   Systematic   Convenience   Purposive   Population    Genaralizability   Ecological    Genearalizabilit    y
 Every nth individual in the population list is  selected. eg: the principal of a school has 1000 students,  she wants t...
 PERIODICITY-a   marked bias sample caused by  the arrangement pattern of individual on the  list accidentally coincides ...
A    convenience sample is a group of    individuals who conveniently available.  samples:1. first 50 people who walk in...
 Bias- 1. not downtown = not interviewed 2. unwilling = not interviewed 3. willing = strong opinion 4. interview time...
 Based on previous knowledge of a population and  the specific purpose of the research,researcher  use personal judgement...
 Sample  should be as large as a researcher  can obtain with a reasonable expenditure of  time and energy. Ideals; 100 ...
 External Validity = the result of a study can be  generalised from sample to population. Ecological generalizability = ...
 1. researcher should describe the sample  thoroughly; reader judge the result validity. 2. Replication; repeat the stud...
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Nonrandom sampling

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Nonrandom sampling

  1. 1.  Systematic Convenience Purposive Population Genaralizability Ecological Genearalizabilit y
  2. 2.  Every nth individual in the population list is selected. eg: the principal of a school has 1000 students, she wants to know how students feel about the new menu at cafeteria, so the principal:- 1. get a list of the student’s name (in alphabetical order). 2. she select every 10th student until she has a sample of 100 students to be interviewed.
  3. 3.  PERIODICITY-a marked bias sample caused by the arrangement pattern of individual on the list accidentally coincides with the sampling interval. eg: grouped by gpa(grade point average), high/low interval: only good/poor graded get chosen.Therefore, researchers should carefully examine the list and avoid bias.
  4. 4. A convenience sample is a group of individuals who conveniently available. samples:1. first 50 people who walk in.2. interview people at downtown.3. two front rows students.
  5. 5.  Bias- 1. not downtown = not interviewed 2. unwilling = not interviewed 3. willing = strong opinion 4. interview time = at work Ingeneral, convenience sample cannot be considered representative of any population and should be avoided.
  6. 6.  Based on previous knowledge of a population and the specific purpose of the research,researcher use personal judgement to select a sample. eg:SUITABLE SAMPLE a. 2 good students,2 average & 2 weak b. sample from Retired Workers Association eg: sample know the target A. people in charge of school B. people with experienceTHUS, the only challenge with purposive sampling is the researcher’s previous knowledge must be thorough.
  7. 7.  Sample should be as large as a researcher can obtain with a reasonable expenditure of time and energy. Ideals; 100 samples for DESCRIPTIVE STUDY 50 samples for CORRELATION STUDY 30 samples in each group for EXPERIMENTAL STUDY& CAUSAL-COMPARATIVE STUDY
  8. 8.  External Validity = the result of a study can be generalised from sample to population. Ecological generalizability = result of a study can be generalised to other settings. Population generalizability = result of study can be generalised to the intended population-representativeness: relevant characteristicsOverlooked “method”-random student=random teacher=random result.Lost subject effect representativeness, researcher who lost 10 % sample are advised to acknowledge this limitation.
  9. 9.  1. researcher should describe the sample thoroughly; reader judge the result validity. 2. Replication; repeat the study on different group or situation. If result is the same; generalise it.

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