL classroom. Theimportance, ideas, benefits as well as techniques used could help the learners in order touse the approach in writing and at the same time to use in understanding the literature textbetter. Plus, this approach is also help teachers in conveying their lesson better to achievethe objective of teaching literature.
  • 64. AZURAWATI BINTI WOK ZAKI 2011313879EDU702: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY EDU7701A2 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY3.1 INTRODUCTIONThis study is to investigate the perception of teachers and students towards paraphrasticapproach used in teaching literature. Therefore, this study focuses on finding the strengthsand weaknesses of the approach used in teaching literature in ESL classroom. This chapterwill discuss the research design, the method of data collection and also the method(s) ofdata processing or the analysis of the data in greater detail.3.2 RESEARCH DESIGN The research design focuses on combination of quantitative and qualitative methods.Hence, it involves triangulation designs to find agreement and validation of thequestionnaires. Triangulation is an approach to research that uses a mixture of more thanone research strategy in a single investigation. Triangulation is chosen as a researchstrategy to assure completeness of findings or to confirm findings. The research design canbe summarized as in Figure 3.1
  • 65. AZURAWATI BINTI WOK ZAKI 2011313879 EDU702: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY EDU7701A2 A specific topic will be chosen based on the related literatures and a conceptual framework will be developed for the study.. Research Question 1: Why do teachers prefer to use Paraphrastic Approach in teaching literature? Research Question 2: How students accept Paraphrastic Approach in learning literature? Research Question 3: What are the strengths and weaknesses of using the implemented approach? Adapt and adopt questionnaires from related literature. Meetings with core-person in the area of study to obtain the validity of questionnaire Conductiong pilot study to check reliability of questionnaire Distributing validated questionnaires to respective samples, classroom observation and interviews. Conducting data analyses a) Descriptive Analyses b) Pearson-Correlation Findings and discussions in final report Figure 3.1 Research design of the survey research
  • 66. AZURAWATI BINTI WOK ZAKI 2011313879EDU702: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY EDU7701A23.3 DATA INSTRUMENTATION The instruments consist of survey questions, interviews as well as classroomobservation. Qualitative approach used in this study will be the main approach. Likert Scalewill be used for the questionnaires that the questionnaire was adapted from two previousstudies on using literature in the language classrooms by Zubaidan and Shaidatul Akma(2010) and Diana and Mohamed Amin (2007). It is the suitable method to investigate therespondent attitudes and opinions. Likert scaling presumes the existence of an underlying(or latent or natural) continuous variable whose value characterizes the respondents’attitudes and opinions (Clason & Dormody, n.d). The research results will be descriptively presented students and teachers’perception towards paraphrastic approach will be revealed. Besides that, this research alsoconsist of the respondents views based the interviews on the strengths and weaknesses ofparaprastic approach in teaching literature in ESL classroom.3.3 METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION The study involves quantitative and qualitative data analysis. Descriptive statisticalanalysis, inferential statistics such as Pearson Correlation and the Independent Samples T-Test, will be used for the quantitative data. Classroom observation field notes will becompiled. Meanwhile each observation will be summarized and interpreted accurately. Theinterview transcripts later will be grouped and will be nicely quoted to strengthen the basis ofargument. The data collection will be done based on the four steps: a) a set of questionnaires will be given to the students and teachers as the prior to the study in order to investigate teachers and students’ perception towards the paraphrastic approach in teaching literature.
  • 67. AZURAWATI BINTI WOK ZAKI 2011313879EDU702: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY EDU7701A2 b) classroom observation will be done in order to look at the strengths and weaknesses of the paraphrastic approach used in teaching literature. c) Interview will be done with the teachers in order to get their opinion or perception towards the paraphrastic approach that has been used in teaching literature. At the same time, the interview will also cover the strengths and weaknesses of the approach used. The summary of data collection is shown in Figure 3.2 Distributing Questionnaires to Students Classroom Observation Interview with Teachers concern Figure 3.2 Summary of data collection procedure
  • 68. AZURAWATI BINTI WOK ZAKI 2011313879EDU702: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY EDU7701A23.4 THE METHOD(S) OF DATA PROCESSING/ ANALYSIS The quantitative and qualitative data will be examined by using different kind of mode ofanalysis. The questionnaires will be analysed by using the statistical analysis software(SPSS). The qualitative data for the observation and interview will be grouped, coded andverbatim based on thematic analysis according to Aronson (1994) with four steps: a) collect the data will be collected from the talk session. From the transcribed conversations, patterns of experiences can be listed. This can come from direct quotes or paraphrasing common ideas, (Aronson, 1994). b) identify all data that relate to the already classified patterns. The talk that can be fits under precise pattern is acknowledged and placed with the corresponding pattern. c) combine and catalogue related patterns into sub-themes. Themes are identified by "bringing together components or fragments of ideas or experiences, which often are meaningless when viewed alone" (Aronson, 1994; Leininger, 1985) d) build a valid argument for choosing the themes. Related literature will help in choosing the best themes. Inferences can be made from the interview or therapy session as information gained by referring back to the literature. The findings will be discussed in order to identify and report as accurately as possible the perceptions of students and teachers towards the use of paraphrastic approach in teaching literature in ESL classroom.
  • 69. AZURAWATI BINTI WOK ZAKI 2011313879EDU702: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY EDU7701A23.5 LOCATION OF THE STUDY The study will be conducted in 3 secondary schools from the sub-urban district ofBera, Pahang.3.6 SAMPLE The targeted groups are the Form 4 students and English Language teachers. Thesample will be selected according to the convenience method sampling (Fraenkel andWallen, 2008). Meanwhile, the teachers chosen will be the English teacher optionist andnon-optionist. They will be interviewed in order to get their respond (perception) towards theuse of paraphrastic approach in teaching literature in ESL/EFL classroom.3.7 PILOTING AND IMPROVEMENT OF INSTRUMENT A pilot study will be conducted before the actual research. Pilot study is known as theexercise of a mini study to carry out the instrument to see how they work and get respondout of the instrument. The respondents for the pilot study will not be the actual respondents.The purpose of doing the pilot study for the questionnaire is toi. determine validity and reliability as the questions are created by the researcher and adaptand adopt from other researchers.ii. ensure the wordings and item structure are clear so that it can be easily understood bythe respondents and interpreted as hoped by the researcheriii. improve the questions so the results will be validiv. determine the length of time needed to answer the questionnaire
  • 70. AZURAWATI BINTI WOK ZAKI 2011313879EDU702: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY EDU7701A2After the pilot study was done, the piloted instruments will be collected and improvementswill be made to the questionnaire. Some adaptations were also made where possibleprovided that it was relevant with the objectives.3.8 CONCLUSION In this chapter, the careful selection of research design will contribute to the reliabilityand validity of the findings. The result is hoped to give to the meaningful interpretation of theperceptions of using paraphrastic approach in teaching literature in ESL/EFL classroom byteachers and students. The method will be well-planned in order to get and analysis the data. If therespondents give good cooperation, then all the data collections for this research are validand reliable.
  • 71. AZURAWATI BINTI WOK ZAKI 2011313879EDU702: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY EDU7701A2 REFERENCESBooks:Brumfit, C.J., & Carter, R. A. (Eds.). (1989).Literature and language teaching. Oxford: Oxford UP.Campbell, C. (1990). Writing with others’ words: Using background reading text in academic compositions. In B. Kroll (Ed.), Second language writing: Research insights for the classroom (pp. 211-230). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Currie, P. (1998). Staying out of trouble: Apparent plagiarism and academic survival. Journal of Second Language Writing, 7(1), 1–18.Eken, D. K. 1999. Through the eyes of the learner: Learner observations of teaching and learning. ELT Journal, 53(4): 66-80Fraenkel, J. R. & Wallen, N. E. (2008). How to design and evaluate research in education (7th ed). Boston: McGrawHillHarris, A.J., & Sipay, E.R. (1990). How to increase reading ability: A guide to developmental and remedial methods (9th ed.). White Plains, NY: Longman.Munro, J. (2008). Literacy Intervention Strategies – Course Notes. University ofMelbourne.Pecorari,D. (2008). Academic writing and plagiarism. London: Continuum.Rosli Talif. (1995). Teaching literature in ESL the Malaysian context. Kuala Lumpur: Penerbit Universiti Pertanian Malaysia.Sarceni, M. (2003). “Literature in the EFL Classroom: Roses or Thorns?”. In Subramaniam, G. and Vethamani M.E. (Eds.) Teaching Literature in ESL/EFL Contexts. Petaling Jaya: Sasbadi Sdn. Bhd.
  • 72. AZURAWATI BINTI WOK ZAKI 2011313879EDU702: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY EDU7701A2Sidhu, Gurnam Kaur, 2003. Literature in the language classrooms: Seeing through the eyes of learners. In: Ganakumaran & Edwin Malachi (eds.). Teaching of literature in ESL/EFL contexts. pp. 88-110. Petaling Jaya: Sasbadi-Melta ELT Series.Van de Berg, Camille (1990). Conversation activities based on literary readings. French Review, 63(4), 664-667.Vacca, R., & Vacca, J. (1999). Content area reading. New York: Longman.Widdowson, H. G. (1975). Stylistics and the teaching of Literature. London: LongmanJournals:Angela D. Evansa, Kim P. Robertsb, Heather L. Pricec, Candyce P. Stefek. (2010). The use of paraphrasing in investigative interviews. Retrieved on April 21, 2012 from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0145213410001420?via=ihubBronshteyn, K; Baladad, R. (2006). Librarians as Writing Instructors: Using Paraphrasing Exercises to Teach Beginning Information Literacy Students. Retrieved on April 21, 2012 from http://connection.ebscohost.com/c/articles/23842329/librarians-as-writing- instructors-using-paraphrasing-exercises-teach-beginning-information-literacy-studentsBazerman, C. (2010). Paraphrasing: The Authors Thoughts in Your Words. Retrieved on April 3, 2012 from http://writing.colostate.edu/textbooks/informedwriter/chapter3.pdfCrossley, S.A , Louwerse, M.M, McCarthy, P, McNamara, D. (2007). A Linguistic Analysis of Simplified and Authentic Texts. Retrieved on June 2, 2012 from http://www2.gsu.edu/~wwwesl/Files/ALSL/Cross__linguistic_analysis_of_simplifi ed_and_authentic_texts.pdfClason, D. L. & Dormody, T. J. (n.d). Analyzing Data Measured by Individual Likert-Type Items. Retrieved on June 2, 2012 from citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.113.2197...pdf
  • 73. AZURAWATI BINTI WOK ZAKI 2011313879EDU702: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY EDU7701A2Diana Hwang & Mohamed Amin Embi .(2007). Approaches Employed by Secondary School Teachers to Teaching the Literature Component in English. Retrieved on March 29, 2012 from web.usm.my/education/.../jpp%20aminukm%20art%201%20(1-23).pdfFauziah Ahmad & Jamaluddin Aziz. (2009). Students’ Perception of the Teachers’ Teaching of Literature Communicating and Understanding Through the Eyes of the Audience. Retrieved on March 29, 2012 from www.eurojournals.com/ejss_7_3_02.pdfHigher Score. (2007). How to Paraphrase Effectively. Retrieved on March 28, 2012 from http://www.higherscore.ca/downloads/Higher%20Score%20Free%20Advice%202%20- %20Paraphrasing.pdfKeck, C. (2006). The use of paraphrase in summary writing: A comparison of L1 and L2 writers. Retrieved on April 21, 2012 from www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S106037430600066XLarson, K.A. (2004) Using Quotation. Retrieved on April 13, 2012 from http://leo.stcloudstate.edu/research/usingquotes.htmlMaryam Pakzadian & Hossein Barati. (2012). The Effects of L1 Translation vs. Paraphrasing the Literary Texts on Female and Male Students Reading Comprehension ojs.academypublisher.com/index.php/tpls/article/download/.../4928Mohammad Khatib. (2011). Literature in EFL/ESL Classroom. Retrieved on April 4, 2012 from http://atuir.academia.edu/SaeedRezaei/Papers/319078/Literature_in_EFL_ESL_Classro omMurat Hişmanoğlu. (2005). Teaching English Through Literature. Retrieved on March 30, 2012 from http://jlls.org/Issues/Volume1/No.1/murathismanoglu.pdfRadzuwan Ab. Rashid, Malachi Edwin Vethamani & Shireena Basree Abdul Rahman. (2010). Approaches Employed by Teachers in Teaching Literature to Less Proficient Students in Form 1 and Form 2. Retrieved on April 7, 2012 from ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/elt/article/download/8379/6189Siti Norliana Ghazali, Roszainora Setia & Chittra, M. (n.d). ESL Students’ Attitude towards Texts and Teaching Methods used in Literature Classes. Retrieved on May 5, 2012 from www2.tganu.uitm.edu.my/upena/dokumen/ELTNorlianaKJ1revd.doc
  • 74. AZURAWATI BINTI WOK ZAKI 2011313879EDU702: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY EDU7701A2Smita. (2010). Language in India. Retrieved on March 29, 2012 from http://www.languageinindia.com/june2010/v10i6june2010.pdfPerles, K. (2009). Tips for English Language Learners: Paraphrasing. Retrieved on April 6, 2012 from http://www.brighthub.com/education/languages/articles/59249.aspxZubaidah Awang & Shaidatul Akma Binti Adi Kasuma. (2010). A Study On Secondary School Students’ Perceptions Of Their Motivation And Attitude Towards Learning The English Literature Component. Retrieved on June 3, 2012 from http://eprints.utm.my/10716/
  • 75. AZURAWATI BINTI WOK ZAKI 2011313879EDU702: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY EDU7701A2TEACHERS AND STUDENTS’ PERCEPTIONS TOWARDS PARAPHRASTIC APPROACH TO TEACH LITERATURE IN ESL CLASSROOM AZURAWATI BINTI WOK ZAKI M.Ed. (Teaching English as a Second Language) A Proposal Submitted to Prof Madya Dr. Teoh Sian Hoon In Fulfillment of the Requirement of EDU 702 Research Methodology course Universiti Teknologi MARA 20th June 2012
  • 76. AZURAWATI BINTI WOK ZAKI 2011313879EDU702: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY EDU7701A2 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION1.0 INTRODUCTION In Malaysia Education or Curriculum, literature is one of the most important parts inlanguage learning either in Malay Language or in English. Since ten years of the introductionof English Literature, students are exposed with different types of reading genre in order forthem to learn better. Literature should be already a part of students’ life. Literature wasinitially the main source of input for teaching in language classes in the era of GrammarTranslation Method but since then it has been dropped down the pedestal. In fact with theadvent of structuralism and audiolingual method, literature was downplayed and ergodiscarded to the periphery (Khatib, 2011; Collie & Slater, 1987, p.2). The Ministry ofEducation has explains the reason of putting the literature component in KBSM Englishlanguage Curriculum Specifications, (2003). The syllabus specification is as follows,“Language for aesthetic purposes enables learners to enjoy literary texts at a level suited totheir language proficiency and develops in them the ability to express themselves creatively”. English literature benefits students very well. This is because English literature canintroduce students to a range of aspects, not only of the English language but also ofEnglish culture. Widdowson (1975) further defines literature as a subject which has theprincipal aim of developing the capacity for individual response to language use. Whenstudying Literature, students can explore not only the language aspects such as vocabularyitems but also that language can also be used for specific and aesthetic purposes. Studentswill be familiar with the concepts of beat, meter and rhythm of the poems. In fact, they could
  • 77. AZURAWATI BINTI WOK ZAKI 2011313879EDU702: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY EDU7701A2learn various themes in literature that they can relate to themselves or their ownsurrounding. The familiarity with those concepts can improve students writing as they areable to appreciate and apply these ideas. The four main skills in learning language can alsobe improved with learning literature which is the reading, listening, speaking and writingskills. The oral work based on literary texts may help improve students’ speaking skills(Mario Saraceni, 2003). At the same time, the study of Literature can provide students with a fresh andcreative angle with which to approach their studies in particular and their lives in general.The themes of the literary texts to which learners can bring powerful response from their ownexperience (Brumfit & Carter, 1989). Students learn to be more independent in theirliterature learning as literature could make them eager to know about the authors or thedetails of the stories or poems. According to Khatib (2011) stated that there are nine benefitsthat learners can gain while learning literature such as a) Authenticity; the writing in drama, novels, short story stimulate learners imagination and the language used is related to learners themselves. b) Motivation; learners gain motivation from the stories and dramas that they have learnt as moral values will be inculcated too. c) Cultural/Intercultural Awareness and Globalization; learners could add more knowledge about other cultures and be more aware of variety in other cultures. Literature could promote learners to explore on others politics, sociology and economy. d) Intensive/Extensive Reading Practice; learners can improve their reading skills and promote reading habits among themselves.
  • 78. AZURAWATI BINTI WOK ZAKI 2011313879EDU702: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY EDU7701A2 e) Sociolinguistic/Pragmatics Knowledge; Sociolinguistic and Pragmatic competence are two of the main components of the communicative competence models. Hence, special attention is needed to be directed to this component. Literature due to its authenticity is equipped with sociolinguistic and pragmatic information (Khatib, 2011). f) Grammar and Vocabulary Knowledge; reading short stories, drama, novel as well as poem could help learners to improve their grammar and enlarge their vocabulary. g) Language Skills; at the same time learners could also improve their language skills especially in English. Literature can promote learners to write their own short stories or poems based on what they have read and learnt. h) Emotional Intelligence; learners will be exposed with different genre of stories. Feelings and emotions are involved that help to nurture learners Emotional Intelligence. i) Critical Thinking; learning literature is not only reading the texts given, but learners need to share their ideas and opinions towards what they have read and learnt. Therefore, it promotes critical thinking among learners in order to analysis the story for example better. However some students meet difficulty in learning English Literature. Sometimesstudents are faced with a cultural reference that is totally alien to them, which has no parallelin their own culture, such as the notion of autumn to the Malaysian students, as found inRobert Frost’s poem, The Road Not Taken (Siti Norliana, Roszainora & Chittra, n.d).Students have to deal with the complexity of the content and style of literary texts; they are
  • 79. AZURAWATI BINTI WOK ZAKI 2011313879EDU702: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY EDU7701A2also confronted with linguistics and aesthetic unfamiliarity. Some students they refuse toexplore on their own, therefore the learning process take more time and become harder forthem. Van de Berg (1990) emphasizes the value of literary reading passages as the basisfor second language learning. For high proficiency level of students, literature is anadvantage for them to learn the second language better and dig the knowledge throughliterature. Literature becomes a barrier for the low proficiency students to learn the secondlanguage better. According to Radzuwan, Malachi, & Shireena Basree (2010), even withoutthe incorporation of the literature component into the syllabus, these students were alreadystruggling learning the language and the incorporation of the literature component was seenas adding another burden. Students already have difficulty to comprehend the Englisharticle, therefore, literature is another high English level for them. Literature could demotivatethelow proficiency students since they need to handle extra component of the language.Lack of vocabulary contributes to the difficulty as the language used for Literaturecomponent must be higher. According to Smita (2010) stated that there are few problemsencounter in teaching literature in non-native context such as: a) British or English cultural references are not known or familiar to the learners. They have problems to understand better what the author is trying to convey. b) Racial prejudices about the writer or about his country. The learners may have difference assumptions towards the writer; therefore they hardly understand the writer’s intentions of writing. c) The past ideas and references in literature may create misunderstanding in the mind of the learners. The topic is outdated to the learners. d) Unfamiliar with history or social upheavals of the country make learners lose interest in study literature.
  • 80. AZURAWATI BINTI WOK ZAKI 2011313879EDU702: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY EDU7701A2 On the other hand, the complexity of the subject matter is harder if teachers who areteaching literature are unwilling to prepare their lessons as it should be; and this planningprocess should include considerations for students’ need and interest as well as their level ofproficiency. Therefore, how teachers improve their literature lesson and present it to theclassroom can seriously affect the students’ learning process. Teaching literature needsmore creative ideas from teachers. Teachers can not rush in teaching literature too. Theobjectives of learning must suit students’ level of proficiency. However, the obstacle inlearning literature actually can be encountered effectively with the assist of the suitableapproach of teaching Literature by the teachers. An effective teaching process and a veryconducive learning environment of the classroom are undeniably teachers’ responsibility(Fauziah & Jamaluddin, 2009). If teachers are aware with the responsibility that they need touphold, they should always find ways to reduce the burden that students’ carry in learningliterature. Students’ perception and observation can work in practice and become a part ofexploratory studies (Eken 1999; Sidhu 2003) Meanwhile Murat (2005) stated teachers can consider few steps in order to helpstudents learning literature better. First, he should determine the aim of language teaching inrelation to the needs and expectations of the students. Teachers can set the aim by askingthe students orally, interviewing or even giving them questionnaires. Teachers can alwaysask the students in order to get their opinion in learning literature. From the opinion given,teachers can adjust and adapt with the class. Second, he should select the appropriatelanguage teaching method, teaching techniques, and classroom activities. The problem withteachers nowadays, they do not investigate students’ preferences in learning literature.Different approaches should be considered in teaching literature. Different students will havedifferent way of learning. Teachers can always try different style of teaching to attractstudents’ attention.
  • 81. AZURAWATI BINTI WOK ZAKI 2011313879EDU702: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY EDU7701A2 Then, the teacher should select the literary texts relevant to the aim and theobjectives of his teaching. Teachers should not just depend on the literature text providentby the Ministry of Education but they can sometimes use different texts which have similarobjectives of teaching to vary the lesson. If the text introduced by the Ministry of Education istoo difficult for students, teachers can come out with simple text first which similar to thecompulsory text. Therefore, students can slowly learn literature. At the same time, Murat (2005) also stated that at elementary levels, for example,students should be given simplified or specially written stories. Simplified text will help weakstudents to understand the literature text better. Teachers may work together with studentsin comprehending the literature text better. According to Fauziah and Jamaluddin (2009)stated that one important aspect of teaching literature is the teacher’s creativity inapproaching certain texts or themes. Teachers should aware of their responsibility to try outthe best approach as well as the best methods to attract students’ attention in learningliterature. Teachers as the expert one in literature should play their roles in helping studentsto learn literature better in ESL classroom.1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY Day by day, there are many efforts have been done by the Ministry of Education inorder to help students. The latest one is the new selection of literature texts. One of thepanels to choose the current texts for literature learning is a student. This is to giveopportunity to students to choose the texts that they favour most in learning literature.Literature text is important as a motivation for students to learn literature.Literary texts are very motivating due to its authenticity and the meaningful context itprovides (Khatib, 2011; Ghosn, 2002, Van, 2009). Literature deals with things which areinteresting in nature and includes little if any uninteresting things (Khatib, 2011; Maley,
  • 82. AZURAWATI BINTI WOK ZAKI 2011313879EDU702: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY EDU7701A21989a). Motivation is especially achieved when students are exposed to what they reallyenjoy. Experience shows that students are highly motivated when they are exposed toliterary texts for language learning purposes (Khatib, 2011). Therefore, in order for studentsto engage better with literature, the best texts should be considered based on students’preferences. At the same time, it is undeniably that teachers also crack their head in order to makeliterature no longer becomes one of the boring lessons in English classroom. Many materialsare provided to help students to understand the literature texts better. Many books arebought in order to get the best references. At the same time, many websites and blogs canhelp teachers to prepare for suitable teaching materials. However, students nowadays whomostly rely on teachers always wait for their teachers to tell the stories or poems inclassroom. Especially for weak students, they have the difficulty to read and understand thetexts on their own. They also refuse to find the difficult words in dictionary. Student centeredlearning is hardly to be practiced. Again, as teacher centered learning is always the suitableone especially for low proficiency level of students, teachers need to make more preparation. Therefore, obviously teachers play important role to help students in learningliterature as students always need guide from teachers. Teachers need to take promptaction first. Teaching should reflect and cater to students’ need, both individually andcollectively. Therefore when teachers teach, they always have to refer to the nature of thestudents they have and the level of their students’ ability and receptivity (Fauziah &Jamaluddin, 2009). Different approaches could help students to engage with literature.According to Maley (1989a) in Khatib (2011) noted few approaches that can be consideredby teachers in teaching literature such as: a) The critical literary approach; focus on the literariness of the texts including such features as the plot, characterization, motivation, value, psychology, background, etc.
  • 83. AZURAWATI BINTI WOK ZAKI 2011313879EDU702: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY EDU7701A2 b) The stylistic approach; focus on literature as ‘text’.Then, Amer (2003) in Khatib (2011) stated the other two possible approaches in teachingliterature such as: a) The Story Grammar Approach (SGA); there is an interaction between the reader and the text. b) Reader Response Approach (RRA); based on a premise of teaching literature for literature’s sake not for language learning and development purposes. However, According to Radzuwan, Malachi, & Shireena Basree (2010), paraphrasticapproach is the most favourable approach employed by teachers in teaching literature insecondary school. Teachers paraphrase the text in order to ensure students are able tounderstand what they are learning that day. This study will focus on the paraphrasticapproach and strategies employed in the teaching of the literature component in English tothe less proficient group to examine if the approach help to meet the aims of incorporatingthe literature component into the English language paper.1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM As Literature has been introduced since ten years ago, the achievement of studentsin Literature is still not like what is expected such as express their critical thinking creatively.Experience and observation show that students do not understand what they are learningand what they have learned in classroom regarding to Literature. At the same time, they donot know how to appreciate the beauty of literature accordingly. In literature text such asshort story, novel and poem, there are lots of new culture, political, historical perspective.Unfortunately, students do not take those as extra knowledge as they only learn literature forthe sake of the examination. They tend to memorize all the answers but hardly understand
  • 84. AZURAWATI BINTI WOK ZAKI 2011313879EDU702: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY EDU7701A2what they have learnt. Plus, they only see literature as an ordinary reading text and do notreally explore the fundamental gist of learning literature. Students might learn newvocabulary, grammar of English language and so on but they hardly understand what isliterature is. One of the reasons that students are not able to discover the underlying principle ofliterature is because of the teachers’ style of teaching. This is because some of the teachersmay just focus on the grammar, vocabulary and skill. They may ask students to memorizecertain part of the story in order for them to answer the examination questions better.Teachers might neglect the elements in the literature itself. The elements that include in theliterary texts make literature interesting to be explored. With the introduction of literature,teachers should be more creative in order to attract the students’ attention to learn Literatureas well as appreciate the literature works. Teaching literature should enable the teachers tobe more creative in their teaching style. For example, if the theme of the poem is related tonature, teachers could bring students outside the classroom to be closer to the environment.More group work can be done in literature learning. There are many approaches that can be employed to teaching Literature. Nowadaysinformation and technology communication (ICT) could become one of the main concerns toteaching Literature. Teachers should aware of the importance of lCT in teaching andlearning process. Power point presentation could give clear picture regarding the literaturetexts or the poems that need to be taught. As the Literature might be difficult for students,teachers play an important role to help the students to understand and appreciate literaturebetter. In reality, teachers are too obsessed with examination; therefore the teaching andlearning process are more to exam oriented. There is no fun, no creativity and also noexploration of the Literature. Students cannot savor the honey taste of literature. The mainconcern is always to ensure that students are able to answer the examination questions welland pass the examination with flying colours. Students totally depend on the teachers when
  • 85. AZURAWATI BINTI WOK ZAKI 2011313879EDU702: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY EDU7701A2it comes to learning second language. Teachers only focus on finishing the syllabus andcause them to become boring and stereotype. At the same time, some teachers do not know what is the best approach to teachLiterature in ESL classroom. The problem affects the teaching and learning process inclassroom. Therefore, students could not gain both language and appreciation of theLiterature well. Teachers tend to use the first language in order for students to understandthe literary text better. It is the famous option that teachers choose to teach Literature in ESLclassroom. Therefore, this situation shows that teachers do not motivate the students toappreciate Literature and they lack of methods in teaching Literature. Teaching Literature byusing the first language will not help the students much in order to understand it in depth.1.3 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES This study aims to investigate teachers and students’ perceptions towards the approachused by the teachers used to teach literature in ESL classroom. The two objectives are asfollows: 1. To investigate students’ perception to the paraphrastic approach employed to teach literature in the ESL classroom. 2. To investigate teachers’ perception to the paraphrastic approach employed to teach literature in the ESL classroom.
  • 86. AZURAWATI BINTI WOK ZAKI 2011313879EDU702: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY EDU7701A21.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS This study aims to gain a general overview of the approaches and strategies employedby teachers in teaching literature to Form 4 students in secondary schools. The researchquestions for this study are as follows: 1. Why do teachers prefer to use Paraphrastic Approach in teaching literature? 2. How students accept Paraphrastic Approach in learning literature? 3. What are the strengths and weaknesses of using the implemented approach?1.5 OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONLITERATURE: Literature is pieces of writing that are valued as works of art, especiallynovels, plays and poems (in contrast to technical books and newspapers, magazines, etc.)ESL: ESL is English as a Second Language.PARAPHRASTIC APPROACH: Paraphrastic approach deals with the surface meaning ofthe text. Teachers whose using this approach may paraphrase or re-word the story in similarlanguage or translating it into other languages.1.6 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY Although this research was carefully prepared, there are still limitations andshortcomings for this research. First of all, the research will be conducted to Form 4 students which have differentlevels of proficiency. They may have difficulty to understand the Paraphrastic Approach thatteachers used in teaching literature.
  • 87. AZURAWATI BINTI WOK ZAKI 2011313879EDU702: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY EDU7701A2 Second, the population of the experimental group is small, only 5 schools involvedthat might not represent the majority of the students in the state. Third, since the questionnaire designed to measure the students’ attitude towards theteaching of Literature might give useful information about the approach used and thebenefits to them; it seems not to provide enough evidence of the students’ actual behavingtowards the learning of Literature in ESL classroom.1.7 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY Every party plays an important role in order to achieve the goal in teaching andlearning Literature. The changes and development of curriculum has brought a newdimension to education as well as to Literature learning. Therefore, the findings of this studycould benefits the teachers as well as other professionals in the education field in seekingsolution of the problem faced by English teachers in teaching Literature as well as thestudents. Then, the curriculum development centre can use the result of findings in order toimprove the syllabus. Most important thing, teachers could consider certain approacheschosen that could help them in teaching literature based on the strengths and weaknessesdiscussed. Therefore, teachers could improve their teaching strategies and students will gainthe benefits from the teaching and learning process. At the same time, the findings could also be as the guideline for the trainee teachersor fresh graduate teachers to prepare themselves with the suitable approaches in teachingand learning process later. Then, the Faculty of education in universities could use thefindings in order to modify the course outline for the future teachers. Finally, this study couldproduce teachers who are aware of the strengths and weaknesses of approaches used inteaching literature in future.
  • 88. AZURAWATI BINTI WOK ZAKI 2011313879EDU702: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY EDU7701A21.8 CONCLUSION This first chapter highlights the main topics that related to the study. It introduces therole of literature in ESL classroom as implemented in English subject in Malaysiansecondary schools. This chapter will also be described in details the background of study,problem statement, research objectives, research questions, significance of study, limitationsand the operational definition.
  • 89. AZURAWATI BINTI WOK ZAKI 2011313879EDU702: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY EDU7701A2 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW2.0 INTRODUCTION The aim of this research is to obtain information on teachers and students’ perceptionon the use of paraphrastic approach in teaching literature as well as the strengths andweaknesses of paraphrastic approach. In this chapter two, there includes the idea of paraphrastic approach and theimplementation involved in educational field as well as some other researchers andprofessionals overall opinion regarding paraphrastic approach in teaching and learningliterature.2.1 PARAPHRASTIC APPROACH Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary defines it as “to express what sb has said orwritten using different words, especially in order to make it easier to understand”. Animportant process of rewriting source texts is paraphrasing or restating a source text in one’sown words with a credit to the original author (Shi, 2012). According to Cambridge Learner’sDictionary paraphrase is “to express something that has been said or written in a differentway, usually so that it is clearer”. Paraphrasing can be defined as paraphrastic approach asaccording to Diana and Mohamed Amin (2007), the paraphrastic approach deals with thesurface meaning of the text. Teachers whose using this approach may paraphrase or re-word the story in a simpler language or even translating it into other languages. Therefore, inother words paraphrase approach is simplifying the text with simple language or translatesthe text to other language that audience can understand better. As long as paraphrase is
  • 90. AZURAWATI BINTI WOK ZAKI 2011313879EDU702: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY EDU7701A2used to re-tell the story and translate is also considered during the lesson, those can beparaphrastic approach in language learning. A paraphrase is an indirect quotation (Larson, 2004). Then, Bazerman (2010) hadcome out with the definition of paraphrase which is putting the meaning of the text into newwords makes you pay close attention to the authors ideas and thereby improves your levelof understanding. In other words, when paraphrasing one will keep the author’s idea in mindbut may tell it in different way which makes the idea is simpler to be understood. MeanwhileHigher Score (2007) defined “Paraphrase” is a verb which means to re-write a phrase orsentence with the same meaning but using different words. Paraphrase approach is also used for listening, speaking, reading and writing. One ofthe most commonly recommended pedagogical interventions is the teaching of paraphrasing(Keck, 2006; Campbell, 1990; Currie, 1998; Howard, 1996; Hyland, 2001; Johns & Mayes,1990). Keck (2006) also stated that paraphrasing is considered by many to be an importantskill for academic writing, and some have argued that the teaching of paraphrasing mighthelp students avoid copying from source texts. Vacca and Vacca (1999) stated, "Studentswho experience the integration of writing and reading are likely to learn more content, tounderstand it better, and to remember it longer" (p. 262). Obviously paraphrasing isimportant in other high level examinations. In TOEFL iBT, for instance, paraphrasing is animportant skill in the reading section, in the listening and above all in the speaking andwriting section of the test (Higher Score, 2007). Paraphrasing can also be taught to students in order for them to familiar with theparaphrastic approach especially when teachers use it in teaching other skills too. Forexample in learning literature, students tend to memorize the summary from the literaturetext or reference books, it is not impossible that the one whole class will come out with thesame kind of answer for summary of one short story. Instead of students memorizing thesummary, it is better to teach them paraphrase the summary into the useful and simpler
  • 91. AZURAWATI BINTI WOK ZAKI 2011313879EDU702: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY EDU7701A2words. At the same time, paraphrasing could help them to understand and write the storybetter. Other than that, paraprastic approach is also used in interview with children. Thisshows that paraphrasing could help children to understand what is being said or what istrying to convey effectively. According to Evans and Roberts (2009) in Evans, Roberts, Priceand Stefek (2010) stated that previous research has experimentally assessed the influenceof different types of paraphrasing on children’s event reports and found that some styles ofparaphrasing are indeed more beneficial than others. Then, paraphrasing may motivatechildren to expand their responses with two main ways proposed (Evans, Roberts, Price &Stefek, 2010; Evans & Roberts, 2009). Firstly, paraphrasing may encourage rapportbetween the child and interviewer. Therefore, in ESL classroom, paraphrasing mayencourage rapport between students and teachers. Secondly, paraphrasing may transfercontrol to the child as in ESL classroom students have the power to use their own words toconvey what they understand from one story.2.2 IMPORTANCE OF PARAPHRASING Paraphrastic approach as well as paraphrasing that is used especially beneficial tothe students. As Evans and Roberts (2009) promoted two main ways to promote the use ofparaphrasing that give benefits to students. First and foremost, paraphrasing may encouragerapport. Good rapport can be built in ESL classroom. For example, when students giverespond to teacher in telling the short story in their own words, then teacher restates orparaphrase what the students have been said, students feel motivated as what the teacherrestates highlight that the teacher is listening to the students well. Students will feelappreciated and supported by the teacher. Thus, students feel comfortable in class andrespond more during the lesson. Another benefit of paraphrasing is transferring control to
  • 92. AZURAWATI BINTI WOK ZAKI 2011313879EDU702: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY EDU7701A2children or students. For example, students have the power to use their own words and re-word what they understand from the text given. Student centered learning can be achievablewhere students will be able to share their ideas with others in class by using the words thatthey know or paraphrase from the source that they have read. Meanwhile according to Bronshteyn and Baladad (2006) emphasised that the use ofparapharasing as add-ons to information literacy instruction in order for students to gainproficiency in thinking critically about a source and expressing their own voice with theconvention of parenthetical citation. In ESL/EFL classroom, when teachers use paraphrasticapproach, it helps students to gain information better and think critically to any instructionsgiven. Teaching paraphrasing as a means of learning how to write a research paperBronshteyn and Baladad (2006). Paraphrasing can also be beneficial for students in writingespecially in academic writing. For ESL/EFL classroom paraphrasing writing could help themto use simple words with simple phrases that can be understood better in writing. Therefore,students will be more confident to use the language as well as to practice it in classroom. Other than that paraphrasing is also a mean to understand Bronshteyn and Baladad(2006). The ability to paraphrase help students in their writing work as well as it can providethe writer with a wide range of stylistic alternatives. Harris and Sipay (1990) stated that"being able to restate anothers thoughts in ones own language clearly and unambiguouslyis a crucial test of whether the thoughts were understood" (p. 537). Therefore, any difficultideas or unclear thoughts become easier to understand. As paraphrasing uses simplerwords and using students own words, it helps students in future to understand what theyhave read and written. Others may also get the benefits and understand one idea clearer.Then, students also can learn to borrow from a source without plagiarising (Bronshteyn &Baladad, 2006). Campbell (1990) clearly stated that the teaching of paraphrasing, amongother techniques, is essential to help students avoid committing cases of plagiarism.Plagiarism is always the main problem especially in academic writing. Currie (1998) claimed
  • 93. AZURAWATI BINTI WOK ZAKI 2011313879EDU702: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY EDU7701A2that students often fall back on copying as what they might see as a safe strategy when theyare attempting to fit into the academic world. This is because students hardly understandhow to rephrase what the source written in their own words according to their understanding.However, paraphrasing skill can help students to vary their sentences based on other sourcebut with their own ideas. Students can be creative and critical in playing with choice of wordsthat at the same time to convey the author’s meaning wisely. Therefore, plagiarism can beavoided in academic writing. Larson (2004) stated three important reasons of paraphrasing. First and foremost,paraphrase can be the way to restate a difficult passage the reader may not understand. Thekey word is ‘restate’ or ‘re-word’ the passage into a simpler passage where other people canget the idea better and grab the gist of the passage. This is to support the reader to read andunderstand rather than read without understanding what the passage is all about. Then,paraphrase can be the way to explain or interpret concepts or unfamiliar terms. There arecertain concepts that are explained in difficult or complex sentences that make the reader orlistener hardly understand. This obviously happens when students who are reading a storybook or novel such as in Shakespeare’s works, students hardly understand certain conceptor terms used in the story. Therefore, paraphrasing could be one of the best way toelaborate the concepts or unfamiliar terms in simpler words based on the level of thestudents. The third reason proposed by Larson (2004) is to make abstract facts and ideasconcrete. Some ideas proposed by some authors might be too vague and hardly to beunderstood. Paraphrasing again helps to identify the main points and explain the ideasclearly.
  • 94. AZURAWATI BINTI WOK ZAKI 2011313879EDU702: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY EDU7701A2 2.2.1 THE IMPORTANCE OF PARAPHRASING FOR ELL English language learner (ELL) always needs method to help them to understand the target language better. According to Perles (2009), it is important to use paraphrase to help English language learners because paraphrasing is one of the main methods that ELLs will be able to use to clarify that they have understood something correctly. Munro (2008) has identified paraphrasing as a useful strategy for students with reading difficulties. Paraphrasing can be one of the ways to measure students’ understanding especially for literature text. The example given by Perles (2009), if a bank teller explains to an ELL the terms of a loan, the ELL should learn to clarify by saying, “So what I understand from what you’ve said is... ” and to paraphrase what was heard. The same applies in many areas of life, including academic work, social settings, and professional situations. Therefore in literature learning in ESL/EFL classroom, students may tell the story by telling the summary by using their own words. Students may clarify what they have read into simplest words and sentences that later become their own interpretations of the story. At the same time, Perles (2009) also suggested that students write down their paraphrasing sentences. This is to prepare the students in order to convey what they have read into their words effectively. Perles (2009) also proposed that if the students are not able to paraphrase well, teacher may help the students by providing them a backward web graphic organizer. Thus, students may fill in the graphic with the main information that they got from their reading as a guideline then explaining on their own words.
  • 95. AZURAWATI BINTI WOK ZAKI 2011313879EDU702: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY EDU7701A22.3 SKILLS AND TECHNIQUES TO PARAPHRASE In order to use the paraphrastic approach, one must know the skills to paraphrase.According to Bronshteyn and Baladad (2006), there are three skills which are needed inorder to paraphrase. Firstly, one must have the knowledge of parenthetical citation format.According to Aage Hansen (1957) in Foget (2002) stated that parenthetical phrases (andasides) may be characterized as ”words, phrases, or sentences which are ’on another level’compared to the surroundings (sentence, utterance) in which they are inserted. Theseparenthetical phrases are spoken in a lower tone and/or with pauses preceding and followingthem.” Therefore, in ESL/EFL classroom teacher may use appropriate intonation withdifferent phrases that can be understood by students. At the same time, students will alsolearn the language which suit their level and might be simpler as what paraphrasing is. Secondly, one who wants to paraphrase must have the experience and ability inrestating ideas with synonyms in one’s own voice. In order to paraphrase, it is so importantthat the meaning of the idea used based on others’ must be clear or synonym. This isbecause when people paraphrase the idea is still the same but the way they write or tellmust be differently. Thirdly, experience introducing concepts, or knowledge of stocktransitional phrases. One must be able to use some concepts in paraphrasing. Then the useof transitional phrases is also important so that one can write or use the words effectively. Atthe same time, transitional phrases will make the paraphrasing becomes more authentic andnot only copy from others’. Once the students or teachers master these three skills, they are able to paraphrasebetter. At the same time, they will be able to come out with a good piece of writing and evenit is easier for them to understand what they are trying to tell. Therefore the recipients canalso get the benefit where the paraphrasing should ease them to understand one’s ideabetter. The closer they get to what the speaker is saying, the more a real interchange ofideas takes place (Bazerman, 2010). For example, in learning short story or drama, teacher
  • 96. AZURAWATI BINTI WOK ZAKI 2011313879EDU702: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY EDU7701A2might paraphrase the summary of the story first in their own words. This will benefit thestudents to grab the idea better from the teacher instead of cracking their head on their ownwith high level of English for certain students. Bazerman (2010) mentioned that paraphrasing will help you to communicate themeaning of a difficult passage. When you go on to make your own argument, it will allow youto refer to another writers thoughts while you maintain control of the focus and tone of theargument. In other words, people can convey the difficult meaning to the easiestunderstanding when paraphrasing and make reference to the author’s idea to focus on thebasic idea of the author. We have to recognize the writers way of thinking and his or herspecial interests (Bazerman, 2010). This is to ensure that we are conveying the correct ideathat the author presented. Paraphrasing is useful in the application of rules and proceduresbecause it presents the information in a different and more simplified way (Maryam &Hossein, 2012). At the same time, Bazerman (2010) also came out with two techniques that can beused in doing paraphrasing. Firstly, substituting synonyms can be the first draft ofparaphrasing. One may use the synonym words to replace certain words from the author’swriting. Therefore, again, plagiarism can be avoided. Then, restructuring the sentence mightlead to a more total paraphrase. After drafting with synonym words replacement, thearrangement of sentences can be done effectively to make the sentence structures differthan the author’s. The ideas still maintain but the way of conveying differs. Without thatcontrol of core meaning, a rewritten sentence can easily turn into gibberish (Bazerman,2010). Pecorari (2008) claimed, ‘‘the problem may not be that one group has a mistakenperception, but that two groups have different perceptions’’ (p. 10). The final touch afterthose two techniques is checking the meaning either it fits what the ideas conveyed by theauthors or not. This is so important to avoid any other misunderstanding from the main idea.
  • 97. AZURAWATI BINTI WOK ZAKI 2011313879EDU702: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY EDU7701A2 Then, Higher Score (2007) stated few of paraphrasing methods that can beconsidered in paraphrasing effectively. The first method is use different vocabulary with thesame meaning. It is as what the earlier techniques that one can use the synonyms to replacethe word. However, one should be careful with the overall meaning and the sentences mightbe unnatural English sentences. Thus, other people might not get what the person is tryingto tell with the new paraphrasing sentences. At the end of the day, paraphrasing mightcontribute to misunderstanding problem. For example, if students want to rephrase whatthey have read in the book regarding one short story, if they paraphrase wrongly, surely theymight lead to factual error of the story. Then, the second method of paraphrasing proposed by Higher Score (2007) ischange the words of order. It is like restructuring the sentences after replacing the wordswith the synonym words. The meaning must be the same with the idea proposed by theauthor. However, the problem that may occur is grammatical problems. This is because onemust know what should be added and what should be omitted when changing the words oforder. Students might face this kind of problem, as they may neglect certain words or unsurewith the correct words of order. Meanwhile the third method of paraphrasing is use differentgrammar. According to Higher Score (2007), if you change the grammar and make an error,usually the reader will understand what you mean. However, if you change the vocabularyand make an error, often the reader will not understand what you mean. In this method, onemust familiar with parts of speech. All the skills and methods proposed are interrelated. Paraphrasing can be done withthe use of the basic techniques such as replacing the words, arranging the sentences andchecking the grammatical error. Teachers may have no problems in paraphrasing especiallyin teaching literature in ESL/EFL classroom to make students understand the literaturecomponent better. However, students need to be taught those few skills to avoidmisunderstanding of ideas.
  • 98. AZURAWATI BINTI WOK ZAKI 2011313879EDU702: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY EDU7701A22.4 PARAPHRASING ANDSIMPLIFIED LITERATURE TEXT Literature text is known with the complex sentences and different kind of writing.Some students have difficulties to read and understand the literary text better especially thelow proficiency students. As paraphrasing is also defined as re-word the ideas in simplewords, it is can be considered as simplified words. Therefore, simplified text has beenintroduced in order to help the students to understand literature text better for instance, ‘ThePrisoner of Zenda’ which has thinner text for students to read as well as ‘Catch If You Can’Novel. The majority of L2 learning texts at the beginning and intermediate levels still dependon simplified input, and many material writers and L2 specialists continue to emphasize thepractical value of simplified texts, especially for beginning and intermediate L2 learners (e.g.,Johnson, 1981, 1982; Shook, 1997; Young, 1999; Croosly, Louwerse, McNamara,McCarthy, 2007). The use of simplified text is not only famous in Malaysian Education forliterature but it has been used widely for L2 learners especially the beginner. At the same time according to Croosly, Louwerse, McNamara, McCarthy (2007)stated that simplified text consists of the cognitive mechanisms which mimic the languagefound in caretaker talk and teacher talk and help the language learner acquire a language ina relatively structured way. Therefore, obviously the words and sentences used in simplifiedtext are much easier and more to the beginner (students) level. As simplified text is more toteacher talk, it is more to what teacher paraphrase in classroom when explaining about astory in ESL/EFL classroom. The simplified texts benefit L2 learners because they excludeunnecessary and distracting idiosyncratic style without suffering a loss of the valuablecommunication features and concepts that are found in real texts (Croosly, Louwerse,McNamara & McCarthy, 2007). In simplified text, the difficult words have been replaced withsimpler words and sentences have been paraphrase to the simplest one. The distractingidiosyncratic (personal) style has been decreased. For example, in Shakespeare’s works,the old English text might be replaced with the modern one. The purpose is to make the
  • 99. AZURAWATI BINTI WOK ZAKI 2011313879EDU702: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY EDU7701A2reader understand the words better. Thus, students have no problem to understand the storyor drama on their own with the help of dictionary. Then, simplified texts are often seen as valuable aids to learning because theyaccurately reflect what the reader already knows about language and have the capacity toextend this knowledge (Davies & Widdowson, 1974; Croosly, Louwerse, McNamara &McCarthy, 2007). In the making of simplified text, the author must paraphrase the story forinstance based on the familiar words used by students as well as based on students’ level.They are not expected to learn too many difficult words that may not motivate them to readand study the literature text better. The aim of simplified text is to encourage students toread better. At the same time simplified text is used to attract students to love learningliterature in ESL/EFL classroom. Therefore, the paraphrasing plays important role to comeout with a good understandable text for students. Simplified texts also contain increased redundancy and amplified explanation (Kuo,1993; Croosly, Louwerse, McNamara & McCarthy, 2007). Usually students or the L2 readershave problem in understanding the literature text is because the text is too long withredundancy or repetition of the idea. Some of the vivid explanation about the characters orthe plot and setting might trouble and confused the students. However, this problem can beovercome with the use of simplified text. Simplified text usually emphasises on the main ideaof the story and the important information needed by the readers. For instance, if studentsare given ‘East of Eden’ to read and learn, they may hardly finish the novel with hundreds ofpage. Plus, they may have difficulty to understand the flashback that could lead to repetitionfor them and make them confused regarding the timeline of the story. Therefore, simplified text can help students to understand better and get the mainidea of the related story better. The paraphrasing technique used in simplifying the text helpto promote the new way of learning literature to students.
  • 100. AZURAWATI BINTI WOK ZAKI 2011313879EDU702: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY EDU7701A2 2.5 CONCLUSION The review stated by the researchers, authors and journalist give more ideas in theused of Paraphrastic Approach in teaching Literature in ESL/EFL classroom. Theimportance, ideas, benefits as well as techniques used could help the learners in order touse the approach in writing and at the same time to use in understanding the literature textbetter. Plus, this approach is also help teachers in conveying their lesson better to achievethe objective of teaching literature.
  • 101. AZURAWATI BINTI WOK ZAKI 2011313879EDU702: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY EDU7701A2 CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY3.1 INTRODUCTIONThis study is to investigate the perception of teachers and students towards paraphrasticapproach used in teaching literature. Therefore, this study focuses on finding the strengthsand weaknesses of the approach used in teaching literature in ESL classroom. This chapterwill discuss the research design, the method of data collection and also the method(s) ofdata processing or the analysis of the data in greater detail.3.2 RESEARCH DESIGN The research design focuses on combination of quantitative and qualitative methods.Hence, it involves triangulation designs to find agreement and validation of thequestionnaires. Triangulation is an approach to research that uses a mixture of more thanone research strategy in a single investigation. Triangulation is chosen as a researchstrategy to assure completeness of findings or to confirm findings. The research design canbe summarized as in Figure 3.1
  • 102. AZURAWATI BINTI WOK ZAKI 2011313879 EDU702: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY EDU7701A2 A specific topic will be chosen based on the related literatures and a conceptual framework will be developed for the study.. Research Question 1: Why do teachers prefer to use Paraphrastic Approach in teaching literature? Research Question 2: How students accept Paraphrastic Approach in learning literature? Research Question 3: What are the strengths and weaknesses of using the implemented approach? Adapt and adopt questionnaires from related literature. Meetings with core-person in the area of study to obtain the validity of questionnaire Conductiong pilot study to check reliability of questionnaire Distributing validated questionnaires to respective samples, classroom observation and interviews. Conducting data analyses a) Descriptive Analyses b) Pearson-Correlation Findings and discussions in final report Figure 3.1 Research design of the survey research
  • 103. AZURAWATI BINTI WOK ZAKI 2011313879EDU702: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY EDU7701A23.3 DATA INSTRUMENTATION The instruments consist of survey questions, interviews as well as classroomobservation. Qualitative approach used in this study will be the main approach. Likert Scalewill be used for the questionnaires that the questionnaire was adapted from two previousstudies on using literature in the language classrooms by Zubaidan and Shaidatul Akma(2010) and Diana and Mohamed Amin (2007). It is the suitable method to investigate therespondent attitudes and opinions. Likert scaling presumes the existence of an underlying(or latent or natural) continuous variable whose value characterizes the respondents’attitudes and opinions (Clason & Dormody, n.d). The research results will be descriptively presented students and teachers’perception towards paraphrastic approach will be revealed. Besides that, this research alsoconsist of the respondents views based the interviews on the strengths and weaknesses ofparaprastic approach in teaching literature in ESL classroom.3.3 METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION The study involves quantitative and qualitative data analysis. Descriptive statisticalanalysis, inferential statistics such as Pearson Correlation and the Independent Samples T-Test, will be used for the quantitative data. Classroom observation field notes will becompiled. Meanwhile each observation will be summarized and interpreted accurately. Theinterview transcripts later will be grouped and will be nicely quoted to strengthen the basis ofargument. The data collection will be done based on the four steps: a) a set of questionnaires will be given to the students and teachers as the prior to the study in order to investigate teachers and students’ perception towards the paraphrastic approach in teaching literature.
  • 104. AZURAWATI BINTI WOK ZAKI 2011313879EDU702: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY EDU7701A2 b) classroom observation will be done in order to look at the strengths and weaknesses of the paraphrastic approach used in teaching literature. c) Interview will be done with the teachers in order to get their opinion or perception towards the paraphrastic approach that has been used in teaching literature. At the same time, the interview will also cover the strengths and weaknesses of the approach used. The summary of data collection is shown in Figure 3.2 Distributing Questionnaires to Students Classroom Observation Interview with Teachers concern Figure 3.2 Summary of data collection procedure
  • 105. AZURAWATI BINTI WOK ZAKI 2011313879EDU702: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY EDU7701A23.4 THE METHOD(S) OF DATA PROCESSING/ ANALYSIS The quantitative and qualitative data will be examined by using different kind of mode ofanalysis. The questionnaires will be analysed by using the statistical analysis software(SPSS). The qualitative data for the observation and interview will be grouped, coded andverbatim based on thematic analysis according to Aronson (1994) with four steps: a) collect the data will be collected from the talk session. From the transcribed conversations, patterns of experiences can be listed. This can come from direct quotes or paraphrasing common ideas, (Aronson, 1994). b) identify all data that relate to the already classified patterns. The talk that can be fits under precise pattern is acknowledged and placed with the corresponding pattern. c) combine and catalogue related patterns into sub-themes. Themes are identified by "bringing together components or fragments of ideas or experiences, which often are meaningless when viewed alone" (Aronson, 1994; Leininger, 1985) d) build a valid argument for choosing the themes. Related literature will help in choosing the best themes. Inferences can be made from the interview or therapy session as information gained by referring back to the literature. The findings will be discussed in order to identify and report as accurately as possible the perceptions of students and teachers towards the use of paraphrastic approach in teaching literature in ESL classroom.
  • 106. AZURAWATI BINTI WOK ZAKI 2011313879EDU702: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY EDU7701A23.5 LOCATION OF THE STUDY The study will be conducted in 3 secondary schools from the sub-urban district ofBera, Pahang.3.6 SAMPLE The targeted groups are the Form 4 students and English Language teachers. Thesample will be selected according to the convenience method sampling (Fraenkel andWallen, 2008). Meanwhile, the teachers chosen will be the English teacher optionist andnon-optionist. They will be interviewed in order to get their respond (perception) towards theuse of paraphrastic approach in teaching literature in ESL/EFL classroom.3.7 PILOTING AND IMPROVEMENT OF INSTRUMENT A pilot study will be conducted before the actual research. Pilot study is known as theexercise of a mini study to carry out the instrument to see how they work and get respondout of the instrument. The respondents for the pilot study will not be the actual respondents.The purpose of doing the pilot study for the questionnaire is toi. determine validity and reliability as the questions are created by the researcher and adaptand adopt from other researchers.ii. ensure the wordings and item structure are clear so that it can be easily understood bythe respondents and interpreted as hoped by the researcheriii. improve the questions so the results will be validiv. determine the length of time needed to answer the questionnaire
  • 107. AZURAWATI BINTI WOK ZAKI 2011313879EDU702: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY EDU7701A2After the pilot study was done, the piloted instruments will be collected and improvementswill be made to the questionnaire. Some adaptations were also made where possibleprovided that it was relevant with the objectives.3.8 CONCLUSION In this chapter, the careful selection of research design will contribute to the reliabilityand validity of the findings. The result is hoped to give to the meaningful interpretation of theperceptions of using paraphrastic approach in teaching literature in ESL/EFL classroom byteachers and students. The method will be well-planned in order to get and analysis the data. If therespondents give good cooperation, then all the data collections for this research are validand reliable.
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